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Welcome

to Physics 2135

PHYSICS 2135
Engineering Physics II

Spring 2016

Dr. Allan Pringle


Course Instructor
Room 122 Physics, 3414031
http://www.mst.edu/~pringle
pringle@mst.edu
Lectures:
http://physics.mst.edu/classes/class24/
Online quizzes: blackboard.mst.edu

Announcements
Makesureyoupickupthehandoutcontaining:
CourseHandbook
Syllabus(coursescheduleandassignedhomework)
StartingEquations
SpecialHomeworkassignments.
Ifyouareintheonlinelecturesection,youcanpickthis
handbookupduringyourfirstrecitation.
Forthoseofyouwhodonthavethecoursehandbookyet,the
homeworkassignmentfortomorrowisonthenextslide.
Makesureyourecordyourrecitationinstructorsnameand
yourrecitationsectionletteronthefirstpageofthehandout.

Fromthesyllabus:
read 21: 1-4

Read
this!
recitation
number1

2. Thursday, January 21
21: 14, 26, 36, 74, Special Homework #1

chapter21

Youcanfindhomeworkassignmentsonlinehere:
http://campus.mst.edu/physics/courses/24/Assignments/syllabus.pdf

OfficialStartingEquationsareavailablehere:
http://campus.mst.edu/physics/courses/24/Handouts/ose.pdf
Yourrecitationinstructorwillcallstudentstotheboard
tomorrowtopresenttheirhomeworksolutionstotheclass.

Ifyouarecalledontodoboardwork,youmayuseyour
calculator,ablankhandoutproblemsheet(whichwewill
provide),andthestartingequationsheet.Nothingelse.Wedo
understandthatthisisthefirstweekofclass.
HomeworkhelpwillbeavailableinthePhysicsLearningCenter
(PLC),rooms129and130Physics,from2-4:30pmand6-8:30
pm.
ThePhysics2135FinalExamwillbefrom3:00-5:00PMon
Wednesday,May11,2016.Make sure you have nothing else
scheduled during this time period!

Gotohttp://physics.mst.edu/currentcourses/labs/index.htmltogetalab
schedule.There are no labs this week. Odd-numbered
sections meet next week (3L05 is odd, 3L06 is even).

You must purchase a lab manual. Go to the department


office, room 102, to purchase your lab manual! The cost is
$25.00. Do not ask me for a lab manual; I do not have
them!
You will receive a lab grade of zero (and lose 15% of the
possible course points) if you dont have a lab manual!

OurtextisUniversity Physics with Modern Physics Vol. 2,


YoungandFreedman,14thEdition
Full Text
Chapter 21
Chapter 22
Chapter 23
Chapter 24
Chapter 25
Chapter 26
Chapter 27
Chapter 28
Chapter 29
Chapter 32
Chapter 33
Chapter 34
Chapter 35
Chapter 36

Custom Text
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 14

Forseveralsemesterspriorto
this,weusedacustomeditionof
thetext(13thedition).Youmay
usethattext.Hereisatable
showingthecorrespondence
betweenchapternumbersinVol.
14andthecustomedition.

Ifyouusethe13theditionorthe
customtext,youmustfollowthe
instructionshere;otherwiseyou
willnotworkthecorrect
homeworkproblems!

Thissemesterwestudyelectromagneticforcesandtheir
consequences.
Theseforcesareresponsibleforholdingtogetherliving
andman-madethings,aswellasallthingsinnature,soI
supposetheyareworthstudying
nottomentionthefactthatthetechnologythat
dominatesyourlifedependsonelectromagneticforces.

Lecture 1 agenda:
Electric Charge.
Just a reminder of some things you learned back in grade school.

Coulombs Law (electrical force between charged


particles).
You must be able to calculate the electrical forces between one or more charged
particles.

The electric field.


You must be able to calculate the force on a charged particle in an electric field.

Electric field due to point charges.


You must be able to calculate electric field of one or more point charges.

Motion of a charged particle in a uniform electric


field.
You must be able to solve for the trajectory of a charged particle in a uniform
electric field.

Electric Charge
Readaboutelectricchargeinsections21.1and21.2inyour
text.Youshouldhavelearnedthismaterialinyourprior
academiccareer.Ifyouhavent,thereisimportantinformation
youneedtolearnnow!
Therearetwokindsofcharge.

likechargesrepel
unlikechargesattract
chargescanmovebutchargeisconserved
Law of conservation of charge:thenetamountofelectric
chargeproducedinanyprocessiszero.(Not on your starting equation
sheet, but a fact that you can use any time.)

Althoughtherearetwokindsofchargedparticlesinanatom,
electronsarethechargesthatusuallymovearound.
+

Aprotonisroughly2000timesmoremassivethanan
electronandaretypicallyboundinsidenuclei.
Chargesarequantized(comeinunitsofe=1.6x10-19C).
Thechargeofanelectronise=1.6x10-19coulombs.
Thechargeofaprotonis+e=+1.6x10-19coulombs.
ThatsallthelecturetimeIlldevotetosections21.1and21.2.

Lecture 1 agenda:
Electric Charge.
Just a reminder of some things you learned back in grade school.

Coulombs Law (electrical force between


charged particles).
You must be able to calculate the electrical forces between one or more charged
particles.

The electric field.


You must be able to calculate the force on a charged particle in an electric field.

Electric field due to point charges.


You must be able to calculate electric field of one or more point charges.

Motion of a charged particle in a uniform electric


field.
You must be able to solve for the trajectory of a charged particle in a uniform
electric field.

Coulombs Law
Coulombslawquantifiesthemagnitudeoftheelectrostatic*
force.
Coulombslawgivestheforce(innewtons)betweenchargesq1
andq2(inunitsofcoulombs),wherer12isthedistanceinmeters
betweenthecharges,andk=9x109Nm2/C2.

q1q 2
F k 2
12
r12

*MovingchargedparticlesalsoexerttheCoulombforceoneachother.

a note on starting equations


q1q 2
F k 2
12
r12

isonyourstartingequationsheet.

Ingeneral,youneedtobegin*solutionswithstartingequations.
Youmaybeginwithanycorrectvariantofastartingequation.

QA QB
F k
Forexample,islegalandmaybeused.
E
D2
Dontgethungupaboutstartingaproblemwithanequation
whichisanexactcopyofonefromtheOSEsheet.
*Begindoesnotmeanthatastartingequationhastobethefirstthingthatappears
onyourpaper.Itmightbeseverallinesbeforeyouuseastartingequation.

Forceisavectorquantity.Yourstarting
equationgivesthemagnitudeoftheforce.
Useyourdiagramfortheproblemtofigure
outthedirection.Ifthechargesareopposite
insign,theforceisattractive;ifthecharges
arethesameinsign,theforceisrepulsive.

q1q 2

F k 2
12
r12

Thisequationjustgivesthe
magnitudeoftheforce.

Iwantthisclasstomakeyou
hearlittlevoicesinyourhead.

Ifaproblemasksyoutocalculateaforce,assumethatmeans
bothmagnitudeanddirection(orelseallcomponents).

1
Also, k
4 0

where

0 8.85 10 12

C2
.
2
N m

Remember,avectorhasamagnitudeandadirection.

CoulombsLawisvalidforpointcharges.Ifthechargedobjects
aresphericalandthechargeisuniformlydistributed,r12isthe
distancebetweenthecentersofthespheres.
r12

IjusttoldyouitsOKto
useCoulombsLawfor
spherically-symmetric
chargedistributions.

Ifmorethantwochargesareinvolved,thenetforceisthevector
sumofallforces(superposition).Forobjectswithcomplex
shapes,youmustaddupalltheforcesactingoneachseparate
charge(calculus!!).
+
+
+

Example: apositivechargeQ1=+Qislocatedadistanced
alongthey-axisfromtheorigin.Asecondpositivecharge
Q2=+QislocatedattheoriginandanegativechargeQ3=-2Q
islocatedonthex-axisadistance2dawayfromQ1.Calculate
thenetelectrostaticforceonQ1duetotheothertwocharges.

Tobeworkedattheblackboard.Youshouldapplytheexpert
techniquesyoulearnedinPhysics1135whenyouwork
Physics2135problems.

Skiptoslide21.

Example: apositivechargeQ1=+Qislocatedadistanced
alongthey-axisfromtheorigin.Asecondpositivecharge
Q2=+QislocatedattheoriginandanegativechargeQ 3=-2Q
islocatedonthex-axisadistance2dawayfromQ1.Calculate
thenetelectrostaticforceonQ1duetotheothertwocharges.
y

Q1=+Q
d
Q2=+Q

2d
Q3=-2Q

CalculatethenetelectrostaticforceonQ1duetotheothertwo
charges.
r r r
F F2 F3

r
q1q2
+Q +Q Q2
F2 k 2 j k
jk 2 j
2
r12
d
d

F2
Q1=+Q

r
F3 F3xi F3yj

r
F3 F3 cos i F3 sin j

F3

2d

Q2=+Q

Q3=-2Q

q1q2
F12 =k 2
r12
sin

1
2

cos

3
2

Note:F2andF3arenotdrawntoscale(F3istoolong).

r
q1q3
q1q3

F3 k 2 cos i k 2 sin j
r13
r13
r
+Q -2Q 3 +Q -2Q 1
F3 k
i k
j
2
2
2
2
2d
2d

CalculatethenetelectrostaticforceonQ1duetotheothertwo
charges.
r
+Q -2Q 3 +Q -2Q 1
F3 k
i k
j
2
2
2
2
2d
2d

F2
Q1=+Q

r
2Q2 3
2Q2 1
F3 k 2
i k 2 j
4d 2
4d 2

r
3 kQ2 1 kQ 2
F3
i
j
2
2
4 d
4 d

F3

2d

Q2=+Q

Q3=-2Q

q1q2
F12 =k 2
r12
1
sin
2

3
cos
2

Note:F2andF3arenotdrawntoscale(F3istoolong).

r r r
Q2
3 kQ2 1 kQ2
F F2 F3 k 2 j+
i
j
d
4 d2
4 d2
r
3 kQ 2 3 kQ2
F
i
j
2
2
4 d
4 d

Comments:
Onceyouhavebecomeanexpertatproblemslikethis,youcan
combineandperhapsevenskipsomesteps.
Skippingstepsonworktobegradedisnotrecommended!
Youmayexpressyouranswerinunitvectornotation,asonthe
previousslide.
Oryoumaywrite

3 kQ2
Fx

2
4 d

3 kQ2
Fy

2
4 d

Youmayalsoexpressyouranswerasamagnitudeand
direction.
AllthreeoftheabovewaysofwritingFcompletelyspecifythe
vector.

F2
Q1=+Q
d
Q2=+Q

F3
2d

Q3=-2Q

IfQ1werefreetomove,whatdirectionwoulditsinitial
accelerationbe?HowwouldIcalculatetheacceleration?
WouldtheaccelerationremainconstantasQ1moved?CouldI
usetheequationsofkinematics(rememberthemfromPhysics
1135?)todescribethemotionofQ1?

Lecture 1 agenda:
Electric Charge.
Just a reminder of some things you learned back in grade school.

Coulombs Law (electrical force between charged


particles).
You must be able to calculate the electrical forces between one or more charged
particles.

The electric field.


You must be able to calculate the force on a charged particle in an electric field.

Electric field due to point charges.


You must be able to calculate electric field of one or more point charges.

Motion of a charged particle in a uniform electric


field.
You must be able to solve for the trajectory of a charged particle in a uniform
electric field.

Coulombs Law:
its just part of a bigger picture
Coulomb's Law quantifies the interaction between
charged particles.

1 q1q 2
F =
,
2
12 4 0 r12

r12
+

Q1

Q2

Charged particles exert forces on each other over great


distances.
How does a charged particle "know" another one is
there?
We use the concept of an electric field to explain this
interaction. Here's the idea

The Electric Field


F12
A charged particle propagates
(sends out) a "field" into all space.
Other charged particles
sense the field, and know
that the first one is there.

+
like
charges
repel

A charged particle modifies the


properties of the space around
it.

F21

F13
F31
unlike
charges
attract

The idea of an electric field is good for a number of


reasons:
It makes us feel good, like weve
F12
actually explained something.
OK, that was a flippant remark. There are serious
+
reasons why the idea is good.
F13
We can develop a theory based on
this idea. From this theory may spring
unimagined inventions.
If the theory explains past observations and leads to
new predictions, the idea was good.

The electric field is real!

+
F21
like
charges
repel

F31
unlike
charges
attract

Trust me. Or go stand outside in an electric storm


and then try to tell me the electric field is not real.

Some physicists will tell you the electric field is real. Others disagree. It seems to depend on what you define real
to mean.

We define the electric field by the force it exerts on a


test charge q0:

r
r F0
E=
q0

The subscript 0 reminds you the force is


on the test charge. I wont require the
subscripts when you use this equation for
boardwork or on exams.

If the test charge is "too big" it perturbs the electric


field, so the correct definition is

r
r
F0
E = lim
q0 0 q
0

You wont be required to


use this version of the
equation.

Any time you know the electric field, you


r can
r use this equation to calculate
the force on a charged particle in thatFelectric
= qE
field:

This version of the electric field equation is on your


equation sheet. Use it for problems involving electric
fields and forces:
Im not mad, I tell you, not mad.
The little voices tell me Im quite
sane.

r
r
F = qE

This is your second starting equation. The equation tells you the direction
of the electric field is the direction of the force exerted on a POSITIVE test
charge. The absence of absolute value signs around q means you MUST
include the sign of q in your work.

r
F0
r
N
The units of electric field are E = =

q0 C
newtons/coulomb.

In chapter 23, you will learn that the units of electric


field can also be expressed as volts/meter:

N V
E = =
C m
The electric field can exist independent of whether
there is a charged particle around to feel it.

Remember: the electric field direction is


the direction a + charge would feel a force.

A + charge would be repelled by another + charge.


Therefore the direction of the electric field is
away from positive (and towards negative).

http://regentsprep.org/Regents/physics/phys03/afieldint/default.htm

Gravitational Fields
The idea of a field is not new to you. You experienced
fields (gravitational) in Physics 1135.

r
m1m 2
FG =G 2 , attractive
r12
r
rr
FG
g(r) =
m

Units of g
are actually
N/kg!

rr
g(r) is the local gravitational field. On earth, it is about
9.8 N/kg, directed towards the center of the earth.
A particle with mass modifies the properties of the space
around it.

If the last
equation looks
like this, you have
missing fonts.

Lecture 1 agenda:
Electric Charge.
Just a reminder of some things you learned back in grade school.

Coulombs Law (electrical force between charged


particles).
You must be able to calculate the electrical forces between one or more charged
particles.

The electric field.


You must be able to calculate the force on a charged particle in an electric field.

Electric field due to point charges.


You must be able to calculate electric field of one or more point charges.

Motion of a charged particle in a uniform electric


field.
You must be able to solve for the trajectory of a charged particle in a uniform
electric field.

The Electric Field


Due to a Point Charge
Coulomb's law says

q1q 2
F =k 2 ,
12
r12
... which tells us the electric field due to a point charge
q is

r
q
E q =k 2 , away from +
r

or
just

This is your third starting equation.

E=k

r2

E=k

q
r2

A physics 2135 equation is like a toaster!

You wouldnt
shove yogurt
down your
toaster, would
you?
You cant expect to just shove numbers into an equation
and out pops the correct answer.
To experience the optimum user satisfaction from your
physics 2135 toaster equations you need to understand
what they mean and think about what you are doing
with them.

If we definer as a unit vector from the source point to


the field point
source point

r +

field point

then the equation for the electric field of a point


charge becomes:

r
q
E=k 2 r
r
Consult a professional before using. Do not
use more than 4 times a day without seeing
your physicist. May cause headaches,
dizziness, and upset stomach. Drink a full
glass of water with each use.

You may start with either


equation for the electric field
(this one or the one on the
previous slide). But dont use
this one unless you REALLY
know what you are doing!
(So for now dont use it!)

Example: calculate the electric field at the electrons


distance away from the proton in a hydrogen atom
(5.3x10-11 m).
+e
+

-e
P
-

EP

k q k(+e)
EP 2

2
r
D

D
E P 5.110

11

9 109 1.6 1019

5.3 10

11 2

N
C

For comparison, air begins to break down and conduct


electricity at about 30 kV/cm, or 3x106 V/m.

A Dipole
A combination of two electric charges with equal
magnitude and opposite sign, separated by a fixed
distance, is called a dipole.
- -q

+q +
d

The charge on this dipole is q (not zero, not +q, not q,


not 2q). The distance between the charges is d. Dipoles
are everywhere in nature.

This is an electric dipole. Later in the course well study magnetic dipoles.

The Electric Field of a Dipole


Example: calculate the electric field at point P, which
lies on the perpendicular bisector a distance L from a
dipole of charge q.
P

to be worked at the
blackboard in lecture

Skiptoslide41.

- -q

+q +
d

Example: calculate the electric field at point P, which


lies on the perpendicular bisector a distance L from a
dipole of charge q.
r r
r
y
E+
E = E E
P

+q +

E y = 0 (symmetry
)

E x = 2E ,x (symmetry

Er

E x = +2E cos

- -q

Example: calculate the electric field at point P, which


lies on the perpendicular bisector a distance L from a
dipole of charge q.
y
E x = +2E cos
E+
P

+q +

d/2

d/2
d
E x = +2E
= +E
r
r
Er

d/2 -q
d

Ex

k q d
kqd
=+ 2
= 3
r r
r
r
E =

qd
i
3
4 0 r

Charge on dipole is positive


by convention, so no absolute
value signs needed around q.

qd
E
4o r 3

- -q

+q +
d

Caution! The
above equation for
E applies only to
points along the
perpendicular
bisector of the
dipole.
It is not a starting
equation.
(r is not a system parameter,
but lets not worry about that
right now)

Lecture 1 agenda:
Electric Charge.
Just a reminder of some things you learned back in grade school.

Coulombs Law (electrical force between charged


particles).
You must be able to calculate the electrical forces between one or more charged
particles.

The electric field.


You must be able to calculate the force on a charged particle in an electric field.

Electric field due to point charges.


You must be able to calculate electric field of one or more point charges.

Motion of a charged particle in a uniform


electric field.
You must be able to solve for the trajectory of a charged particle in a uniform
electric field.

Motion of a Charged Particle


in a Uniform Electric Field
A charged particle in an electric field experiences a
force, and if it is free to move, an acceleration.
If the only force is due to the
electric field, then

r
r
r
F ma qE.

- - - - - - - - - - - - -

+ + + + + + + + + + + + +

If E is constant, then a is constant, and you can use the


equations of kinematics* (remember way back to the
beginning of Physics 1135?).
*If you get called to the board, you can use the Physics 1135 starting equations. They are
posted.

Example: an electron moving with velocity v0 in the


positive x direction enters a region of uniform electric
field that makes a right angle with the electrons initial
velocity. Express the position and velocity of the
electron as a function
y of time.
- - - - - - - - - - - - -

-e

v0

+ + + + + + + + + + + + +

Skiptoslide48.

To be worked at the blackboard in lecture.v


What would be different for a proton?

fx

vix a x t

1
2
x f x i vix t a x t
2

Make sure you understand what a uniform electric field is.

Express the position and velocity of the electron as a


function of time.
r
r
r
r

FE = qE = -e E = -eEj = ma

-e

v0

FE a

r
eE
a = - j
m
ax = 0

eE
ay = m

Lets work the rest of the problem one component at a


time.

Express the position and velocity of the electron as a


function of time.
eE
ay = m

ax = 0

-e

v0

FE a

1 2
x = x i + vix t + a x t
2
x = v0 t
0

1 2
y = yi + viy t + a y t
2

Position:
x = v0 t

1 eE 2
y=t
2 m

1 2 1 eE 2
y = a yt = t
2
2 m

Express the position and velocity of the electron as a


function of time.
eE
ay = m

ax = 0

-e

v0

FE a

v x = vix + a x t
v x = v0
0

v y = viy + a y t
Velocity:
v x = v0

eE
vy = - t
m

eE
v y = a y t= - t
m

What is the shape of the electrons path?

x = v0 t

-e

v0

FE a

1 eE 2
y=t
2 m

x
t=
v0
2

1 eE

1 eE x
2
y==
x

2
2 m v 0
2
mv

0
The trajectory of the electron is a parabola, concave
down. Just like the trajectory of a ball thrown
horizontally in the gravitational field of the Earth.

Concluding Remarks
Homework Hints (may not apply every semester)
There are two kinds of electric field problems in
todays lecture:
1. Given an electric field, calculate the force
on a charged particle.
2. Given one or more charged particles,
calculate the electric field they produce.

r
r
F = qE

E=k

q
r2

Make sure you understand which kind of problem you


are working on!

Homework Hints (may not apply every semester)


Symmetry is your friend. Use it when appropriate. Dont
use it when not appropriate.

r
GmM
FG,pair 2 , attractive
r
The above equation is on the Physics 1135 Starting
Equation Sheet, which is posted in the recitation
classrooms. You are free to use Physics 1135 starting
equations at any time.

Homework Hints (may not apply every semester)


Your starting equations so far are:

q1q 2
F k 2
12
r12

r
r F0
E=
q0

E=k

q
r2

(plus Physics 1135 starting equations).


Remove the absolute value signs ONLY IF you know
that all charges are positive.

r
r
r F0
F0
NEVER do this: E =
q0 = r
q0
E

(why?)

Learning Center Today


2:00-4:30, 6:00-8:30
Rooms 129/130 Physics