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# University of Puerto Rico

Arecibo

## RENEWABLE ENERGY 101

By
Hirohito Torres Daz, PhD,PE
Renewable Energy Program
UPR-ARECIBO
September 20, 2014

Main Objectives
Solar Cell
Energy vs. Power
Energy Audit
Grid Tie System
Off Grid
Battery Backup
Sizing a Photovoltaic Array
Sizing a Battery Backup for Off Grid System
Inverter
Deep Cycle Battery
Charge Controller

## Energy and Units

ENERGY = CAPACITY TO MAKE WORK
UNITS:
Newton-Meter = N-M = Joule = J => 1KJ = 1000 J
Calories => 1 KiloCalories = 1 kcal
British Thermal Unit (BTU)
Kilo-Watt-Hours (KWH) => 1 KWH = 1000 WH
Conversion
1 Kilo-Joule = 1000 J
1 Mega-Joule = 1,000,000 J
1 KWH = 3214 BTU

## Power and Units

POWER = CAPACITY TO MAKE/CONSUME WORK IN A GIVEN
AMOUNT OF TIME

UNITS:
Joule/second = J/s = Watts (vatios)
1 Kilo-Watt (KW) = 1000 watts
British Thermal Unit per unit of Time => BTU/hr, BTU/sec,
BTU/min
Horsepower (HP)
Conversion

Porche 911

Engine = 383 KW
HP = ?

More Terms
Voltage: electrical potential
measured in Volts (V) or Mili-Volts (mVolts)
Current: flow of electrons

## Energy: Power x Time

Commonly measured in Watt-hours (Wh) or KiloWatt-Hour (KWH)
Common prefixes: kilo(k) = 1,000 and Mega

## Appliance Use Chart

Now What???
You have the total KWH per month = x?
Calculate KWH/ PER DAY = X/30.5
Estimate the amount of solar radiation (Hrs)
Estimate the derate factor (about 77 to 85 %)
Calculate the Photovoltaic Array:
= (see calculation)

AVERAGE INSOLATION IN
PUERTO RICO, HRS PER DAY

## Simple Solar Equipment

for 12 Volts System

## Simple Solar Equipment

for 24 Volts System

INSTALLATION

Transfer Switch

## GRID-TIE SYSTEM WITH BATTERY BACKUP

GRID-TIE PV SYSTEM

PV SYSTEMS

http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/calculators/pvwatts/version1/

http://solarpanelsphotovoltaic.net/find-best-solar-panel-angle-tilt-angle/

## For a latitude up to 25 take your latitude and multiply it by 0.87

For a latitude between 25 to 50 take your latitude multiply by 0.87 after that you will
For a latitude over 50 the most ideal angle will end up being approximately 45
degrees

## THE INCENTIVE FORCE

WITH NO INCENTIVE:

## RETURN ON INVESTMENT = \$ 100,000 / \$

5,379 =18.9 YEAR
WITH 50 % INCENTIVE:
RETURN ON INVESTMENT = \$ 50,000 /
\$ 5,379 = 9.5 YEAR
WITH 100 % INCENTIVE:
A quin le amarga un dulce?

QU
EST
I

ON
S

???
?