Unit 1 complete note in presentation.

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Unit 1 complete note in presentation.

© All Rights Reserved

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Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 46

II

( AVS II )

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

SYLLABUS

1) THIN PLATE THEORY

2) BUCKLING

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

OF

THIN

PLATES

AND

STIFFENED

PANELS

BENDING AND SHEAR OF THIN WALLED BEAMS

TORSION OF THIN WALLED BEAMS

STRUCTURAL IDEALISATION OF THIN WALLED

BEAMS

STRUCTURAL AND LOADING DISCONTINUITIES IN

THIN WALLED BEAMS

STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT COMPONENTSWING

STRESS ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT COMPONENTSY.SHARATH CHANDRA MOULI,

FUSELAGE

1/27/16

SUGGESTED READINGS

Megson, T.H.G., Aircraft Structures for Engineering

Students, 4th edn., Elsevier, 2007, ISBN 0-750-667397.

Peery, D.J. and Azar, J.J., Aircraft Structures, 2nd edn.,

McGra-Hill, 1982, ISBN 0-07-049196-8.

Bruhn. E.H, Analysis and Design of Flight Vehicles

Structures, Tri-state Off-set Company, USA, 1965.

Rivello, R.M., Theory and Analysis of Flight Structures,

McGraw Hill, 1993.

Sechler.E.E. and Dunn, L.G., Airplane Structural

Analysis and Design, John Wiley & Sons.

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

UNIT - 1

Introduction To Pure Bending Theory.

Thin Plate Theory

Analysis Of Thin Rectangular Plates Subject To Bending

Analysis Of Thin Rectangular Plates Subject To Bending And

Twisting

Analysis Of Thin Rectangular Plates Subject To Distributed

Transverse Load, Combined Bending And Inplane

Loading- Thin Plates Having Small Initial Curvature And

Energy Methods Of Analysis.

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

Beams are subjected to bending moment and shearing forces

which vary from section to section. To resist the bending

moment and shearing force, the beam section develops

stresses.

Bending is usually associated with shear. However, for

simplicity we neglect effect of shear and consider moment

alone ( this is true when the maximum bending moment is

considered---- shear is ZERO) to find the stresses due to

bending. Such a theory wherein stresses due to bending alone

is considered is known as PURE BENDING or SIMPLE

BENDING theory.

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

Bending action:

Sagging

Hogging

Neutral layer

M

NEUTRAL AXIS

NEUTRAL LAYER

Neutral

Axis

t

Neutral layer

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

1) The beam is initially straight and every layer is free to expand

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

or contract.

The material is homogenous and isotropic.

Youngs modulus (E) is same in both tension and

compression.

Stresses are within the elastic limit.

The radius of curvature of the beam is very large in

comparison to the depth of the beam.

A transverse section of the beam which is plane before

bending will remain plane even after bending.

Stress is purely longitudinal.

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

The neutral plane passes through the centroid of the cross

section.

The bending equation is given by

Where:

E= Youngs modulus,

R= Radius of curvature,

M= Bending moment at the section,

I= Moment of inertia about neutral axis,

f or = Bending stress

y = distance of the fibre from the neutral axis

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

The thin rectangular plate of Fig

(a) is subjected to pure bending

moments of intensity Mx and My

per

unit

length

uniformly

distributed along its edges.

According to simple beam theory,

the middle plane of the plate does

not deform during the bending and

is therefore a neutral plane.

plate of side x y and having a

depth equal to the thickness t of

the plate as shown in Fig (b).

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

Suppose that the radii of curvature of the neutral

plane n are x and y in the xz and yz planes

respectively (Fig. (c)).

Simple beam theory, the direct strains x and y

corresponding to direct stresses x and y of an

elemental lamina of thickness z a distance z

below the neutral plane are given by

Fig.(c ) radii of curvature of neutral plane

we have,

rearranging above eqs. and substiduding in x

and y gives,

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

The internal direct stress distribution on each vertical surface of the

element must be in equilibrium with the applied bending moments.

Thus,

and

Substituting x and y in above,

Let,

Then

1/27/16

of the plate.

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

If w is the deflection of any point on the plate in the z direction, then we

may relate w to the curvature of the plate in the same manner as the wellknown expression for beam curvature. Hence

So,

If either Mx or My is zero

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

The case of My =0 is illustrated in

Fig. (d)

A surface possessing two

curvatures of opposite sign is

known as an anticlastic surface, as

opposed to a synclastic surface

which has curvatures of the same

sign.

if Mx =My =M

of the plate is spherical and of

curvature

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

Anticlastic

Bending

1/27/16

Synclastic Bending

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

The perpendicular components are

seen to be Mx and My as before, while

the tangential components Mxy and Myx

(again these are moments per unit

length) produce twisting of the plate

about axes parallel to the x and y axes.

From a consideration of

complementary shear stresses

Mxy=Myx, so that we may represent a

general moment application to the plate

in terms of Mx, My and Mxy as shown in

Fig(b).

These moments produce tangential and

normal moments, Mt and Mn, on an

arbitrarily chosen diagonal plane FD.

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

For equilibrium of the triangular

element ABC of Fig.(c). in a plane

perpendicular to AC

parallel to CA

Fig (c)tangential and normal moments on an arbitrary plane.

two mutually perpendicular planes. These moments are

termed principal moments and their corresponding

curvatures principal curvatures.

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

Now consider an element in a plate

subjected to twisting moment as

shown in the fig(d).

on the face ABCD,

Giving

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

The shear strain xy

thickness of the plate will suffer

rotations equal to w/x and w/y

Fig(e). Determination of shear strain xy

in the xz and yz planes respectively.

Considering the rotation of such

an element in the xz plane, as shown in Fig.(e).

The displacement u in the x direction of a point a distance z below the

neutral plane is

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

Hence, substituting for u and v in the expression for xy we have

(1) yields

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

Consider a distributed transverse load of

intensity q per unit area such that

distributed load may, in general, vary over

the surface of the plate and is therefore a

function of x &y as shown in the Fig(a).

Assume middle plane as a neutral plane.

Assume that although xz =xz/G and

yz =yz/G are negligible the corresponding

Fig(a).Plate supporting a distributed transverse load.

magnitude as the applied load q and the moments Mx, My and Mxy.

For the Fig(b) the vertical shear forces Qx and Qy per unit length on faces

perpendicular to the x and y axes, respectively.

The variation of shear stresses xz and yz along the small edges x, y of the

element is neglected and the resultant shear forces Qxy and Qyx are assumed

to act through the centroid of the faces of the element.

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

We have

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

In a similar fashion,

For equilibrium of the element parallel to Oz and assuming that the weight

of the plate is included in q

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

than those retained gives

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

or

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

Boundary Conditions

Before discussing the solution of Laplace Eq. for particular cases we

shall establish boundary conditions for various types of edge

support.

The simply supported edge

Let us suppose that the edge x =0 of the thin plate shown in Fig. (c) is free to rotate but not to deflect.

The edge is then said to be simply supported. The bending moment along this edge must be zero and

also the deflection w=0. Thus

The condition that w=0 along the edge x =0 also means that

boundary

conditions

therefore reduce to

Y.SHARATH

CHANDRA

MOULI,

1/27/16

Boundary Conditions

The built-in edge

If the edge x =0 is built-in or firmly clamped so that it can neither rotate nor deflect,

then, in addition to w, the slope of the middle plane of the plate normal to this edge must

be zero. That is

Along a free edge there are no bending moments, twisting moments or vertical shearing

forces, so that if x =0 is the free edge then

thin plate of Fig.(d),

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

Boundary Conditions

The twisting moment Mxyy1 on

the element y1 may be replaced

by forces Mxy a distance y1

apart.

The twisting moment on the

adjacent element y2 is

[Mxy +(Mxy/y)y]y2.

At the common surface of the two adjacent elements there is now a

resultant force (Mxy/y)y or a vertical force per unit length of

Mxy/y.

For a statically equivalent vertical force per unit length of (Qx

Mxy/y).

The separate conditions for a free edge of (Mxy)x=0 =0

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

Boundary Conditions

In terms of deflection,

and

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

Sample case

The solution for the simple case of a thin rectangular

plate of dimensions ab.

Consider a thin rectangular plate of dimensions ab, simply supported

along each of its four edges and carrying a distributed load q(x, y)

We havethe governing eq.,

The boundary conditions,

Navier (1820) showed that

these conditions are satisfied by

representing the deflection w as

an infinite trigonometrical or

Fourier series.

Where,m represents the number

of half waves in the x direction and n the corresponding number in

the y direction.

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

Sample case

We may also represent the load q(x, y) by a Fourier series, thus

above Eq. by sin(mx/a) sin(ny/b) and integrating with respect to x from 0

to a and with respect to y from 0 to b. Thus

Since,

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

Sample case

It follows that,

Substituting now for w and q(x, y)in governing equation,

in alternative form,

giving

Hence,

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

rectangular plate

The elevation and plan of a small element xy of the middle plane of a

thin deflected plate are shown in Fig(a).

Direct and shear forces per unit

length produced by the in-plane

loads are given the notation Nx,

Ny and Nxy and are assumed to

be acting in positive senses in

the directions shown.

Since there are no resultant

forces in the x or y directions from

the transverse loads, we need

only include the in-plane loads shown in Fig(a).

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

rectangular plate

considering the equilibrium of the element in these directions. For

equilibrium parallel to Ox

For small deflections w/x and (w/x)+(2w/x2)x are small and the

cosines of these angles are therefore approximately equal to one. The

equilibrium equation thus simplifies to

Similarly for equilibrium in

the y direction,

The determination of the contribution of the shear loads to the equilibrium

of the element in the z direction is complicated by the fact that the element

possesses curvature in both xz and yz planes.

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

rectangular plate

Therefore, from Fig(a). the component in the z direction due to the

Nxy shear loads only is

or

The components arising from the direct forces per unit length are

readily obtained from Fig.(a)

or

1/27/16

Y.SHARATH CHANDRA MOULI,

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

rectangular plate

The total force in the z direction is found from the summation of

these expressions and is

the in-plane forces do not produce moments along the edges of the

element then following Eqs. remain unaffected.

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

rectangular plate

We have the governing eq. for the thin plate under transverse loads,

The above eq. may be modified simply by the addition of the above

vertical component of the in-plane loads to qxy.

Therefore, the governing differential equation for a thin plate supporting

transverse and in-plane loads is

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, IARE.

curvature

Suppose that a thin plate has an initial curvature so that the deflection of

any point in its middle plane is w0 and w0 is small compared to the

thickness of the plate.

The application of transverse and in-plane loads will cause the plate to

deflect a further amount w1 so that the total deflection is then w=w0 +w1.

From the governing eq.,

application of a transverse load of intensity

curvature.

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, ASTI.

curvature

Assuming that the initial form of the deflected plate is

and

where

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, ASTI.

Strain energy produced by bending and twisting:

The contribution of My to the bending strain energy is

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, ASTI.

The strain energy due to the twisting moment per unit length, Mxy, applied

to the y edges of the element, is obtained from Fig. 7.14(b).

The total strain energy of the element from bending and twisting is thus

Substitution for Mx, My and Mxy gives the total strain energy of the element

as

On rearranging,

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, ASTI.

Note that if the plate is subject to pure bending only, then Mxy =0, giving

An element x y of the transversely loaded plate supports a load qxy. If the

displacement of the element normal to the plate is w then the potential energy v of the

load on the element referred to the undeflected plate position is V = w q x y

The potential energy V of the total load on the plate is given by

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, ASTI.

Test Problem

Considering the rectangular plate as shown in fig., simply supported along

all four edges and subjected to a uniformly distributed transverse load of

intensity q0.

we know that its deflected shape is

given by Eq.

The total potential energy of the plate is

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, ASTI.

Test Problem

The term multiplied by 2(1) integrates to zero and the mean value of sin 2

or cos2 over a complete number of half waves is 1/2 , thus integration of

the above expression yields

From the principle of the stationary value of the total potential energy

so that,

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, ASTI.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Assignmenmt - 1

pure bending.

Derive the equation Mxy = D (1-) 2w/xy for a thin plate

subjected to bending and twisting.

Derive the Governing differential equation for a simply supported

thin rectangular plate subjected to distributed transverse load of

intensity q per unit area.

A thin rectangular plate a b is simply supported along its edges

and carries a uniformly distributed load of intensity q 0. Determine

the deflected form of the plate and the distribution of bending

moment. Here a is length and b is width of the plate.

Determine the deflected form of the thin rectangular plate a b is

simply supported along its edges and carrying a uniformly

distributed load of intensity q0 . In addition to that it supports an inplane tensile force Nx per unit length. Here a is length and b is

width of the plate.

Examples 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 & 7.4.

1/27/16

Asst. Professor, AE Dept, ASTI.

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