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Electricity &

Electrification

Introductio
Inn
general usage, the word Electricity" is adequate to
refer to a number of physical effects. In scientific usage,
however, the term is vague, and these related, but
distinct, concepts are better identified by more precise
terms:
Electric charge a property of some subatomic
particles, which determines their electromagnetic
interactions. Electrically charged matter is influenced by,
and produces, electromagnetic fields.
Electric current a movement or flow of electrically
charged particles, typically measured in amperes.
Electric field an influence produced by an electric
charge on other charges in its vicinity.

Terms &
Definitions

The three most basic units in


Electricity are:
Voltage (V),
Current (I, uppercase "i")
and
Resistance (r).
Voltage is measured in VOLTS.
Current is measured in AMPS
and
Resistance is measured in
OHMS.

Amperage or Amps provided by an electrical


service is the flow rate of "electrical current " that
is available.
Mathematically, Amps = Watts / Volts.
(Amps = Watts divided by Volts)
Volt is defined as the potential difference across a
conductor when a current of one ampere
dissipates one watt of power.
Watt is a measure of the amount of electricity
being used - a rate of electrical power
consumption.
To determine how many watts an electrical circuit
can carry or how many watts an electrical device

HOW ELECTRICITY TRAVELS

Electricity travels along a path. If the path is


blocked, then electricity cannot keep flowing.
The whole path along which electricity travels is
known as a circuit. A broken path is known as
an 'Open Circuit' and the electricity can not
flow in an open circuit. An unbroken path is
known as a 'Closed Circuit' and the electricity
can flow.
Excess loading/ Overloading of electricity:
It is an electrical load that exceeds the available
electrical power.

Earthing
Ground: means the physical earth, the soil or ground. In
some countries the term earth is used and is synonymous
with ground. In the electrical code, ground means an
electrically
conducting
connection,
intentional
or
accidental, between an electrical circuit and the earth.
Grounded means that something has been electrically
connected to the earth.
Grounding electrode or ground electrode: a metal
conductor, usually a solid copper-alloy rod of specified
length, driven into the ground in order to provide a point
for electrical connection between the building grounding
system and ground or earth.
Grounded Conductor (the NEUTRAL wire): by
convention the grounded conductor or neutral wire is
white or gray. In an electrical circuit the grounded
conductor normally carries electrical current between the
un-grounded (hot) electrical wire and (back through the

Earthing
Equipment Grounding Conductor (the ground
wire):
By convention the equipment grounding conductor
(ground wire) is bare copper or carries green insulation.
the individual wire in a (grounded) electrical circuit that is
connected through the ground bus in the electrical panels
and ultimately in the main electrical panel is connected to
ground or earth. In the electrical code, a grounding
conductor is a conductor (metal wire, metal bar, etc)
which is used to connect electrical equipment (like an
electrical panel enclosure) or the grounded circuit (the
neutral wires) of a wiring system to a grounding electrode
(and thus to earth).

What is short circuit?


Short circuit occurs due to accidental contact of phase

Electric meter:
The meter is a watt measuring device supplied by the utility
company to track each months power consumption. There are
meters with numbered dials like a watch on older models and
new state-of-the-art digital meters that can be read right from
the utility companys office.

Electrical panel:
The electrical panel, breaker box, fuse box or service panel is
the next device in line. This panels job is to distribute power
throughout your home and disconnect power from the
incoming feed.

Grounding wire:
The service must be connected to a ground rod outside the
house and also bonded around the water meter in the house.
A jumper connected on both sides of the meter must be made
to allow the meter to be removed without losing a ground
connection.

Electrical Wiring
Electrical wiring in general refers to insulated
conductors used to carry electricity, and
associated devices. This article describes general
aspects of electrical wiring as used to provide
power in buildings and structures, commonly
referred to as building wiring.
Materials for wiring interior electrical systems in
buildings vary depending on:
Intended use and amount of power demand on
the circuit
Type of occupancy and size of the building
National and local regulations
Environment in which the wiring must operate.

Wiring systems in a single family home or duplex,


for example, are simple, with relatively low power
requirements, infrequent changes to the building
structure and layout, usually with dry, moderate
temperature, and non-corrosive environmental
conditions. In a light commercial environment, more
frequent wiring changes can be expected, large
apparatus may be installed, and special conditions
of heat or moisture may apply. Heavy industries
have more demanding wiring requirements, such as
very large currents and higher voltages, frequent
changes of equipment layout, corrosive, or wet or
explosive atmospheres. In facilities that handle
flammable gases or liquids, special rules may
govern the installation and wiring of electrical
equipments in hazardous area.

Standard
Single

wire
colours
phase

Live/Phase : Red
Neutral : Black
Protective earthing/ground
Green
Standard
wire
Three Phase-

colours

Live/Phase : Red
Live/Phase : Yellow
Live/Phase : Blue
Neutral : Black
Protective earthing/ground
Green

for
-

:
for

Recommended sizes & colours of wires


(A) For Single Phase Supply (load upto 3 KW)
Purpose

From/To

Electric
supply

Colour
of wire
Red
Black
Green

Wire
type
with
gaug
e
7/20
7/20
1/18

Size of
wire
(mm)
7/0.914
7/0.914
1/1.120

Mains

Meter Cabinet to
D.B. in flat

Phase
Neutral
Earth

Circuits
or
Submains

D.B. to room S.B.


or Kitchen
___power point___
D.B. to bathroom
(for geyser)

Phase
Neutral
Earth

Red
Black
Green

3/20
3/20
1/18

3/0.914
3/0.914
1/1.120

Phase
Neutral
Earth

Phase
Neutral
Earth

7/20
7/20
1/18

7/0.914
7/0.914
1/1.120

Internal
wiring

S.B. to Individual
points

Off/ return
__point__

Yellow

1/18

1/1.120

Neutral

Black

1/18

1/1.120

Note: S.B.-Switch board D.B.- Distribution board A.C.- Air conditioner

Recommended sizes & colours of wires


(A) For Three Phase Supply (load upto 10 KW)
Purpose

From/To

Mains

Meter cabinet to
D.B. in flat

Circuits
or
Submains

D.B. to room S.B.


D.B. to kitchen
power point
D.B. to bath room
(for geyser)
D.B. to bedroom
A.C.

Internal
wiring

S.B. to individual
points

Electric
supply

Colour of
wire

Wire type
Size of
with
wire (mm)
gauge

Phase
Phase
Phase
Neutral
Earth

Red (R)
Yellow (Y)
Blue (B)
Black
Green

7/20
7/20
7/20
7/20
3/20

7/0.914
7/0.914
7/0.914
7/0.914
3/0.914

Phase
Neutral
Earth

R/Y/B
Black
Green

3/20
3/20
1/18

3/0.914
3/0.914
1/1.120

Phase
Neutral
Earth

R/Y/B
Black
Green

3/20
3/20
1/18

3/0.914
3/0.914
1/1.120

Phase
Neutral
Earth

R/Y/B
Black
Green

7/20
7/20
1/18

7/0.914
7/0.914
1/1.120

Phase
Neutral
Earth

R/Y/B
Black
Green

7/20
7/20
1/18

7/0.914
7/0.914
1/1.120

Off/return
__point__

Yellow

1/18

1/1.120

Note: S.B.-Switch board D.B.- Distribution board A.C.- Air conditioner

_________________________________________________

Sheathing of a wire / cable:


Sheathing is basically something that wraps around or
surrounds something.
It is the outer protective covering of plastic, or such
material which provides insulation to the enclosed
wires or cables carrying the electricity.

Shielding:
It consists of an arrangement of metal mesh or plates
designed to protect electronic equipment from ambient
electromagnetic interference.
It can be the protective cable covering that eliminates
electromagnetic & radio frequency interference.
It is the separation of metallic parts by an electrical
nonconductor; insulated by other than an air gap.
The shielding effect describes the decrease in attraction
between an electron and the nucleus in any atom with
more than one electron shell. It is also referred to as the
screening effect or atomic shielding.

JUNCTION BOX

A Junction Box

Wires
Connecte
d Together
in a
Junction
Box

A Junction Box With Wires

Metal Blank Cover Plate

MAKE ALL CONNECTIONS IN APPROVED


BOXES

Always remember that connections must be made


in an approved box. Never connect one cable to
another by an open-line splice.
All switch, outlet, and junction boxes must be
positioned so they are always accessible.
You can easily remove knockout plugs with a nail
punch, screwdriver or metal rod.

Plugs, Sockets & Switches:


Socket:
A receptacle that receives a plug
A device into which an electric plug can be inserted in
order to make a connection in a circuit
It is such a device mounted on a wall and connected to the
electricity supply
A device designed to provide electric connections and
mechanical support for an electronic or electric component
requiring convenient replacement.
Wall sockets (sometimes also known as power points,
power sockets, electric receptacles, or electrical outlets)
are female electrical connectors that have slots or holes
which accept and deliver current to the prongs of inserted
plugs. To reduce the risk of injury or death by electric
shock, some plug and socket systems incorporate various
safety features. Sockets are designed to accept only
matching plugs and reject all others.

Plug:
An electric plug is a male electrical
connector with contact prongs to connect
mechanically and electrically to slots in the
matching female socket. They may also be
lamp holder plugs.

Switches:
A device used to break or open an electric circuit or
to divert current from one conductor to another.
In electronics, a switch is an electrical component
that can break an electrical circuit, interrupting the
current or diverting it from one conductor to another

Switch boards:
An electric switchboard is a device that directs electricity
from one source to another. It is an assembly of panels,
each of which contain switches that allow electricity to be
redirected. The operator is protected from electrocution by
safety switches and fuses. The amount of power going into
a switchboard must always equal to the power going out
to the loads.
Inside the switchboard there is a bank of bus bars generally wide strips of copper to which the switchgear is
connected. These act to allow the flow of large currents
through the switchboard, and are generally bare and
supported by insulators.

Remote controlled switch board

CONNECT NEW WIRING TO LAST OUTLET IN CABLE

New wiring should be connected to the last outlet in a run


of cable. To locate the last outlet in the run, shut off the
current. Remove the cover plates from each outlet on the
circuit. The last outlet in the run has wires connected to
only
two
of
the
four
terminal
screws.
The two unused terminal screws on the last receptacle
serve as a starting point for wiring to a new outlet.

TYPES OF INSTALLING WIRING:

OPEN / EXPOSED WIRING


CONDUIT WIRING
CONCEALED WIRING
CASING & CAPPING

Open wiring or surface mounted wiring:


Surface mounted wiring runs on the outside of the wall
instead of grooves made in the wall. For this wire moulds
(casing & capping) are used to connect to the boxes helps
concealing the wire & protecting it. Wire moulds come in
either plastic or metal form and varies in depth & thickness
according to the installation. Wire is fed from box to box
through wire mould raceways that protect it. Plastic moulds
are better to install and durable. Earlier, Wood Casing
Wiring and/or Batten Wiring Method were used.

Conduit wiring:
Electrical conduit is metal or plastic pipe through which
electrical wires are run. This conduit protects the wires and
is usually used in exposed locations, such as along the
outer surface of a wall. Each type of electrical conduit has
its own maximum no. of electrical wires allowed in the
circuit and their fill sizes may differ in spite of similar sizes.
Rigid conduits
PVC is a plastic conduit that is often used for
underground installations and in wet areas.
EMT conduit is a metal thin walled conduit that comes in
ten foot lengths.
Flexible conduit (armor-clad) is normally made of twisted
metal and is very flexible and can be formed around
corners and other obstacles.

Rigid
conduits

Non-Metallic Sheathed Wire (NM):


This wire, commonly called Romex, is a
plastic coated wire that has either two or
three conductors and a bare ground wire.
This is the typical wiring used in most
homes. The rating for this wire is either 15
amps, 20 amps, or 30 amps, depending on
the installation.
Single Strand Wire:
Single strand wire is insulated and many
of these can be pulled into the same pipe.

Concealed wiring:
Concealed means to keep from being seen, found,
observed, or discovered; hide. The wiring is done in such
a way that they are not seen on the surface.
They are concealed in the following ways as per the
requirement:
Grooves are made in the wall and then the wiring is
placed and the wall is plastered & painted from above
Wiring is carried through false ceiling
Wiring is carried through the false flooring
The wire may also be run through hidden electrical
ducts
All the wire may pass through the partitions and/or
panelling
Proper junction box for repair, maintenance and
addition of new connections are given

Concealed wiring:
There are few advantages of the concealed wiring:
It is quite effective in avoiding the electric shocks.
They look good aesthetically, for the electric wires are
not exposed.
Avoid spread of fire in case of accidents

The
wires
are
protected
from
wearing/deterioration/rodents or careless damage.
Concealed wiring is safe for the building as long as it is
properly placed and joints are properly covered. There
should be tap holes for checking the wiring at suitable
intervals. The wiring should not be too close to the slab
and also from the water bodies in the building. The wiring
should not be exposed to external cracks in the walls.
The concealed wiring will not weaken the concrete
structure.

Care to be taken while installing concealed wiring:


The wrong size or type of wire should not be used
The wiring should be handled under proper supervision
so as to avoid damage due to rough handling during
installation
The cable might should be properly protected or
secured.
Follow wiring standards and proper joining
Proper grounding of wires
Properly insulated wires
Study of the structural features / construction before
installing, (type of wall, material, etc.)
Skilled & qualified technicians
Proper electrical diagram with planned future needs
Proper inspection points wherever necessary

Casing & Capping:


It is a method of extending an insulated wire through an
opening that includes casing. The capping has radially
inward surfaces and a defining aperture. The casing is
placed onto the surface with screws and the insulated wire
is passed through the aperture. In case the insulated wire
touches the cap, the insulated wire will remain
undamaged by the smooth top and radially inward
surfaces. The capping covers the wires and can be painted
to suit the interiors and it well-fits onto the casing below.
The advantage of this method is that it is easy to install,
repair, remove and if the need be extend or detach and
replace.

Important Indications for house wiring:


House wire: PVC material
Conductor material: High purity, Oxygen free
Copper
Application: Construction/ computer
Type: Low voltage
Insulation material and/or sheathing: PVC
Jacket: PVC
Colours used: Yellow, blue, red, black, green,
brown, etc.
Twist type: Multi twist, rope lay; Seven twist; Solid
No. of cores: single to 5 no. of cores
Type of wire/cable: Flexible/ power/ soft/
electrical/ flexible power/ flat
Nominal voltage
Thickness, Diameter, Weight & Insulation
thickness

What is a FUSE?
In electronics and electrical engineering a fuse (from the
Latin "fusus" meaning to melt) is a type of sacrificial
overcurrent protection device. Its essential component is a
metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows,
which interrupts the circuit in which it is connected. Short
circuit, overload or device failure is often the reason for
excessive current.
A fuse interrupts excessive current (blows) so that further
damage by overheating or fire is prevented. Wiring
regulations often define a maximum fuse current rating for
particular circuits. Over current protection devices are
essential in electrical systems to limit threats to human life
and property damage. Fuses are selected to allow passage
of normal current and of excessive current only for short
periods.

A Circuit Breaker is an automaticallyoperated electrical switch designed to protect


an electrical circuit from damage caused by
overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to
detect a fault condition and, by interrupting
continuity,
to
immediately
discontinue
electrical flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates
once and then has to be replaced, a circuit
breaker can be reset (either manually or
automatically) to resume normal operation.
Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes,
from small devices that protect an individual
household appliance up to large switch gear
designed to protect high voltage circuits
feeding an entire city.

Low voltage circuit breakers Low voltage (less than 1000 VAC) types are common in
domestic, commercial and industrial application, include:
MCB (Miniature Circuit Breaker)rated current not more
than 100 A. Trip characteristics normally not adjustable.
Thermal or thermal-magnetic operation.
MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker)rated current up to
1000 A. Thermal or thermal-magnetic operation. Trip
current may be adjustable in larger ratings.
Low voltage power circuit breakers can be mounted in
multi-tiers in LV switchboards or switchgear cabinets.
MCB is a magnetic tripping device working during short
circuit or overloading. It is mainly used to protect life and
other electrical assets. Small circuit breakers are either
installed directly in equipment, or are arranged in a
breaker panel.

________________________________________________
Residual Current Devices, also known as groundfault circuit interrupters and appliance leakage current
interrupters, are used to detect ground faults - leakage
of current to someplace other than the neutral and live
wires (like the ground wire or a person). When a
ground fault is detected, the device quickly cuts off the
circuit.

NON CONVENTIONAL
SOURCES

Solar and Wind energy sources