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Mirrors and

And how brain adapts to the image reflected or

At the end of the presentation the student will be
able to correctly differentiate between absorption,
reflection and refraction.
At the end of the presentation, the ss will be able
to correctly differentiate between the three types
of mirrors.
At the end of the presentation the ss will be able
to differentiate between the three type of lenses.
At the end of the presentation the ss will correctly
understand how mirages are formed.

Concept Words

Focal point

What is light?
Light arrives on our planet after a speedy trip from the
Sun, 149 million km (93 million miles away). Light
travels at 186,000 miles (300,000 km) per second, so
the light you're seeing now was still tucked away in the
Sun about eight minutes ago. Put it another way, light
takes roughly twice as long to get from the Sun to Earth
as it does to make a cup of coffee!
During the 20th century, physicists came to believe that
light could be both a particle and a wave at the same
time. (This idea sounds quite simple, but goes by the
rather complex name of wave-particle duality.)
It is made inside of atoms when they get excited . It
makes the atom unstable and its liberated in the form of
a photon.

Reflection , Refraction and

In order to understand this topic we will refer to the
following url: http://

It is basically anything with a smooth surface that
reflects almost all of the light that hits it. The key factor
is a smooth surface, because rough surfaces scatter
light instead of reflecting it.
The mirror image is reversed, which you can easily see
if you stand in front of a mirror with a shirt with words
on it. The words on the shirt appear backwards in the
The first mirrors were likely polished stones, such as
obsidian, then they were changed to brass, and then to
clear glass coated with a thin layer of reflective metal.
The mirrors in most places are plane mirrors. They are
flat and reflect the objects in front of them accurately,
maintaining the same relative size and position of the
objects reflected.

Mirrors (cont.)
What happens when you look in a mirror? In the
daytime, light reflects off your body in all
directions. That's why you can see yourself and
other people can see you. Your skin and the
clothes you're wearing reflect light in a diffuse
way: light rays bounce off randomly, haphazardly,
in no particular direction. Stand in front of a mirror
and some of this light from your body will stream
in straight lines toward it.
How does the mirror reflect light? The silver atoms
behind the glass absorb the photons of incoming
light energy and become excited. But that makes
them unstable, so they try to become stable again
by getting rid of the extra energyand they do
that by giving off some more photons.

Focal Point
What is it?
It is the point where the rays of light or any
radiation converges (meet/ encounters)

Types of mirrors
If the surface of a mirror is perfectly flat (what's
known as a plane mirror), what you see in the
glass is a reasonable approximation to what's
really therebut with one crucial difference: the
image appears to be shifted from left to right (we
say it's mirrored, but scientists say it's "laterally

Types of mirrors (cont)

If the mirror bows inward at the center (known as
a converging mirror or concave mirror), light rays
will appear to come from in front of the mirror, the
reflection will be nearer to you, and reflections will
appear bigger than they really are. That's why a
converging mirror magnifies. Shaving mirrors work
like this.

Types of mirrors (cont)

In a mirror that bulges outward at the center (a
diverging mirror or convex mirror), the opposite
happens. Light rays seem to come from behind
the mirror and reflections will appear smaller and
further away than they would in a plane mirror.
Driving mirrors work like this (and so does the
back of a spoon if you hold it just right).

Diagrams of mirrors

What happens with the


A lens is a transparent piece of glass or plastic
with at least one curved surface, that works by
refraction. That means the rays seem to come
from a point that's closer or further away from
where they actually originateand that's what
makes objects seen through a lens seem either
bigger or smaller than they really are.

Types of lenses
This type of lens is thicker in the center than at the
edge. Parallel rays of light entering it on one side
will converge (meet) at a particular spot on the
other side of the lens. Magnifying glasses and
microscopes use convex lenses. The image will
appear bigger than the real one.

Types of lenses (cont.)

Concave lenses
A concave lens is thinner at the center than at the
edge. Parallel light rays passing into one side of the
lens diverge (spread out) as they emerge from the
other side. If you are nearsighted, your eye lens
focuses a scene just in front of the retina in your
eye and the image you see is blurred. A concave
lens spreads out the light rays before they enter the
eye, so that they are focused on the retina and the
image is sharp.

What happens with the


What happens with the


Is a mirage a real image?

* Mirages happen when the ground is very hot and the
air is cool. The hot ground warms a layer of air just
above the ground.
* When the light moves through the cold air and into the
layer of hot air it is refracted (bent).
* A layer of very warm air near the ground refracts the
light from the sky nearly into a U-shaped bend. Our brain
thinks the light has travelled in a straight line.
* Our brain doesn't see the image as bent light from the
sky. Instead, our brain thinks the light must have come
from something on the ground.

Movement of light
through a medium
Depending on the type of matter it comes into contact with, light will
behave differently. Sometimes light will pass directly through the
matter, like with air or water. This type of matter is called transparent.
Other objects completely reflect light, like an animal or a book. These
objects are called opaque. A third type of object does some of both
and tends to scatter the light. These objects are called translucent
Light moves at the fastest known speed in the universe. In a vacuum,
light travels 186,282 miles per second! When light travels through
matter, like air or water, it slows down a little bit.
Normally, light travels in a straight path called a ray, however, when
passing through transparent materials, like water or glass, light bends
or turns. This is because different materials or mediums have different
qualities. In each type of medium, whether it is air or water or glass,
the wavelength of the light will change, but not the frequency. As a
result, the direction and speed of the traveling light wave will change
and the light will appear to bend or change directions. Example: Light
refracted in a prism gives away different colors.