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Third Edition

CHAPTER MECHANICS OF

6 MATERIALS
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
John T. DeWolf
Shearing Stresses in
Beams and Thin-
Lecture Notes:
J. Walt Oler
Walled Members
Texas Tech University

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Edition
Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Shearing Stresses in Beams and


Thin-Walled Members
Introduction
Shear on the Horizontal Face of a Beam Element
Example 6.01
Determination of the Shearing Stress in a Beam
Shearing Stresses τξψ ιν Χοµµον Τψπεσ οφ Βεαµσ
Further Discussion of the Distribution of Stresses in a ...
Sample Problem 6.2
Longitudinal Shear on a Beam Element of Arbitrary Shape
Example 6.04
Shearing Stresses in Thin-Walled Members
Plastic Deformations
Sample Problem 6.3
Unsymmetric Loading of Thin-Walled Members
Example 6.05
Example 6.06

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Edition
Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Introduction
• Transverse loading applied to a beam
results in normal and shearing stresses in
transverse sections.

• Distribution of normal and shearing


stresses satisfies
Fx = ∫ σ x dA = 0 ( )
M x = ∫ y τ xz − z τ xy dA = 0
Fy = ∫ τ xy dA = −V M y = ∫ z σ x dA = 0
Fz = ∫ τ xz dA = 0 M z = ∫ ( − yσ x ) = 0

• When shearing stresses are exerted on the


vertical faces of an element, equal stresses
must be exerted on the horizontal faces

• Longitudinal shearing stresses must exist


in any member subjected to transverse
loading.
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Edition
Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Shear on the Horizontal Face of a Beam Element


• Consider prismatic beam
• For equilibrium of beam element
∑ Fx = 0 = ∆H + ∫ ( σ D − σ D ) dA
A
M D − MC
∆H = ∫ y dA
I A
• Note,
Q = ∫ y dA
A
dM
M D − MC = ∆x = V ∆x
dx

• Substituting,
VQ
∆H = ∆x
I
∆H VQ
q= = = shear flow
∆x I

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Edition
Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Shear on the Horizontal Face of a Beam Element


• Shear flow,
∆H VQ
q= = = shear flow
∆x I
• where
Q = ∫ y dA
A
= first moment of area above y1
2
I= ∫ y dA
A + A'
= second moment of full cross section

• Same result found for lower area


∆H ′ VQ′
q′ = = = − q′
∆x I
Q + Q′ = 0
= first moment with respect
to neutral axis
∆H ′ = −∆H

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Edition
Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Example 6.01

SOLUTION:
• Determine the horizontal force per
unit length or shear flow q on the
lower surface of the upper plank.

• Calculate the corresponding shear


force in each nail.
A beam is made of three planks,
nailed together. Knowing that the
spacing between nails is 25 mm and
that the vertical shear in the beam is
V = 500 N, determine the shear force
in each nail.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Edition
Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Example 6.01

SOLUTION:
• Determine the horizontal force per
unit length or shear flow q on the
lower surface of the upper plank.
VQ (500 N )(120 × 10−6 m3 )
q= =
I 16.20 × 10-6 m 4
Q = Ay
= 3704 N
= ( 0.020 m × 0.100 m )( 0.060 m ) m

= 120 × 10− 6 m3
• Calculate the corresponding shear
I 1 ( 0.020 m )( 0.100 m ) 3
= 12 force in each nail for a nail spacing
+ 2[12 1 ( 0.100 m )( 0.020 m ) 3 of 25 mm.
F = (0.025 m)q = (0.025 m)(3704 N m
+ ( 0.020 m × 0.100 m )( 0.060 m ) 2 ]
−6 4 F = 92.6 N
= 16.20 × 10 m

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Edition
Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Determination of the Shearing Stress in a Beam


• The average shearing stress on the horizontal
face of the element is obtained by dividing the
shearing force on the element by the area of
the face.
∆H q ∆x VQ ∆x
τ ave = = =
∆A ∆A I t ∆x
VQ
=
It

• On the upper and lower surfaces of the beam, τ


yx= 0. It follows that τxy= 0 on the upper and
lower edges of the transverse sections.

• If the width of the beam is comparable or large


relative to its depth, the shearing stresses at D1
and D2 are significantly higher than at D.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
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Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Shearing Stresses τxy in Common Types of Beams


• For a narrow rectangular beam,
VQ 3 V  y 2 
τ xy = = 1−

Ib 2 A  c 2 
3V
τ max =
2A

• For American Standard (S-beam)


and wide-flange (W-beam)
beams
VQ
τ ave =
It
V
τ max =
Aweb

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
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Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Further Discussion of the Distribution of


Stresses in a Narrow Rectangular Beam
• Consider a narrow rectangular cantilever beam
subjected to load P at its free end:
3 P  y 2  Pxy
τ xy = 1− σx = +
2 A  c 2  I

• Shearing stresses are independent of the distance


from the point of application of the load.
• Normal strains and normal stresses are unaffected
by the shearing stresses.
• From Saint-Venant’s principle, effects of the load
application mode are negligible except in immediate
vicinity of load application points.
• Stress/strain deviations for distributed loads are
negligible for typical beam sections of interest.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Edition
Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Sample Problem 6.2

SOLUTION:
• Develop shear and bending moment
diagrams. Identify the maximums.
• Determine the beam depth based on
allowable normal stress.
A timber beam is to support the three • Determine the beam depth based on
concentrated loads shown. Knowing
allowable shear stress.
that for the grade of timber used,
σ all = 1800 psi τ all = 120 psi • Required beam depth is equal to the
larger of the two depths found.
determine the minimum required depth
d of the beam.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
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Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Sample Problem 6.2


SOLUTION:
Develop shear and bending moment
diagrams. Identify the maximums.

Vmax = 3 kips
M max = 7.5 kip ⋅ ft = 90 kip ⋅ in

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
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Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Sample Problem 6.2


• Determine the beam depth based on allowable
normal stress.
M max
σ all =
S
90 × 103 lb ⋅ in.
1800 psi =
( 0.5833 in.) d 2
d = 9.26 in.
1 bd3
I = 12 • Determine the beam depth based on allowable
I shear stress.
S = = 16 b d 2 3 Vmax
c τ all =
2 A
= 16 ( 3.5 in.) d 2
3 3000 lb
120 psi =
= ( 0.5833 in.) d 2 2 ( 3.5 in.) d
d = 10.71in.

• Required beam depth is equal to the larger of the two.


d = 10.71in.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Edition
Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Longitudinal Shear on a Beam Element


of Arbitrary Shape
• We have examined the distribution of
the vertical components τxy on a
transverse section of a beam. We
now wish to consider the horizontal
components τxz of the stresses.
• Consider prismatic beam with an
element defined by the curved surface
CDD’C’.
∑ Fx = 0 = ∆H + ∫ ( σ D − σ C ) dA
a
• Except for the differences in
integration areas, this is the same
result obtained before which led to
VQ ∆H VQ
∆H = ∆x q= =
I ∆x I

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Edition
Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Example 6.04

SOLUTION:
• Determine the shear force per unit
length along each edge of the upper
plank.

• Based on the spacing between nails,


determine the shear force in each
nail.

A square box beam is constructed from


four planks as shown. Knowing that the
spacing between nails is 1.5 in. and the
beam is subjected to a vertical shear of
magnitude V = 600 lb, determine the
shearing force in each nail.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Edition
Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Example 6.04
SOLUTION:
• Determine the shear force per unit
length along each edge of the upper
plank.
q= =
(
VQ ( 600 lb ) 4.22 in 3 )
= 92 . 3
lb
I 27.42 in 4 in
q lb
f = = 46.15
2 in
For the upper plank, = edge force per unit length
Q = A′y = ( 0.75in.)( 3 in.)(1.875 in.)
• Based on the spacing between nails,
= 4.22 in 3
determine the shear force in each
nail.
For the overall beam cross-section,
 lb 
1 ( 4.5 in ) − 1 ( 3 in )
3 3 F = f  =  46.15 (1.75 in )
I = 12 12  in 
= 27.42 in 4 F = 80.8 lb

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Edition
Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Shearing Stresses in Thin-Walled Members


• Consider a segment of a wide-flange
beam subjected to the vertical shear V.
• The longitudinal shear force on the
element is
VQ
∆H = ∆x
I
• The corresponding shear stress is
∆H VQ
τ zx = τ xz ≈ =
t ∆x It

• Previously found a similar expression


for the shearing stress in the web
VQ
τ xy =
It
• NOTE: τ xy ≈ 0 in the flanges
τ xz ≈ 0 in the web

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
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Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Shearing Stresses in Thin-Walled Members


• The variation of shear flow across the
section depends only on the variation of
the first moment.
VQ
q =τt =
I

• For a box beam, q grows smoothly from


zero at A to a maximum at C and C’ and
then decreases back to zero at E.

• The sense of q in the horizontal


portions of the section may be deduced
from the sense in the vertical portions
or the sense of the shear V.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Edition
Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Shearing Stresses in Thin-Walled Members

• For a wide-flange beam, the shear flow


increases symmetrically from zero at A
and A’, reaches a maximum at C and the
decreases to zero at E and E’.

• The continuity of the variation in q and


the merging of q from section branches
suggests an analogy to fluid flow.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
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Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Plastic Deformations
I
• Recall: M Y = σ Y = maximum elastic moment
c
• For M = PL < MY , the normal stress does
not exceed the yield stress anywhere along
the beam.
• For PL > MY , yield is initiated at B and B’.
For an elastoplastic material, the half-thickness
of the elastic core is found from
3  1 yY2 
Px = M Y 1 − 2 
2  3c 
 
• The section becomes fully plastic (yY = 0) at
the wall when
3
PL = M Y = M p
2
• Maximum load which the beam can support is
Mp
Pmax =
L
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Edition
Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Plastic Deformations
• Preceding discussion was based on
normal stresses only

• Consider horizontal shear force on an


element within the plastic zone,
∆H = −( σ C − σ D ) dA = −( σ Y − σ Y ) dA = 0
Therefore, the shear stress is zero in the
plastic zone.

• Shear load is carried by the elastic


core, 3 P  y 2 
τ xy = 1 −  where A′ = 2byY

2 A′  yY 
2

3P
τ max =
2 A′

• As A’ decreases, τmax increases and


may exceed τY
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Edition
Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Sample Problem 6.3

SOLUTION:
• For the shaded area,
Q = ( 4.31in )( 0.770 in )( 4.815 in )
= 15.98 in 3

• The shear stress at a,


(
VQ ( 50 kips ) 15.98 in 3 )
Knowing that the vertical shear is 50
kips in a W10x68 rolled-steel beam,
τ=
It
=
( )
394 in 4 ( 0.770 in )
determine the horizontal shearing τ = 2.63 ksi
stress in the top flange at the point a.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
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Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Unsymmetric Loading of Thin-Walled Members

• Beam loaded in a vertical plane


of symmetry deforms in the
symmetry plane without
twisting.
My VQ
σx = − τ ave =
I It

• Beam without a vertical plane


of symmetry bends and twists
under loading.
My VQ
σx = − τ ave ≠
I It

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Edition
Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Unsymmetric Loading of Thin-Walled Members


• If the shear load is applied such that the beam
does not twist, then the shear stress distribution
satisfies
VQ D B E
τ ave = V = ∫ q ds F = ∫ q ds = − ∫ q ds = − F ′
It B A D

• F and F’ indicate a couple Fh and the need for


the application of a torque as well as the shear
load.
F h = Ve

• When the force P is applied at a distance e to the


left of the web centerline, the member bends in
a vertical plane without twisting.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Edition
Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Example 6.05
• Determine the location for the shear center of the
channel section with b = 4 in., h = 6 in., and t = 0.15 in.
Fh
e=
I
• where
b b VQ
Vb h
F = ∫ q ds = ∫ ds = ∫ st ds
0 0 I I0 2
Vthb 2
=
4I
1 3 1 3 h 
2
I = I web + 2 I flange = th + 2 bt + bt   
12 12  2  
1 th 2 ( 6b + h )
≅ 12

• Combining,
b 4 in.
e= = e = 1.6 in.
h 6 in.
2+ 2+
3b 3( 4 in.)
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Edition
Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Example 6.06
• Determine the shear stress distribution for
V = 2.5 kips.
q VQ
τ= =
t It
• Shearing stresses in the flanges,
VQ V h Vh
τ= = ( st ) = s
It It 2 2I
Vhb 6Vb
τB =
(12 ) =
2 1 th 2 ( 6b + h ) th( 6b + h )
6( 2.5 kips )( 4 in )
= = 2.22 ksi
( 0.15 in )( 6 in )( 6 × 4 in + 6 in )
• Shearing stress in the web,

τ max = =
( )
VQ V 8 ht ( 4b + h ) 3V ( 4b + h )
1
=
It 1
12
th ( 6b + h ) t 2th( 6b + h )
2

3( 2.5 kips )( 4 × 4 in + 6 in )
= = 3.06 ksi
2( 0.15 in )( 6 in )( 6 × 6 in + 6 in )
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