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on the object move in circles around

the axis of rotation (O). The radius

of the circle is r. All points on a

straight line drawn through the axis

move through the same angle in the

same time. The angle in radians is

defined:

(8-1a)

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Angular displacement:

= 2 1

The average angular velocity is

defined as the total angular

displacement divided by time:

(8-2a)

(8-2b)

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The angular acceleration is the rate at which the angular

velocity changes with time:

(8-3a)

(8-3b)

Every point on a rotating body has an angular velocity

and a linear velocity v.

They are related:

(8-4)

Therefore, objects farther from the axis of rotation will

move faster.

If the angular velocity of a rotating object changes, it has

a tangential acceleration:

(8-5)

each point on the object has a centripetal

acceleration:

(8-6)

Here is the correspondence between linear and rotational

quantities:

The frequency is the number of complete revolutions

per second:

f = /2

Frequencies are measured in hertz.

1 Hz = 1 s1

The period is the time one revolution takes:

(8-8)

The equations of motion for constant angular

acceleration are the same as those for linear motion, with

the substitution of the angular quantities for the linear

ones.

In (a), a wheel is rolling without

slipping. The point P, touching the

ground, is instantaneously at rest, and

the center moves with velocity v.

In (b) the same wheel is seen from

a reference frame where C is at

rest. Now point P is moving with

velocity v.

Relationship between linear and

angular speeds: v = r

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8-4 Torque

To make an object start rotating, a force is needed; the

position and direction of the force matter as well.

The perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation to

the line along which the force acts is called the lever

arm.

8-4 Torque

A longer lever arm is very helpful in rotating objects.

8-4 Torque

Here, the lever arm for FA is the distance from the knob

to the hinge; the lever arm for FD is zero; and the lever

arm for FC is as shown.

8-4 Torque

The torque is defined as:

(8-10a)

Torque and Rotational Inertia

Knowing that F = ma, we see that = mr2

This is for a single point mass; what about an extended

object?

As the angular acceleration is

the same for the whole object,

we can write:

(8-12)

Torque and Rotational Inertia

The quantity I = mr2 is

called the rotational inertia

of an object.

The distribution of mass

matters herethese two

objects have the same mass,

but the one on the left has a

greater rotational inertia, as

so much of its mass is far

from the axis of rotation.

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Torque and Rotational Inertia

The rotational inertia of an

object depends not only on

its mass distribution but

also the location of the axis

of rotationcompare (f)

and (g), for example.

1. Draw a diagram.

2. Decide what the system comprises.

3. Draw a free-body diagram for each object under

consideration, including all the forces acting on it and

where they act.

4. Find the axis of rotation; calculate the torques around

it.

5. Apply Newtons second law for rotation. If the

rotational inertia is not provided, you need to find it

before proceeding with this step.

6. Apply Newtons second law for translation and other

laws and principles as needed.

7. Solve.

8. Check your answer for units and correct order of

magnitude.

The kinetic energy of a rotating object is given by

KE = ( mv2)

By substituting the rotational quantities, we find that the

rotational kinetic energy can be written:

(8-15)

also has both translational and rotational kinetic energy:

(8-16)

When using conservation of energy, both rotational and

translational kinetic energy must be taken into account.

All these objects have the same potential energy at the

top, but the time it takes them to get down the incline

depends on how much rotational inertia they have.

The torque does work as it moves the wheel through an

angle :

(8-17)

In analogy with linear momentum, we can define angular

momentum L:

(8-18)

change of angular momentum.

If the net torque on an object is zero, the total angular

momentum is constant.

I = I00 = constant

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Therefore, systems that can change their rotational

inertia through internal forces will also change their rate

of rotation:

The angular velocity vector points along the axis of

rotation; its direction is found using a right hand rule:

Angular acceleration

and angular

momentum vectors

also point along the

axis of rotation.

Summary of Chapter 8

Angles are measured in radians; a whole circle is 2

radians.

Angular velocity is the rate of change of angular

position.

Angular acceleration is the rate of change of angular

velocity.

The angular velocity and acceleration can be related to

the linear velocity and acceleration.

Summary of Chapter 8

The frequency is the number of full revolutions per

second; the period is the inverse of the frequency.

The equations for rotational motion with constant

angular acceleration have the same form as those for

linear motion with constant acceleration.

Torque is the product of force and lever arm.

The rotational inertia depends not only on the mass of

an object but also on the way its mass is distributed

around the axis of rotation.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Summary of Chapter 8

The angular acceleration is proportional to the torque

and inversely proportional to the rotational inertia.

An object that is rotating has rotational kinetic energy.

If it is translating as well, the translational kinetic

energy must be added to the rotational to find the total

kinetic energy.

Angular momentum is L = I

If the net torque on an object is zero, its angular

momentum does not change.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

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