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# LIMITS,FITS & TOLERANCES

## NO TWO THINGS IN THE WORLD CAN BE

IDENTICAL

In the production
of engineering components also this fact is

## applicable. They may found to be closely similar. Every process

is a combination of three elements namely MAN,MACHINE
and METHOD. A slight change in any of the three will
constitute a change in the PRODUCT. Thus when the process
is in control most of the item will be on or about the mean value
and other values, will be described in a more or less
symmetrical way about the mean value and remaining with in
expressible limits. It is therefore obvious that it is impossible to
produce a part to exact size and some allowances known as
TOLERANCE has to be allowed.

## Such a system of giving tolerance to a dimension for

the manufacturing is known as LIMIT SYSTEM.

## A pair of mating components are generally called

SHAFT and HOLE.
SHAFT
A term used by convention to designate all
the external features of a part including those which
are not cylindrical. A shaft is commonly referred as
male component.
Eg : plugs, axles, spindles, locating spigots.
HOLE
A term used by convention to designate all
the internal features of a part including those which
are not cylindrical. It is dented by capital letters. A
hole is referred to the female component.
Eg: bore, recess.

## SIZE A number expressing the numerical value of a

dimension in appropriate units is called size of a
component.
BASIC SIZE or NOMINAL SIZE It is the decided size
of a component from which the limits are divided by
the application of tolerance. Basic size is same for
the hole and the shaft.
ACTUAL SIZE The size of a finished component
which is actually measurable with an instrument is
known as actual size.
DEVIATION The algebraic difference between the
actual size of a component and its basic size is
known as deviation. This can be of two types.
UPPER DEVIATION The algebraic difference
between the maximum limit size and corresponding
basic size. It is denoted by Es for hole and es for a
shaft.

LOWER DEVIATION
The algebraic difference
between the minimum limit size and corresponding
basic size is called lower deviation. It is denoted by
Ei for hole and ei for the shafts.
ZERO LINE The line which represents the basic size
of components in an assembly or a drawing is
known as zero line. In limits and fits all the
deviations are shown with respect to the zero line.
LIMITS
Limits are the extreme permissible
dimension of any part. There are two extreme
permissible sizes for a dimension. The largest
permissible size is called upper or higher limits (H)
where as the smallest size is known as the lower
limit (L).
ALLOWANCE The diff. b/w the maximum shaft and
size and minimum hole size. It can be either positive

TOLERANCE
Tolerance is the permissible variation in dimension of
a component.
Tolerance = Upper limit Lower limit
The difference b/w the upper limit dimension and the
lower limit dimension on the basic size of the
component is termed as tolerance.
Eg: 11 0.1 mm.
Here basic size = 11mm
11 + 0.1 = 11.1mm is the max. limit size.(upper limit
size)
11 0.1 = 10.9 mm is the min. limit size.(lower limit
size)
11.1 10.9 = 0.2mm is the tolerance.

## DIFFERENT WAYS OF EXPRESSING

TOLERANCE.
Tolerance is basically specified in to two forms.
i) Unilateral tolerance.
ii) Bilateral tolerance.
UNILATERAL TOLERANCE.
If all the tolerance is allowed to vary on one side
of the basic size, the system is called as
unilateral.
Ie. Tolerance lies wholly on one side of the basic
size either above or below it.
Unilateral system is preferred in interchangeable
manufacturing , especially when precision fits
are required.

BILATERAL SYSTEM
If all the tolerance is allowed on both the side of basic
size, then the system is called as bilateral system.
The system is mainly used in mass production where
machine setting is done for the basic size.
WHY TOLERANCE IS SPECIFIED?
1)Variation in the properties of the materials being
machined introduces error.
2)The production machines themselves have some in
accuracies to produce perfect parts.
3)It is impossible for an operator to make perfect
settings. (i.e in adjusting tools and work pieces on
the machines some errors are likely to creep in.)

USES OF TOLERANCE.
1)It reduces machine time.
2)It is used in mass production
3)Avoids rejection of components.
4)Reduces the cost of product.
Relation b/w tolerance and cost.
If the tolerance are made closer the
cost of production goes on increasing because to
manufacture close tolerance parts we need,
5)Precision machines, tools, and materials.
6)Trained and highly skilled operators.
7)Tight inspection and more precise inspection
device.
8)Close supervision and control is essential.

## Difference b/w TOLERANCE and

ALLOWANCE.
TOLERANCE

ALLOWANCE

It is the permissible
variation in dimension of a
part either a hole or a
shaft.
It is the difference b/w
higher and lower limits of
a dimension or a part.
Tolerance is given on the
dimension of a part as it is
not possible to make a
part to the exact specified
dimension

It is the prescribed
dimension of two mating
parts.
It is the intentional
difference b/w the lower
limit of the hole and
higher limit of the shaft.
Allowance is to be
provided on the dimension
of mating parts to obtain
desired type of fit.

FIT
Fit may be defined as a degree of
tightness or looseness between the two
mating parts to perform a definite
function when they are assembled
together. There are three basic types of
fits are possible to achieve by varying
the amount of allowance between the
size of two mating parts.
FITS
CLEARNCE TRANSITION
INTERFERANCE

CLEARANCE FIT
In clearance fit shaft has smaller
size than the hole. i.e. the largest permissible
shaft diameter is smaller than the smallest
hole diameter. The resulting allowance is
always positive in value.

INTERFERANCE FIT
Here the shaft has a larger
size than the hole size and an external force is
required to press the shaft to hole for fitting.
This fit is a permanent fit.
The minimum permissible
shaft diameter is larger than the maximum
limit of hole. The resulting allowance has
always a negative value. A hindrance will

TRANSITION FIT
In this type of fit,
the clearance fit is available for mating
parts with one set of dimension when
gives in limit system and interference fit
is obtained with other set of dimension.
The allowance varies from positive to
negative corresponding to two given set
of dimensions.
Usually this fit
provides either zero interference or a
clearance. These are used where parts
can be replaced without difficulty during

## Basic Hole System or Hole Basis

Definition of the "Basic Hole System":
The "minimum size" of the hole is equal
to the "basic size" of the fit.
Clearance = Hole Shaft
Cmax = Hmax Smin
Cmin = Hmin Smax
Both Cmax and Cmin >0 Clearance fit
Both Cmax and Cmin <0 Interference
fit
Cmax > 0, Cmin < 0 Transition fit
Allowance = Hmin - Smax (i.e., Cmin)