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CS101: Introduction to Computing

Fall 2015
Instructors:
Dr. Fawad Hussain, Dr. Rashad Jilani, Engr.
Ahmad Sohaib, Engr. Zawar Hussain, Engr.
Usman Raza & Dr. Ahmar Rashid.
Faculty of Computer Science and
Engineering
GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and
Technology

Computer Software

Computer Software

Consists of

computer programs and


data files (different types)

that work together to provide instructions and data necessary for


carrying out a specific type of task

Software Classification

Software is broadly divided into two classes:

System software: designed to help the computer


carry out the basic operating functions

Operating systems, utilities, device drivers

Application software: designed to be used for a


specific purpose

Business / Educational / Medical Software, Computer Games,


Web Applications etc

Software
Classification

Placement of Software
Application Software

System Software

Hardware

Example
Internet Explorer/ MS
Office/ Media Players and
so on.

Windows XP

Hardware

Another Example
Firefox/ Open Office/
Media Players and so on.

Linux

Hardware

Examples of Application
Software

There is a vast array of application software available


for computers that assist in performing a wide range
of tasks

Microsoft Office Suit: Word, Power Point, Excel


Graphics Software: Adobe Photoshop, Microsoft Paint, Picasa
Database Software: Oracle, MySQL, Microsoft Access
Internet & Web: IE, Outlook, Macromedia Dreamweaver
Multimedia Software

Codecs, CD ripper, video editing software

Entertainment Software

Over $6 billion of computer and video games are sold each year in
the U.S. alone

Operating Systems (OS)

Operating System (OS)


The

master controller for all of the activities


that take place within a computer

Some of the major tasks carried out by the OS

Manage system resources e.g.

Processor
Memory
Storage resources

Ensure that input and output proceed in an orderly


manner
Establish basic elements of the user interface

Operating System

Details of some of the OS services

Memory Management

Ensures that instructions and data from one area of


memory dont leak into an area allocated to
another program
If it fails, data can get corrupted, programs can
crash

File Management

Acts as a filing clerk


Remembers the names and locations of all your files
Keeps track of empty spaces where new files can
be stored

Operating System (OS)


Note

that the OS hides details of the


operation of hardware from the
applications

This
tremendously

simplifies applications
and removes their dependence on
particular hardware

Operating System: Example

Various software work together in a chain of


commands to carry out a given task

The role of OS while accessing a printer

Operating System: Example

The following were in involved in printing a document:


1.
2.
3.
4.

Microsoft Word
Operating System (Windows XP)
Device Drivers for the Printer
Printer

Note that except the last one, all of the above are
software.
But as a user your direction interaction is with the first
one only!

Operating System

OS provides a user interface to interact with the computer

Command-line user interface


Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Although OS mainly controls what happens behind the
scenes, many OS provide helpful tools, called utilities, to
control and customize your computer

Launch programs
Manage files
Get help
Customize the user interface
Configure equipment

A few Examples of computer utility software systems

DirectX , Disk cleanup ,McAfee virus scan ,Norton antivirus


Microsoft Paint ,Telnet ,Scandisk

Operating System

An OS is not strictly limited to computers!


It is also present on PDAs, Mobile Phones etc

[handheld

devices]

Windows Mobile OS,


Windows XP Embedded

Used for automatic teller machines, arcade games, slot machines, cash
registers, industrial robotics and etc.

Symbian OS
open source operating system currently (2011)
used in Nokia Mobile Devices
Palm OS

For PDAs

Nokia Series 40 and Series 60


Windows CE

optimized for devices that have minimal storage

PDA
A personal digital assistant (PDA),
also known as a palmtop computer, is
a mobile device that functions as a
personal information manager.

Where is OS stored?

If the OS is small enough, it can be entirely stored in ROM.

Usually OS for a computer is quite large so most of it is stored


on a hard disk.

How does the OS start working?

Switching on a computer initiates a series of POSTs (Power


On Self Test).
In IBM PCs a ROM-based firmware called the BIOS is in
control at this point.

One of the functions of that firmware was to perform POSTs.

In other IBM compatible PCs, firmware compatible with


the BIOS is used.
Next, the BIOS loads into RAM a very small program,
known as the bootstrap program, built into special ROM
circuitry housed in the computers system unit , and the
processors starts running it.
Now, this small program will load the much bigger OS (e.g.
Windows XP) from the hard disk. Initially, the Windows
Kernel is loaded.

How does the OS start working?


The boot process in modern computers
Six major events happen during the boot process:
Power up: When you turn on the power switch, the power light is
illuminated, and power is distributed to the computer circuitry.
Start boot program: The microprocessor begins to execute the
bootstrap program that is stored in ROM.
Power-on self-test: The computer performs diagnostic tests of several
crucial system components (e.g., CPU, RAM, interrupt and DMA
controllers)
Identify peripheral devices: The computer identifies the peripheral
devices that are connected and checks their settings.
Load operating system: The operating system is copied from the
hard disk to RAM. Initially, the Windows Kernel is loaded.
Check configuration and customization: The microprocessor reads
configuration data and executes any customized startup routines
specified by the user.

A little about the Kernel

Kernel provides the most essential OS services

such as memory management and file access

It stays in memory all the time your computer is


powered on.

Other parts are loaded into memory as needed

Firmware

A term sometimes used to denote the fixed, usually


rather small, programs that internally control
various electronic devices

E.g., remote controls, keyboards, digital cameras etc


contain firmware to enable the devices basic operations
as well as implementing higher level functions

Typically reside in ROM


More complex reside in flash memory to allow for updates

Example of firmware
Timing

BIOS

control systems in washing machine

found in PC

Controlling

lists in TVs

sound / video attributes, channel

References
Computer

Concepts, by Parsons & Oja


[Chapters 3]