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PERAN PERAWAT KOMUNITAS

DALAM MANAJEMEN BENCANA

MEANING OF DISASTER
Disaster means a catastrophe, calamity on mishap, a grave
occurrence which causes loss of life, human suffering, damage to
& destruction of property degradation of environment which
disrupts the normal functioning of societies, government
communities and which adversely affects individual and families
with severity and it is beyond the coping capacity of the
community of the affected area.

DEFINITION
DISASTER Setiap kejadian yg menyebabkan
kerusakan, ggn ekonomi, kehilangan nyawa
manusia, menurunnya kondisi kesehatan & layanan
kesehatan dalam skala cukup untuk melindungi
masyarakat.

DISASTER MANAGEMENTpengelolaan efektif dalam mengarahkan dan


menggunakan semua sumber daya untuk
menghadapi bencana.

PHASES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT:


1.Preventive phase-(Mitigation, storm shelter,
warning system etc.)
2.Personal preparedness
Professional preparedness
Community preparedness
3.Response phase
4.Recovery phase

The Phases of Disaster


Mitigation:
Lessen the impact of a disaster before it
strikes

Preparedness:
Activities undertaken to handle a disaster
when it strikes

The Phases of Disaster (2)


Response:
Search and rescue, clearing debris, and feeding and
sheltering victims (and responders if necessary).

Recovery:
Getting a community back to its pre-disaster status

Mitigation
Activities that reduce or eliminate a
hazard
Prevention
Risk reduction

Examples
Immunization programs
Public education

Preparedness
Activities that are taken to build capacity
and identify resources that may be used
Know evacuation shelters
Emergency communication plan
Preventive measures to prevent spread of
disease
Public Education

Response
Activities a hospital, healthcare system, or
public health agency take immediately
before, during, and after a disaster or
emergency occurs

Recovery
Activities undertaken by a community and
its components after an emergency or
disaster to restore minimum services and
move towards long-term restoration.
Debris Removal
Care and Shelter
Damage Assessments
Funding Assistance

Are nurses prepared??

Health Worker Density by


Region

Nurses Population

Nurses Killed By Disasters

Role of nursing in disasters


Disaster preparedness, including risk
assessment and multi-disciplinary
management strategies at all system levels, is
critical to the delivery of effective responses
to the short, medium, and long-term health
needs of a disaster-stricken population.
International Council of Nurses (2006)

Nurses roles in disasters


Menentukan tingkat keparahan
Menentukan kebutuhan kesehatan group masyarakat ttt
Menentukan tujuan dan prioritas
Identifikasi masalah kesehatan aktual dan potensial
kesehatan masyarakat
Menentukan sumber daya yg dibutuhkan masyarakat
Kolaborasi dengan profesional kesehatan lain,
pemerintah, NGO
Menjaga komunikasi melalui garis komando
Komunikasi

Communication is a success
key
Nursing organizations must have a
comprehensive and accurate registry for all
members
Have a structured plan:

Collaborate and coordinate with local authorities


Have a hotline 24x7
Inform nurses where to report and how (keep records)
Make sure have a coordinator to prevent chaos
Ensure ways to maintain communication between
nurses and their families

The Need for disaster Nursing


training
11 million nurses world wide:
Form the backbone of the health care system
Are the frontline health care workers who are in direct
contact with the public
Contribute to health of individuals, families, communities,
and the globe

Schools of nursing offer little or no


information on disaster nursing (WHO, 2008)
Shortage of trained instructors/faculty (WHO,
2008)

Core competencies in disaster


nursing training

Ethical and legal issues, and decision making;


Care principles;
Nursing care;
Needs assessment and planning;
Safety and security;
Communication and interpersonal relationships;
Public health; and
Health care systems and policies in emergency
situations
(WHO, 2008)

Topics that must be covered by


disaster nursing training

Basic life support


System and planning for settings where nurses work
Communications (what to report and to whom)
Working in the damaged facilities and with damaged
equipment
Safety of clients and practitioners
Working within a team (understand each members
role and responsibility)
Infection control
Mental and psychosocial support
(WHO, 2006)

NURSES ROLE IN COMMUNITY

ASSESSMENT
Assess the community
(E.g.-Local climate conductive for disaster)

Past history of disaster


Available community disaster
Personal available in the community
Local agencies
Health care facilities available.

DIAGNOSIS

Diagnose community disaster threats.


Determine the actual and potential disaster threats.
Community disaster planning.
PLANNING

Develop disaster plan:


*Aim:
To provide prompt and effective medical care to
the maximum possible in order to minimize
morbidity and mortality.

*Objectives

Prepare the staff and institutional resources.


Create a community awareness.

Plan for
* Pembentukan komite bencana
* Ruang kontrol bencana.
* Merujuk korban utk dirawat
* Rapid response team
* Information and communication.
* Disaster beds
* Logistic support system-equipment
and supplies.
* Pelatihan dan simulasi bencana.

Elements of disaster plan:


Koordinasi Pemda
Jalur komunikasi
Jenis transport
Mobilisasi
Warning System
Pembagian merata
Rescue and recovery
Triage
Treatment
Dukungan bagi korban dan keluarga
Penanganan korban meninggal
Rehabilitasi relawan bencana

Activation of disaster management plans:


Kembangkan SOP (mis: BCP)
Reception area-Disaster content room.
Triage
Documentation at control room
Public relation
Essential services-eg.water
and power and food
Crowd management/security
arrangements.

Activities needed in planning:


Identify local community communication system
Identify disaster personnel like private and
professional voluntary etc.
Identify regional back up agencies and personnel
Identify specific responsibilities for various personnel
involved in the disaster plan.
Set up an emergency medical system and chain of
activation.
Identify location and accessibility of equipments and
supplies.
Check proper functioning of emergency equipments.
Identify outdated supplies and replace.

Implement disaster plans:


Focus on primary prevention activities to prevent
occurrence of man made disaster.
Practice community disaster plans with all personnal-eg.
Triage, Supply of food ,water.
practice using equipment, obtaining and distributing
supplies.

Shelter management plans:


Nurse can act as shelter managers

Listen to the victims


Encourage victims to overcome the crisis
Delegate tasks to team members and co-ordinate activities
Provide the basic resources. like food, water etc
Provide compassion and dignity to the victim.

ROLE OF NURSE IN DIFFERENT PHASES


Disaster phases.
Menyampaikan berita pada
RS terdekat
Bersiap dengan peralatan
emergensi
Memulangkan pasien
Meningkatkan kesadaran.

Response phase.
Identifikasi populasi
Triase pda korban
Merawat korban
Mobiliasi korban
Mengatur fasilitas fisik untuk
korban.
Recovery phase.
Counseling
Perawatan lanjur
Vocational Training
Modifikasi Perilaku
Rehabilitasi

Risk reduction phase.


Awareness about disaster
Training to people
Mass health education
Education about warning signs of disaster.

NURSES RESPONSIBILITY

PRE-PLANNING: developing a responsible plan (BCP)


Storage of equipment and supplies
Follow the protocol of notification
Designation of an alternative reporting
site for health care workers
Very familiar with the equipment and
supplies to use
Much disaster drills
Use of personal protective devices
Knowledge on potential hazards at
the disaster sites. E.g.: unstable building structure

COMMUNITY PREPAREDNESS

Education
First aid program
Making each home to store
Emergency telephone numbers
Battery operated radio
Flash light
First aid kit
Three day supply of water
Medical information &family physician detail
Persons to be notified in emergency

ROLE AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE


DISASTER MANAGEMENT BOARD
Develop a National Disaster Action plan
Helping the ministries and agencies
Working with local authorities
Providing documentation and information services
Monitoring and referring the Govt.

During an emergency:
Ensure the effective communication and information
Activity and operate National emergency
Private secretarial service and expert advice to the National
Disaster management Council and inter ministerial disaster
management co-ordination
committee.
Provide information to and liase
with the economic relations
divisions and the ministry of
information.

During post disaster recovery:


Co-operate with the planning commission and
line agencies on reconstruction requirements
Ensure the risk reduction measures.
Under take final evaluation.

CONCLUSION
Community health nurses are an integral part of disaster
planning and implementation efforts. They are involved as
planners, educators, direct care givers and assessment
supervisors.
They serve as a community survey assessment or triage
officers after the disaster has occurred. Hence participate
actively in disaster management as a community health
nurse and protect the health of the community before,
during and after disaster.

Principles of Disaster Management

Prevent the disaster


Minimize casualties
Prevent further casualties
Rescue the victims
First aid
Evacuate
Medical care
Reconstruction
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TAKE HOME MESSAGE: DISASTER CAN OCCUR AT


ANY TIME ANY FORM OR TO ANY ONE. BE
PREPARED TO MEET THE CHALLENGES AFTER
THE EFFECT OF DISASTER.

THANK YOU