Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 67

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Boiler Tube selection criteria,


Erosion protection measures
& Operational influence on the tube
metal temperatures
By
Boiler Perfomance & Proposals
BHEL, Tiruchirappalli
Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Growth of unit sizes in India


Rating

Year of Introduction

60/70MW

1965

110/120MW

1966

200/210MW

1972

250MW

1991

500MW

1979

660MW

2004

Next higher unit size proposed is 800 MW


Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Increase in unit sizes to match increase in Cycle


parameters
Unit
Steam SHO SHO/RHO
Size
Flow Pressure
Temperature
(t/h.)
(Kg/cm2)
(Deg. C)
30MW 150

63

490

60/70MW

260

96

540

110/120MW

375

139

540/540

200/210MW

690

137/156

250MW

805

156

540/540

500MW

1670

179

540/540

660MW

2245

256

540/568

800MW

2600

256

568/595

Committed to making a better world

540/540

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Heat Rate Improvement


Parameters at Turbine Inlet
(bar/oC / oC)

% Improvement In Station Heat


Rate

170 / 538 / 538

Base

170 / 538 / 565

0.5%

170 / 565 / 565

1.3%

246 / 538 / 538

1.6%

246 / 538 / 565

2.1%

246 / 565 / 565

3.0%

246 / 565 / 598

3.6%

306 / 598 / 598

5.0%

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Boiler tube selection criteria

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Material Selection considerations

Mechanical properties of the material such as strength


(including tensile, Yield, fatigue, creep, and creep-rupture
strengths), ductility, and toughness

The

degree of difficulty or ease with which a particular


material can be fabricated or welded

Compatibility with the expected service environment

Effect of fabrication practices on mechanical and


corrosion- resistance properties

Possible degradation of properties caused by long-time


service exposure.

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Codes
Design and Construction

ASME

BS

IBR

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Codes and Standards


Several groups have written codes and
standards for materials, inspection, design,
stress analysis, fabrication, heat treatment,
welding and construction of pipes and piping
components. Certain aspects are mandatory
and certain aspects are recommendatory.

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

COMPARISON OF CODES
DESIGN PRESSURE

IBR 1950

ASME SEC.I

BS 1113

DIN TRD 300

DESIGN PRESSURE
WITH PRESSURE DROP

DRUM DESIGN
PRESSURE

DRUM DESIGN
PERSSURE

DRUM DESIGN
PRESSURE

50C

50C

35C

35C

DESIGN TEMPERATUE
ALLOWANCE
RADIATION

50C

CONVECTION

39C

ECONOMISER

11C

25C

(15 + 2 Se) C
Max. 50C

WATER WALL

28C

50C

50C

TUBE THICKNESS
FORMULA tmin

FACTOR OF SAFETY

ACTUAL METAL
TEMPERATURE 371C
(MIN)

PD
--------- + *C
2f + P

PD
--------- + 0.005D
2f + P

PD
--------2f + P

Et
1.5 ,
SR
1.5

Et
1.5 ,
SR
1.5

Et
1.5 ,
SR
1.3

R
2.7
SC

R
3.5
SC

Et
1.5 ,
SR
1.0

Se - ACTUAL WALL
THICKNESS in mm.

P=DESIGN PR.
D=OUTSIDE DIA
f=ALLOWABLE STRESS
CORR. TO DESIGN
METAL TEMP.

PD
--------2f + P

R
2.7

REMARKS

R
2.4

Et = YIELD STRENGTH
R = TENSILE STRENGTH
SR = RUPTURE STRENGTH
SC = CREEP STRENGTH

FOR ASME MATERIALS ALLOWABLE STRESS CAN BE TAKEN DIRECTLY FROM ASME SEC.II PART-D
*C = CORROSION ALLOWANCE = 0.75mm FOR P 70 bar; 0 mm FOR P > 70 bar

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

DESIGN STRESSES FACTORS OF SAFETY IN VARIOUS CODES

PROPERTIES

IBR

ASME
SEC.I

BS 1113

DIN TRD
300

Min. yield strength at Room Temperature

---

1.5

---

---

Min. yield strength at Design Temperature

---

---

1.5

1.5

Average yield strength at Design


Temperature

1.5

1.5

---

---

Min. ultimate tensile strength at Room


Temperature

2.7

3.5

2.7

2.4

Average creep rupture strength for


100,000 hours life at Design Temperature

1.5

1.49

1.3

1.0

Average creep strength for 1% creep in


100,000 hours at Design Temperature

1.0

1.0

---

---

For Austenitic steels, FS = 1.35


To be used at temperature below 1500F
For components without an acceptance test certificate to DIN 50049, FS shall be increased by 20%.

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

COMPARISON OF MATERIALS GRADES


Max. Service
Temperature

ASME
SA 106
SA 192
SA 209 - SA 210
SA 213 - SA 335

BS
3059-3602-3604

DIN
(GERMANY)
17175
VdTUV.B1
(Werkstoff-Nr.)

475C
885F

Gr.A
A192

NF A 49-213
(FRENCH)

Gr.C

Gr.A1

Gr.C

360

410

440460

490Nb

243

St.35.
8

St.45.
8

17
Mn4

19 Mn5

15
Mo3

1.030
5

1.040
5

1.048
1

1.0482

GOST
(RUSSIAN)
TY 14-3-460-75

JIS (JAPAN)
G3456 G3458
G3461 G3462

Gr.B

1.541
5

500C
930F

550C
1020F

560C
1040F

T1
P1

T2 / P2

T12/P
12

T11/P1
1

T22/P2
2

620

621

622

660

629

10Cr
Mo
9 10
1.7380

(14M
o
V63)
1.771
5

(X12Cr
MO 91)
1.7386

16
Mo5
1.542
3

15Ni
CuM
oNb
5
1.63
68

13Cr
Mo44
1.7335

20

15 XM

STPT
38
STB
35

STPT
42
STB
42

STPT
49

TU37C

TU42C

TU48C

STPA
12
STBA
12
TU52-C

TU15
D3

575C
1065F

600C
1110F

625C
1155F

T9/P9

12X
1M
F

(15XI
MI F)

STPA2
0
STBA2
0

STPA2
2
STBA2
2

STPA2
3
STBA2
3

STPA2
4
STBA2
4

STPA2
6
STBA2
6

TU15C
D
2.05

TU13C
D
4.04

TU10C
D
5.05

TU10
CD
9.10

TU Z10
CD9

This is indicative only. However, the actual maximum service temperature for various steels shall be limited as prescribed in the relevant codes.

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli


TEMPERATURE LIMITS FOR VARIOUS STEEL GRADES OF TUBES / PIPES
Sl.

Nominal

No.

Composition

01.

Carbon Steel

02.

Mo

03.

MATERIAL SPECIFICATION

ASME Section-I

DIN TRD 300

Temp.

BS 1113

Limit C

SA178 Gr.C, Gr.D,


SA192, SA210 Gr.A1
& Gr.C
SA106 Gr.B, Gr.C

SA209 T1

St 35.8
St 45.8

BS3059 P2 S2 360, 440


BS3602 P1 360, 430, 500
Nb

427

15 Mo3

----

482

1 Cr Mo

SA335 P12
SA213 T12

13 Cr Mo 44

BS3059 P2 S2 620
BS3604 P1 620 440

535

04.

1 Cr Mo

SA213 T11
SA335 P11

----

BS3604 P1, 621

552

05.

2 Cr 1 Mo

SA213 T22
SA335 P22

10 Cr Mo 910

BS3059 P2 S2 622-490
BS3604 P1, 622

577

06.

9 Cr 1 Mo V

SA213 T91
SA335 P91

X 10 Cr Mo V
Nb91

-----

635

07.

12 Cr 1 Mo V

-----

X 20 Cr Mo V 121

BS3059 P2 S2 762
BS3604 P1 762

700

08.

18 Cr 8 Ni

SA213 TP304 H

-----

BS3059 P2 304 S51


BS3605 304 S59 E

704

09.

18 Cr 10 Ni Cb

SA213 TP347 H

-----

BS3059 P2 347 S51


BS3605 347 S59 E

704

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli


DESIGN - CALCULATION OF THICKNESS REQUIRED IN VARIOUS CODES

AREA

Tube
thickness

IBR

ASME SEC.I

Dished end
thickness

Flat end
thickness

PD

PD
+ C

PR

+ 0.75

fE 0.5 P

PR

fE (1 Y) P

PDK

PR
+ 0.75

2f
d

+ C
f

Committed to making a better world

CP
d
f

PD

2f + P

2f + P

PR

fE 0.5 P

2f 0.2 P

CP

DIN TRD 300

PD

+0.005D
2f + P

2f + P

Shell
thickness

BS 1113

PR
fE 0.5 PE

PDK

2P
R

1+

2f
P
Cd
f

1
2f P
P

Cd
f

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

DESCRIPTION

IBR

ASME SEC.I

BS 1113

DIN TRD 300

Hydraulic test point - Shop &


test pressure.

Drums & Headers greater than


1000 mm shall be hydraulic
tested at shop to 1.5 times the
Design Pressure.

-----

Drums & Headers greater than


600 mm shall be hydraulic
tested at shop to 1.5 times the
max. permissible working
pressure.

-----

Wall thickness tolerance for


pipes / headers.

+ 15%
5%

12.5%

+ 10%
10%

+ 12.5%
10.0%

Hydraulic test pressure at site.

1.5 times the Drum Design


Pressure.

1.5 times the maximum


allowable Working Pressure.

1.5 times the maximum


permissible Working Pressure.

1.3 times the maximum


allowable Working Pressure.

Requirement of Safety Valves.

Two safety valves - the bore


not less than 19mm.

Two or more safety valves.

Two safety valves. Minimum


bore 20 mm.

Two or more safety valves.

Water level indication.

Two means of indicating water


leve.

Two numbers of gauge glass.


Two independent remote level
indicators instead of one
gauge glass.

Two independent means of


water level indication.

Two means of indicating water


level.

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

TUBES - COMPARISON WITH VARIOUS CODES

DESCRIPTION

IBR

ASME SEC.I

BS 1113

DIN TRD 300

TYPE

Cold drawn or hot


finished seamless or
ERW

Cold drawn or hot


finished seamless
or ERW

Cold drawn or hot


finished seamless or
ERW

Cold drawn or hot


finished
seamless
or
Longitudinally
welded

Minimum thickness
allowed for various
tube Diameters Seamless.

Up to D32
Up to D51
D51 to D76
D76 to D89
D89 to D114

Up to D38
D38 to D51
D51 to D70
D70 to D76
D76 to D95
D95 to D102
D102 to D127

Min. - 3 mm
Max. - 6.3 mm
for Water wall
tubes

Ovality
(Deviation from
circularity)

D Max. D Min.

2.03
2.34
2.64
3.25
3.66

x 100

D
shall not exceed

Up to D32
Up to D51
D51 to D76
D76 to D102
D102 to D127

+ 10%
5%

Committed to making a better world

2.41
2.67
3.05
3.43
3.81

D Min.
x

100

D
shall not be more
than
50D

2(DMax.DMin.)

1.7
2.2
2.4
2.6
3.0
3.3
3.5

Provides calculation
for wall thickness
for inside & outside
of bend as per
TRD301 Annex-2.

+ 10%
10%

+ 15%
10%

x100

DMax + DMin

20D

Wall thickness
tolerance

+ 22%
0%

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Materials used in various pressure parts of


conventional boilers
Area of application

Material

ASME specification
Tubes

Pipes

Drum

Carbon steel / Low


alloy steel

SA 299

Water walls,
Economizer

Carbon Steel

SA192
SA210 Gr.A1
SA210 Gr.C

SA106 Gr.B
SA106 Gr.C

SH and RH

1 Cr Mo

SA213 T11

SA335 P11

2 Cr 1 Mo

SA213 T22

SA335 P22

9 Cr 1 Mo V

SA213 T91

SA335 P91

18 Cr 8 Ni

SA213 TP304 H

18 Cr 10 Ni Cb

SA213 TP347 H

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Material tubing oxidation temperature limits


Material

ASME Specification

Oxidation limit

Carbon Steel

SA-210 A-1/ C

454C

2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo

SA-213 T-22

593C

9 Cr-1 Mo-V

SA-213 T91

649C

18 Cr-8 Ni

SA-213 TP304H

760C

18 Cr-10 Ni-Cb

SA-213 TP347H

760C

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

500 MW NTPC SINGRAULI 6

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Erosion protection measures

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Erosion Allowance
The leading tubes of each section
are provided with additional
thickness to withstand the erosion

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Erosion shield
The top most tube of the
horizontal section are provided
with erosion shields

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

<B>

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Operational influence
on
tube metal temperatures

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Slagging ,fouling and internal deposition


on
tube metal temperatures

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

POWER PLANT OPERATING MODES


BASE LOAD OPERATION
TWO SHIFT OPERATION
CYCLIC LOADING

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

BASE LOAD OPERATION


Boiler delivers continuously the steam
required for the rated / part load of the
plant.
The load is more or less steady over a
long period of time.

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Cyclic Operation
Generation of Thermal sets are reduced to a
level which can be sustained without oil
support in Boiler (~40%).
Equipments are subjected to severe thermal
fatigue.
Oil consumption during start up is avoided.

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Two Shift Operation


Thermal sets are unloaded at a predetermined time at
night to a minimum stable load followed by a trip out. The
set is maintained in tripped out condition up to morning.
Restarted again in the morning.
Equipments are subjected to cooling and heating cycle
every day.
7500 cycles in a life span of 25 years.

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Modes of Power Plant operation

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Sliding Pressure Operation

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Typical Superheat and Reheat Temperature

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Pressure Parts
SH / RH terminal tubes are to be designed with adequate
flexibility.
Pressure part hangers / attachment are to be designed
suitably.
Dissimilar metal welds to be avoided to the extent
possible.
Suitable SH / RH material selection.

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Special operating conditions:- (Customer Specification)


1.Constant pressure operation.
2.Sliding pressure operation from rated pressure down to 40% of rated
pressure with as well as without any throttle reserve. The throttle
reserve shall be adjustable to minimum 0% for pure sliding pressure
mode of operation.
3.Base Load / Cycling / Two shifting operation.
4.Expected number of steam generator start-ups:Type of starts
No. of starts
a) Hot starts (after 8 hours
4550
of unit shut down)
b) Warm start (after 36 hours
910
of unit shut down)
c) Cold start (after 72 hours
455
of unit shut down)
5.Ramp Rate:
a) Minimum 3% under variable pressure operation.
b) Minimum 5% under constant pressure operation.
6.Etc.
Committed
to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

CYCLING / TWO SHIFT OPERATION


Cycling duty:
This types of operation envisages daily bringing down the
unit load down to some minimum load during periods of low
demand and then raising up to the desired load when required.
Considering the turndown capability of coal fired boilers, the
minimum load may be approximately 40% of full load.

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Two shift operation:


As the name implies, this type of duty envisages shutting down the
unit for a period of about 8 hours (1 shift) and then restarting and coming up
on load when required. This type of duty is also referred to as cycling with the
extreme case of zero minimum load.
The choice of the required unit operating strategy for a new power
plant, has to be critically arrived at after a detailed techno-economic analysis
on a case-to-case basis. Some of the major influencing factors are:- existing
grid / station capacity, generation mix (Fossil, Nuclear, Hydel, etc.), number of
boilers and their individual capacities, load demand pattern on daily / monthly /
annual basis, load sharing capabilities of individual units, etc.
These operating requirements are normally specified by the utilities in
terms of number of different load change or start up - shut down cycles as
envisaged during the entire life period of power plant operation. As these
information are vital for the design of various power plant equipments, these
are specified at the proposal stage.

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR BOILER DESIGN:

In addition to the design and performance requirements for


which base loaded units are engineered, the only additional
requirement to be considered for the cycling boiler is the rapid
rates of load increase under significantly greater number of
start up and shut down cycles. The designer can evolve a good
design by developing and adopting a set of design criteria to
enable assessment of all types of loading (pressure,
mechanical, thermal and cycling) to insure long term
component integrity. The major factors affecting these design
considerations are:
- Number of cycles
- Heating and cooling rates
- Component thickness, diameter and material
- Operating temperature level.

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

SCOPE
Cyclic loadings which are caused due to
internal pressure, on the one hand, and due to
radial temperature differentials during start-up
(heating-up) and shut-down (cooling down), on the
other hand, in the areas subjected to maximum
loading thereby.
The components subjected to pressure and
temperature the maximum local peak stresses
occur on the inside of the edges of openings or on
branches in cylindrical shells.

Additional forces

and moments of a significant magnitude shall be


separately
calculated
Committed
to making
a better world (design

rules
in preparation).
Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

STRESS
Basis for Establishing Stress values
a) At temperature below the range where creep and
stress rupture strength govern the selection of
stresses, the maximum allowable stress value is the
lowest of the following:1) One-fourth of the specified minimum
strength at room temperature (ST).

tensile

2) One-fourth of the tensile strength at temperature


(ST).
3) Two-thirds of the specified minimum yield strength
at room temperature (SY).
4) Two-thirds of the yield strength at temperature.

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

b) At temperature in the range where creep and stress


rupture strength govern the selection of stresses,
the maximum allowable stress value for all materials
is established by the committee not to exceed the
lowest of the following:1) 100% of the average stress to produce a creep rate
of
0.01% / 1000 hour.
2) 67% of the average stress to cause rupture at the
end of 100 000 hours.
3) 80% of the minimum stress to cause rupture at the
end of 100 000 hours.

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Types, classes and categories of stress


Types of stress:There are many names to describe types of stress.
1)

Tensile

10)

Thermal

2)

Compressive

11)

Tangential

3)

Shear

12)

Load induced

4)

Bending

5)

Bearing

14)

Circumferential

6)

Axial

15)

Longitudinal

7)

Discontinuity

16)

Radial

8)

Membrane

17)

Normal

9)

Principal

Committed to making a better world

13)

Strain induced

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Header & Nipple Flexibility Analysis


It is known that the headers are important components in
boilers and are used for collecting or distributing water or
steam or steam-water mixture.
Headers are hollow
cylindrical components with series of holes provided for
the fixing up of the nipples.

Causes of Tube Expansion


1) Roof to Header Temperature Differential
2) Temperature differential occurring tube to tube across a
set of nipples in an assembly.
3) A temperature unbalance along the longitudinal axis of
the header.
4) Forces and moments from piping to the header.
Committed to making a better world
Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli


FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR PLATEN SUPERHEATER OUTLET HEADER NIPPLES USING CAEPIPE 3.6
ANALYSIS CODE : ANSI B31.1
NIPPLE FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR PLATEN OUTLET HDR

SIMPLATN
Y

INPUT
MATL: SA213 T22,
SA 213 T11,
SA 213 TP347
SIZE: OD63.5X10.5,
OD54X12,
OD51X11,
OD44.5X11,
OD44.5X10

RESULT:
MAX.STRESS DUE TO
SUSTAINED LOAD: 1.58 Kg/mm^2

MEDIUM PRESSURE:189 Kg/mm^2

MAX.EXPANSION STRESS : 12.59 Kg/mm^2

MEDIUM TEMP

:540 DEG C

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli


FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR PLATEN SUPERHEATER OUTLET HEADER NIPPLE USING CAEPIPE 3.6

Single Tube is shown

FLEXIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR PLATEN SH OUT HDR NIPPLE


Deflected shape: Operating (W+P1+T1)

Deflected VINPLAT
shape
Y

PACKAGE USED:CAEPIPE 3.6


ANALYSIS CODE : ANSI B31.1
INPUT
MATL: SA213 T22

RESULT:
MAX.STRESS DUE TO
SUSTAINED LOAD:
1.58 Kg/mm^2

SIZE:OD63.5X10.5
MEDIUM PRESSURE:189 Kg/mm^2
MEDIUM TEMP

MAX.EXPANSION STRESS : 12.59 Kg/mm^2

:540 DEG C

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli


RH INLET HEADER

RH OUTLET HEADER

FLOW

ROOF ELEVATION

FLOW

FLOW

EXISTING ARRANGMENT
Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli


RH INLET HEADER

RH OUTLET HEADERS

FLOW

ROOF ELEVATION

FLOW

PROPOSED SAIYAMEESE
ARRANGMENT
Committed
to making a better world

FLOW

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Advanced materials
in
supercritical boilers

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Need for Advanced Materials

To withstand
temperature

the

higher

steam

pressure

and

High creep strength and high corrosion resistance


requirements
Reduced thickness
components.

Committed to making a better world

for

less

stresses

in

critical

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Effects of alloying elements in ferritic and


martenistic steels
T23/T24
Developed based on T22
Alloyed with tungsten together with reduction of Mo
Micro-alloyed with Vanadium, Columbium Nitrogen
and Boron
Increase in creep properties come close to T/P91
Initially developed for WW panel in supercritical
boilers
Can be used in SH/RH in conventional boilers.

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Chemical composition of T23 and T24


T22

T23

T24

Carbon

0.05 (min) 0.15 (max)

0.04 0.10

0.05 0.10

Manganese

0.30 0.60

0.10 0.60

0.30 0.70

Phosphorus (max)

0.025

0.030

0.020

Sulfur (max)

0.025

0.010

0.010

Silicon

0.500 (max)

0.500 (max)

0.15 0.45

Chromium

1.90 2.60

1.90 2.60

2.2 2.6

Molybdenum

0.87 1.13

0.05 0.30

0.90 1.10

Titanium

0.05 0.10

Vanadium (min)

0.20 0.30

0.20 0.30

Others

B
N
Al

Cb

B
N
Al

Committed to making a better world

1.45 1.75
0.02 0.08
0.0005 0.006
0.030 max
0.030 max

0.0015 0.0070
0.012 max
0.020 max

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Comparison of allowable stress


T22/T23/T24/T91
140

120
T24

Allow able stress (M Pa)

T23
100
T22
80

60
T91
40

20

0
400

450

500
550
Tem perature (Deg.C)

Committed to making a better world

600

650

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Effects of alloying elements in ferritic and


martenistic steels
T92
T/P92 developed adding tungsten to T91
Excellent behaviour at elevated temperature
Reduces thickness upto 30% due to higher creep
strength

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Chemical composition of T92


T91

T92

Carbon

0.08 0.12

0.07 0.13

Manganese

0.30 0.60

0.30 0.60

Phosphorus (max)

0.020

0.020

Sulfur (max)

0.010

0.010

Silicon

0.20 0.50

0.50 max

Chromium

8.00 9.50

8.50 9.50

Molybdenum

0.85 1.05

0.30 0.60

Titanium

Vanadium (min)

0.18 0.25

0.15 0.25

Others

Cb
N
Ni
Al

Committed to making a better world

0.06 0.10
0.030 0.070
0.40 max
0.04 max

W
Cb
B
N
Ni
Al

1.50 2.00
0.04 0.90
0.001 0.006
0.03 0.07
0.40 max
0.04 max

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Effects of alloying elements in Austenitic Steel

Super 304H/347HFG

Reducing Ti and Nb to promote creep strength

Addition of Cu for increased precipitation


strengthening

Use of Nitrogen and W for solid solution


strengthening

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Chemical composition of Super304H/347HFG


TP347H

Super 304H

TP347HFG

Carbon

0.04 0.10

0.10

0.06 0.10

Manganese (max)

2.00

0.8

2.00

Phosphorus (max)

0.040

0.04

Sulphur (max)

0.030

0.030

Silicon

0.75 max

0.2

0.75 max

Nickel

9.00 13.00

9.0

9.00 13.00

Chromium

17.00 20.00

18.0

17.00 20.00

Columbium + Tantalum

8 x C-1.0

Others
Nb

Committed to making a better world

Cu 3.0
N 0.1
0.4

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Comparison of allowable stress


(T91/T92/TP347H/TP 347HFG/Super 304H)
140

Allow able stress (MPa)

120
TP347HFG

100

80
SUPER304H

T91

60
T92

40
TP 347H

20

0
550

575

600

625

650

675

700

Tem perature (deg.C)

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Application in Supercritical Boilers


(Evaporators)

T12 : For moderate steam conditions of 545 oC(SHO) /


570oC(RHO)

T23 and T24 : For higher steam conditions of 600 oC


(SHO) /620oC (RHO) due to higher creep strength

Use of T23 : steam temperature in WW can be raised


by 50oC, compared to T12.

Contd...
Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Superheaters and Reheaters

T91 : can be used for steam temperature 550 oC


(SHO)/570oC (RHO)

Austenitic steels super 304H/TP347HFG : For steam


temperature 600oC (SHO)/620oC (RHO) to be used
for withstanding increased oxidation temperatures.

Contd...
Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Headers and Piping

With increase in steam parameter, P22 limit is quickly


reached.

P91 can be used upto 270 bar and 580oC (SHO)

P92 can be used 290 bar and 600oC (SHO)

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Materials in typical 800MW

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Future Trends

Promising materials 12% Cr steels namely NF12, SAVE


12

Research projects going on for use of 375 bar and


700oC/720oC

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Conclusions

In the pursuit of increasing the efficiency, supercritical


parameters are used in increasing manner.

To suit the steam parameters, new materials are being


developed.

New materials such as T23 can be used


conventional boilers for reducing material content.

Research is going on to realise steam parameters up


to 700oC by developing materials for this high
temperature.

Committed to making a better world

in

Customer training programme

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Tiruchirappalli

Committed to making a better world

Customer training programme

Оценить