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Principle of operation of DC

motor and generator


T.S.L.V.Ayyarao
Assistant Professor
GMRIT

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T.S.L.V.AYYARAO

DC Generator
An Electrical Generator is a machine which converts
mechanical energy (or power) into electrical energy
(or power).
The energy conversion is based on Faradays Laws of
Electromagnetic Induction.
The two basic essential parts of an electrical generator
are 1. magnetic field
2. conductors
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Principle of Operation

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Principle of Operation

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Construction

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DC Machine Construction

Figure General arrangement of a dc machine

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Construction
The essential parts of DC machine are
1. Magnetic frame or Yoke
2. Pole Cores and Pole Shoes
3. Pole Coils or Field Coils
4. Armature Core
5. Armature Windings or Conductors
6. Commutator
7. Brushes and Bearings
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DC Machine Construction

Figure DC motor with poles visible.


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Purpose of Yoke is
1. It act as a protecting cover for whole machine
2. It provides mechanical support for poles
3. It carries the magnetic flux produced by poles
The field magnets consists of pole cores and pole
shoes
The Pole shoes serve two purposes
1. They spread out the flux in the air gap
2. They support the exciting coils

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DC Machine Construction

Figure Armature of a dc motor.


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When current is passed through field coils, they


electromagnetise the poles which produce the
necessary flux.
The Armature serve two purposes
1. Armature houses the armature conductors or
coils
2. It provides low reluctance path for flux
It is drum shaped and is built up of laminations made
sheet steel to reduce eddey current loss.
Slots are punched on the outer periphery of the disc.

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The Armature windings or conductors are wound in


the form of flat rectangular coils and are placed in
the slots of the Armature.
The Armature windings are insulated from the
armature body by insulating materials.
The function of Commutator is to facilitate
collection of current from the armature conductors
and converts the alternating current induced in the
armature conductors into unidirectional current in
the external load circuit.

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DC Machine Construction

Figure Details of the commutator of a dc motor.

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DC Machines
.

The commutator is made up


of insulated copper
segments.
Two brushes are pressed to
the commutator to permit
current flow.
The Brushes are made of
carbon or Graphite.
Bearings are used for
smooth running of the
machine.

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DC Machine Construction
Rotation

Ir_dc/2

Brush

Ir_dc/2

Ir_dc

Shaft

Pole
winding

|
1
8

7
6

4
5

Insulation
Rotor
Winding

Ir_dc

Copper
segment

Figure Commutator with the rotor coils connections.


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DC Machine Construction

Figure Cutaway view of a dc motor.


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DC Motor Operation

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DC Motor

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