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FAKULTAS PERTANIAN

DEPARTEMEN SOSIAL EKONOMI PERTANIAN


UNPAD

Wide spread of
modern retail through
out all islands, down
to small town in Java
Island

Retail
Revolution

Food
Processing
Industry

Urbanisation

Sumber: Natawidjaja et al.,


2007

Fast growth of large


food processing and
beverages industry,
local and
multinational
company

Growing of urban
live style
Demand of higher
product quality
Increase of health
and food safety
concern
More women on the
work force

Source: UN

Economic
Cricis

Gross Output (Billion


Rupiahs) (1983=100)

Number of
Establishment
Avarage Output per
Establishment (Million
Rupiahs/Esstablismentn)

Mainly targeted on upper

Targeted on the rising


middle class

class and expatriat

Number of retail outlet

Concentrated in capital city


Only few local retail
business: Galael, Kem Chick

Concentrated in Jabotabek
and regional capital
Several national retailer New

cycles

business: Matahari, Hero


Quickly saturated

Targeted on all income level

Spread through the country:


other island, sub-district level

Domestic cycles

Business consolidation

Business format development

Multinasionalization: Carrefour,
Giant

Rapid development and market


Expansion

1970

year

1983 1990 1997

Source: Natawidjaja et al,


2007

Removal of FDI
restriction on
retail sector in
1998

*5 years ago nearly all supermarket


market in Jabotabek, around the capital
city

*Supermarkets now spreading to

other
islands, to secondary and tertiary cities
and even large rural towns on Java

*Supermarkets started on A consumers


now moved to B and C (lower middle and
working poor)

*While supermarkets have 30% of overall


food market, only about 10% of Fresh
Fruit and Vegetables retail
*typical over countries: processed foods
first, later fresh
*share of fresh food in supermarket
sales rising fast: about 30% of food
sales
*share of produce in supermarket
sales from near 0 in mid 1990s to 8%
now (recent upturn)

*About 65% of FFV sales of supermarkets


are fruit, 35% vegetables

About 80% of fruit are imported


About 20% of vegetables are imported

About 60% of FFV sales are from


imports

Roughly TWICE as high import share as


in comparable countries !
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1.Textile
2.Appliances
3.Grocery
4.Bazaar
5.Fresh:
*Fresh Fruits and Vegetables
*Meat and Fish
*Restaurant and Food retail
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Sangat
Menarik

Source: Planet Retail, 2009

10

Store Format

2005

2006

2007

Hypermarket

83

105

121

Warehouse Club

24

26

26

Supermarket

1,141

1,311

1,379

Minimarket

6,465

7,356

8,889

115

120

148

1,787,897

1,846,752

1,900,332

Convenience Store
Traditional Store
Source: AC Nielsen, 2008

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Source: AC Nielsen, 2007


Note: Modern Outlet: hypermarket, supermarket, mini market
12 store
Traditional market: wet market, independent grocery

Source: Planet Retail, 2009

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* The Indonesian retail sector is still relatively fragmented and

underdeveloped. The top five players hold a combined market


share of around 15%.

* Majority of the leading companies have ambitious expansion

plans, which should see them capture an increasing share of


the market in the coming years.

* The leading domestic department store/supermarket operators,


Matahari and Ramayana, are still important players, as are
local c-store players Indomaret and Alfa Mart.

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No of
Stores

Sales Area
(sq.m)

Grocery Banner
Sales (USD mn)

Market Share
(%)

Carrefour

90

459,090

1,098

2.6

Indomaret

3,500

455,000

1,006

2.4

Matahari

305

1,010,100

551

1.3

Alfa Mart

3,000

300,000

516

1.2

470

440,510

512

1.2

7,365

2,664,700

3,683

8.7

Other

39,084

91.3

Total

42,767

100

Company

Dairy Farm
Sub Total

Source: Planet Retail, 2009

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Source: Planet Retail, 2009

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Banner Sales
(EUR mn)

Market
Share

Grocery
Banner sales
(EUR mn)

Market
Share

Format

Banner

Hypermarket &
Superstore

Carrefour

962

2.5

7,8

2.2

Supermarket

Carrefour
Express

131

0.3

121

0.4

1,093

2.9

839

2.6

Source: Planet Retail, 2009

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Source: Planet Retail, 2009

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Banner Sales
(EUR mn)

Market
Share

Grocery
Banner sales
(EUR mn)

Market
Share

Format

Banner

Department Store

Matahari

466

1.2

87

0.3

Hypermarket

Hypermart

427

1.1

298

0.9

Supermarket

Foodmart

36

0.1

33

0.1

Other Revenue

Time Zone

26

0.1

0.0

Book Stores

Times

0.0

0.0

Drug Store

Boston Drug
Drug Store

0.0

964

2.5

Total

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Source: Planet Retail, 2009

0.0
1.3

20

Source: Planet Retail, 2009

*Supermarkets here are under these

pressures in deciding sourcing strategies:

extreme competition with other chains (and


heating up further!) so cut costs

as they move to compete with improved


traditional market cost cutting will increase

competing on quality and variety


need to stock same products year-round

*As recently as early 2000s, leading

chains relied on (and smaller chains


still do)
pasar induk for local sourcing mainly
import wholesalers for imports

*In past few years, shifting fast to:


suppliers for local sourcing of
vegetables mainly
specialized wholesalers with inter-island
linkages for fruit - mainly

* Quality standard for different supermarket chain is


different, no common standard

* Sorting and grading are done in consecutive, from


farmer, trader, through specialized supplier

* Quality standard generally based on size and color


(Grade Super, A, B, C, D)

* Handling is done at the supermarket specialized


supplier, ready to be put on the selves/display

*So far, for general fresh fruit and

vegetebles, no requirement for formal


product certification 23

* Most of modern retailer supplier s for agricultural


products, are started as wholesale traders to a
traditional market system

* To become modern suppliers, they have to put

specific large investment on post harvest handling


facilities (cleaning, sorting, gradding, handling,
packaging, cold storage, etc.)

* The supplier need to invest on technology of his own


and build contract institution with other farmers to
maintain continous supply

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* Most of modern retail supplier s made very fast

expansion on total gross sales, a long with expantion of


the retail chain that they dedicated to

* Modern retail supplier

facing far smaller buyers


competition compare to the traditional market, since
fresh local produce that channel to modern retail is
only 10-15% of total production

* Bargaining position of

the supplier determined


mainly by subjective valuation of the retailer. If he is
consider valueable supplier, the retailer willing to
negotiate the trading term.

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Usaha Kebijakan Mengendalikan


Perkembangan Ritel Modern
* Ministry of Trade Decree No. 53/2008:

Location for traditional market, shoping centers, and


modern retail are mandatory to follow the spatial
development plan (RUTR) of local government,
including the zoning rule.
* Many countries have tried to implement zoning
restriction on modern retail development, but proofed
to be not effective. Especially in Indonesia, any kind
zoning rules is always difficult to implement
* Level of competition determind by number of market
actors, market segmentation, and consumers
behaviours.
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(2) Trading Term Restriction:


Ministry of Trade Decree No. 53/2008 poin 7 control very
specifically the term of trade:
Fixed rebate (1% maximum of 3 month)
Conditinal rebate (1% if achieve 100% agreed sales, and 5% if
above 100%)
Listing fee only for new product per item
(hypermarket=150,000 IDR (max 1o mn IDR),
supermarket=75,000 IDR (max 1o mn IDR), and minimarket-5,000
IDR (max to of 2o mn IDR)
Ministry of Trade Decree No. 53/2008 poin 7 is too limiting and
will not effective (no last long)

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Buat Makalah ProCon (Pro dan Contra) tentang

perkembangan Ritel Modern di Indonesia


Dalam makalah tersebut buat list tentang hal-hal yang
dianggap dampak negatip dari perkembangan ritel
modern
Juga buat list tentang hal-hal yang dianggap positip
dari perkembangan ritel modern tersebut
Diskusikan Pro dan Contra nya, dan buat pernyataan
yang jelas tentang posissi anda dalam kontroversi
tersebut
Makalah diketik 1 spasi sebanyak 10 halaman.
Tidak diperkenankan copy dan paste dari teman,
dinilai = 0
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