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Astreet networkis a system of interconnecting lines and

points that represent a system ofstreets for a given area.
A street network provides the foundation fornetwork analysis;
for example, finding the best route or creating service areas.
They greatly affect in-town movement and traffic.
Street networks can become very complex in cities.
Street networks are very often localized, because there is little
non-highway transportation from town to town.


Open and civic space is a type ofurban objectthat
encompasses the public realm, urban squares and public
parks and recreation space.
Type Description


thepublic realmis defined as public space including

streets, pathways, parks, publicly accessible open
spaces and any public/civic building and facilities.


A planned open public space, usually rectangular in

shape with clearly defined borders. These locations
usually have significant footfall as public meeting
places, concerts, markets or public rallies.


Recreational space in the urban environment

encompasses those areas which are publicly accessible
and conducive to citizens refreshing their mind or body
through passive or active activity. Recreation space can
broadly be grouped as formal (e.g. playing fields,

Well-designed and maintained open and civic spaces can give an

area a sense of identity and character, and provide a focal point for a
community. These spaces also act as a forum for community
activities. In addition, green open spaces also have environmental
benefits, providing a habitat for local wildlife and a natural filter for
air pollutants. In particular, open and civic spaces can contribute to
increasing resilienceand reducingvulnerabilityof urban
aspects such
as the
Contribute toby
well being physical and
mental health and quality of life;
Enhance the public realm;
Passive and active recreation, including relaxation and children's
Role in reducing crime and vandalism, and in developing stable
All-inclusive: regardless of age, gender, mobility, ethnic origin or
social class;
Social contact and integration, not least in underprivileged

Y (including sufficient parking spaces) encourages use of
Good access
social facilities. public transport is often encouraged by facilitating with
good public transport options.
The scale of open space should be aligned with the level of attraction
and accessibility (e.g. a large regional park should be proximate to a
major transport interchange to facilitate use and visitation by large
Recreational open spaces are mostly visited by pedestrians and cyclists.
Walking and cycling paths and bicycle parking places should be available
in order to facilitate vulnerable road users anddirect these flows of
The open character of open and civic spaces may prevent crimeand
and parking
places involve
near dark corners should be avoided.
As social facilities
will typically
gatherings of people, they can sometimes be
very busy.
Safety in all its forms, is an important
function for the perceived quality of these
The presence of children in open and civic
space further elevate the required safety
for instance children's
playgrounds can create unsafe
standards. However well as these
environments are designed to provide safety,



The continuous growth
of motorized vehicles, especially, the increased
number of ownership of cars in India is very alarming. The air pollution
increases with the increased use of motor vehicles. For this reason,
different strategies and programs related to transportation and land
use are being implemented by planners and governments to curtail the
use of individual motor vehicles.
. Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is one such planning
technique that integrates land use and transportation to encourage
people to live near transit and use it.
Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is one of such strategies
introduced in early 1990s by American architect and urban planner
Peter Calthorpe .He defined the TOD in Transit-Oriented
Development Design guidelines for the City of San Diego as A
Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) is a mixed use community
within a typical 2000 feet walking distance of transit stop and core
commercial area. The design, configuration, and mix of uses
emphasize a pedestrian-oriented environment and reinforce the use
of public transportation, without ignoring the role of automobile.
TODs mix residential, retail, office, open space, and public uses
within comfortable walking distance, making it convenient for
residents and employees to travel by transit, bicycle or foot, as well
as by car. This definition shows that TOD is a mix of smart growth

Elements of TOD

Though, some of the elements of TOD might overlap with Smart

Growth characteristics, the TOD has an additional goal to
encourage people to use transit. Therefore, the characteristics
include the combination of these two key objectives. The below
characteristics are essential to recognize a place to be a TOD.

Land Use: The land use is mixed

with commercial, retail, residential
and institutional
Transportation: Transit, walk and
bicycle friendly environment. Easy
access to transit and other nonmotorized transportation modes to
encourage people to use these modes
for majority travel trips.
Population: Mixed with varied
household size, age and income
Housing: Housing opportunities for
different income levels and includes
affordable housing.
Urban Form: Compact, high dense

Functional Characteristics of TOD

It is important to note that the TOD has a comprehensive approach towards its
goal. It needs to be flexible to adapt to different situations, look beyond creating
compact physical form and should measure success rate at regional level. It is
necessary to see the following three functions are considered when visioning the
TOD. Belzer and Autler (2002) have formulated the following as important
functional characteristics of TOD.
Adaptability in different situations and places: Not any two locations are same
geographically or socially. And any place may change with itself in a given period of
time. For this reason, the TOD guidelines are flexible to adapt the requirements and
issues in its solutions for the given location or situation.
Functionality: It is important to note that the TOD is a concept and the outcomes
should be measured from the functionality of the development rather than with just
fixed amount of density or the number of passengers using the transit station. The
characteristics of TOD do not end with the providing physical form, but in fact
compliment the development to achieve its primary goal i.e. reducing auto
dependent travel behavior.
Continuum success: Not all TODs can provide all the characteristics that are
defined for TOD with a hundred percent success rate. The outcomes may vary
depending upon the geographical location, size of the development, quality of the
project, role of the stakeholders and the time of implementation. The measure of
success should include various levels such as local, regional, social and
economical success.

Action Plan
An action plan helps to formulate the framework and methodology for the given
goals and objectives of the plan proposal. It also helps to check the feasibility of
the goals to achieve. Preparing a proper action plan would help a TOD to get over
the hurdles mentioned above and implement the plan proposal smoothly. The
following action plan is a general outline and may include other tasks as needed,
based on project specific requirements.
Coordination between different stakeholders
Develop TOD characteristics indicators and Performance

Develop Best Practices to promote, implement and update TOD
Regulatory Constraints
Data collection and analysis, policy research and guidelines
Plan, Design and Implementation
Review, Evaluation and Update