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CHAPTER MECHANICS OF

11 MATERIALS

Ferdinand P. Beer

E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

John T. DeWolf

Energy Methods

Lecture Notes:

J. Walt Oler

Texas Tech University

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Energy Methods

Strain Energy Sample Problem 11.4

Strain Energy Density Work and Energy Under Several Loads

Elastic Strain Energy for Normal Stresses Castigliano’s Theorem

Strain Energy For Shearing Stresses Deflections by Castigliano’s Theorem

Sample Problem 11.2 Sample Problem 11.5

Strain Energy for a General State of Stress

Impact Loading

Example 11.06

Example 11.07

Design for Impact Loads

Work and Energy Under a Single Load

Deflection Under a Single Load

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Strain Energy

• A uniform rod is subjected to a slowly increasing

load

• The elementary work done by the load P as the rod

elongates by a small dx is

dU = P dx = elementary work

deformation diagram.

x1

U = ∫ P dx = total work = strain energy

0

which results in an increase of strain energy in the rod.

x1

U = ∫ kx dx = 12 kx12 = 12 P1x1

0

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 3

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• To eliminate the effects of size, evaluate the strain-

energy per unit volume,

x1

U P dx

V

= ∫A L

0

ε1

u = ∫ σ x dε = strain energy density

0

deformation is equal to the area under the curve to ε1.

but there is a permanent deformation. Only the strain

energy represented by the triangular area is recovered.

is dissipated as heat.

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 4

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Strain-Energy Density

• The strain energy density resulting from

setting ε1 = εR is the modulus of toughness.

the material to rupture is related to its

ductility as well as its ultimate strength.

limit,

ε1

Eε12 σ 12

u = ∫ Eε1 dε x = =

2 2E

0

setting σ1 = σY is the modulus of resilience.

σ Y2

uY = = modulus of resilience

2E

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• In an element with a nonuniform stress distribution,

∆U dU

u = lim = U = ∫ u dV = total strain energy

∆V →0 ∆V dV

limit,

σ x2

U =∫ dV = elastic strain energy

2E

L

P2

U =∫ dx

2 AE

0

P2L

U=

2 AE

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• For a beam subjected to a bending load,

σ x2 M 2 y2

U = ∫ dV = ∫ 2

dV

2E 2 EI

• Setting dV = dA dx,

M 2 2

L L

M 2 y2

My U =∫ ∫ dA dx = ∫ 2∫

y dA dx

σx = 2

I 0 A 2 EI 0 2 EI A

L

M2

=∫ dx

2 EI

0

M = − Px

L

P2 x2 P 2 L3

U =∫ dx =

2 EI 6 EI

0

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• For a material subjected to plane shearing

stresses,

γ xy

u= ∫τ xy dγ xy

0

2

1 Gγ 2

τ xy

u= 2 xy = 12 τ xy γ xy =

2G

U = ∫ u dV

2

τ xy

=∫ dV

2G

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• For a shaft subjected to a torsional load,

2

τ xy T 2ρ 2

U =∫ dV = ∫ 2

dV

2G 2GJ

• Setting dV = dA dx,

T 2 2

L L

T 2ρ 2

U =∫∫ dA dx = ∫ 2∫

ρ dA dx

2

0 A 2GJ 0 2GJ A

Tρ L

τ xy = T2

J =∫ dx

2GJ

0

T 2L

U=

2GJ

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

SOLUTION:

• Determine the reactions at A and B

from a free-body diagram of the

complete beam.

moment distribution.

• Taking into account only the normal • Integrate over the volume of the

stresses due to bending, determine the beam to find the strain energy.

strain energy of the beam for the

loading shown. • Apply the particular given

conditions to evaluate the strain

• Evaluate the strain energy knowing energy.

that the beam is a W10x45, P = 40

kips, L = 12 ft, a = 3 ft, b = 9 ft, and E

= 29x106 psi.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

SOLUTION:

• Determine the reactions at A and B

from a free-body diagram of the

complete beam.

Pb Pa

RA = RB =

L L

moment distribution.

Pb Pa

M1 = x M2 = v

L L

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Integrate over the volume of the beam to find

the strain energy.

a b

M12 M 22

U =∫ dx + ∫ dv

2 EI 2 EI

0 0

a 2 b 2

1 Pb 1 Pa

Over the portion AD, = ∫ x

2 EI L

dx + ∫ x dx

2 EI L

0 0

Pb

M1 = x

L 1 P 2 b 2a 3 a 2b3 P 2a 2b 2

= + = ( a + b)

Over the portion BD, 2 EI L2 3 3 6 EIL2

Pa

M2 = v P 2a 2b 2

L U=

6 EIL

6( 29 × 103 ksi )( 248 in 4 )(144 in )

U=

a = 36 in. b = 108 in.

E = 29 × 103 ksi I = 248 in 4 U = 3.89 in ⋅ kips

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Previously found strain energy due to uniaxial stress and plane

shearing stress. For a general state of stress,

(

u = 12 σ xε x + σ yε y + σ zε z + τ xyγ xy + τ yzγ yz + τ zxγ zx )

• With respect to the principal axes for an elastic, isotropic body,

u=

1 2

2E

[

σ a + σ b2 + σ c2 − 2ν ( σ aσ b + σ bσ c + σ cσ a ) ]

= uv + ud

1 − 2v

uv = ( σ a + σ b + σ c ) 2 = due to volume change

6E

ud =

1

12G

[ ]

( σ a − σ b ) 2 + ( σ b − σ c ) 2 + ( σ c − σ a ) 2 = due to distortion

σ Y2

ud < ( u d ) Y = for a tensile test specimen

6G

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Impact Loading

• To determine the maximum stress σm

- Assume that the kinetic energy is

transferred entirely to the

structure,

U m = 12 mv02

diagram obtained from a static test

is also valid under impact loading.

• Consider a rod which is hit at its

• Maximum value of the strain energy,

end with a body of mass m moving

2

with a velocity v0. σm

Um = ∫ dV

2E

• Rod deforms under impact. Stresses • For the case of a uniform rod,

reach a maximum value σm and then

2U m E mv02 E

disappear. σm = =

V V

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Example 11.06

SOLUTION:

• Due to the change in diameter, the

normal stress distribution is

nonuniform.

• Find the static load Pm which produces

the same strain energy as the impact.

• Evaluate the maximum stress

resulting from the static load Pm

Body of mass m with velocity v0 hits

the end of the nonuniform rod BCD.

Knowing that the diameter of the

portion BC is twice the diameter of

portion CD, determine the maximum

value of the normal stress in the rod.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Example 11.06

• Find the static load Pm which produces

the same strain energy as the impact.

Pm2 ( L 2 ) Pm2 ( L 2 ) 5 Pm2 L

Um = + =

AE 4 AE 16 AE

16 U m AE

Pm =

5 L

SOLUTION:

from the static load Pm

• Due to the change in diameter, P

σm = m

the normal stress distribution is A

nonuniform.

16 U m E

=

U m = 12 mv02 5 AL

2 2 8 mv02 E

σm σm V =

=∫ dV ≠ 5 AL

2E 2E

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Example 11.07

SOLUTION:

• The normal stress varies linearly along

the length of the beam as across a

transverse section.

the same strain energy as the impact.

• Evaluate the maximum stress

A block of weight W is dropped from a resulting from the static load Pm

height h onto the free end of the

cantilever beam. Determine the

maximum value of the stresses in the

beam.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Example 11.07

• Find the static load Pm which produces

the same strain energy as the impact.

Pm2 L3

Um =

6 EI

6U m EI

Pm =

L3

SOLUTION:

• The normal stress varies linearly • Evaluate the maximum stress

along the length of the beam as resulting from the static load Pm

across a transverse section. M m c Pm Lc

σm = =

U m = Wh I I

2 2 6U m E 6WhE

σm σm

=∫

2E

dV ≠

2E

V =

(

LI c 2

=

) (

L I c2 )

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 18

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• For the case of a uniform rod,

2U m E

σm =

V

• For the case of the nonuniform rod,

16 U m E

σm =

5 AL

V = 4 A( L / 2 ) + A( L / 2 ) = 5 AL / 2

8U m E

σm =

V

Maximum stress reduced by: 6U m E

• uniformity of stress

σm =

(

L I c2 )

• low modulus of elasticity with ( ) ( ) ( )

L I / c 2 = L 14 πc 4 / c 2 = 14 πc 2 L = 14 V

high yield strength

24U m E

• high volume σm =

V

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 19

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Strain energy may also be found from

the work of the single load P1,

x1

U = ∫ P dx

0

x1 x1

• Previously, we found the strain U = ∫ P dx = ∫ kx dx = 12 k x12 = 12 P1x1

energy by integrating the energy 0 0

density over the volume.

For a uniform rod,

• Knowing the relationship between

2

σ force and displacement,

U = ∫ u dV = ∫ dV

2E PL

L

x1 = 1

=∫

( P1 A) 2 Adx = P12 L AE

2E 2 AE 2

P L P L

0 U = 12 P1 1 = 1

AE 2 AE

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Strain energy may be found from the work of other types

of single concentrated loads.

y1 θ1 φ1

U= ∫ P dy = 1Py

2 1 1

U = ∫ M dθ = 12 M1θ1 U = ∫ T dφ = 12 T1φ1

0 0 0

3 2 3

1 P P1L = P1 L 1 M M1L = M12 L 2

1 T T1L = T1 L

= = 2 1 EI

= 2 1 JG 2 JG

2 1 3EI 6 EI 2 EI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• If the strain energy of a structure due to a

single concentrated load is known, then the

equality between the work of the load and

energy may be used to find the deflection.

2 2

FBC LBC FBD LBD

U= +

2 AE 2 AE

=

[ ]

P 2l ( 0.6 ) 3 + ( 0.8) 3

= 0.364

P 2l

From the given geometry, 2 AE AE

LBC = 0.6 l LBD = 0.8 l

• Equating work and strain energy,

From statics, P2L 1

U = 0.364 = P yB

FBC = +0.6 P FBD = −0.8 P AE 2

Pl

y B = 0.728

AE

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

SOLUTION:

• Find the reactions at A and B from a

free-body diagram of the entire truss.

determine the axial force in each

member.

Members of the truss shown consist of truss due to the load P.

sections of aluminum pipe with the

cross-sectional areas indicated. Using • Equate the strain energy to the work

E = 73 GPa, determine the vertical of P and solve for the displacement.

deflection of the point E caused by the

load P.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

SOLUTION:

• Find the reactions at A and B from a free-

body diagram of the entire truss.

Ax = −21 P 8 Ay = P B = 21 P 8

the axial force in each member.

8 8

8 8

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Evaluate the strain energy of the • Equate the strain energy to the work by P

truss due to the load P. and solve for the displacement.

1 Py

Fi2 Li 1 Fi2 Li =U

U =∑ ∑ Ai E

= 2

2 Ai E 2 E

2U 2 29700 P 2

=

1

2E

(

29700 P 2 ) yE =

P

=

P 2 E

yE =

( 29.7 × 103 )( 40 × 103 )

y E = 16.27 mm ↓

9

73 × 10

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Deflections of an elastic beam subjected to two

concentrated loads,

x1 = x11 + x12 = α11P1 + α12 P2

x2 = x21 + x22 = α 21P1 + α 22 P2

evaluating the work done by slowly applying

P1 followed by P2,

(

U = 12 α11P12 + 2α12 P1P2 + α 22 P22 )

• Reversing the application sequence yields

(

U = 12 α 22 P22 + 2α 21P2 P1 + α11P12 )

• Strain energy expressions must be equivalent.

It follows that α12=α21 (Maxwell’s reciprocal

theorem).

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 26

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Castigliano’s Theorem

• Strain energy for any elastic structure

subjected to two concentrated loads,

(

U = 12 α11P12 + 2α12 P1P2 + α 22 P22 )

• Differentiating with respect to the loads,

∂U

= α11P1 + α12 P2 = x1

∂P1

∂U

= α12 P1 + α 22 P2 = x2

∂P2

subjected to n loads, the deflection xj of the

point of application of Pj can be expressed as

∂U ∂U ∂U

xj = and θ j = φj =

∂Pj ∂M j ∂T j

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

• Application of Castigliano’s theorem is

simplified if the differentiation with respect to

the load Pj is performed before the integration

or summation to obtain the strain energy U.

• In the case of a beam,

L L

M2 ∂U M ∂M

U =∫ dx xj = =∫ dx

2 EI ∂Pj EI ∂Pj

0 0

• For a truss,

n n

Fi2 Li ∂U F L ∂F

U =∑ xj = =∑ i i i

2A E

i =1 i

∂Pj i =1 Ai E ∂Pj

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

SOLUTION:

• For application of Castigliano’s theorem,

introduce a dummy vertical load Q at C.

Find the reactions at A and B due to the

dummy load from a free-body diagram of

the entire truss.

• Apply the method of joints to determine

the axial force in each member due to Q.

Members of the truss shown

consist of sections of aluminum • Combine with the results of Sample

pipe with the cross-sectional areas Problem 11.4 to evaluate the derivative

indicated. Using E = 73 GPa, with respect to Q of the strain energy of

determine the vertical deflection of the truss due to the loads P and Q.

the joint C caused by the load P.

• Setting Q = 0, evaluate the derivative

which is equivalent to the desired

displacement at C.

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

SOLUTION:

• Find the reactions at A and B due to a dummy load Q

at C from a free-body diagram of the entire truss.

Ax = − 34 Q Ay = Q B = 34 Q

force in each member due to Q.

FCE = FDE = 0

FAC = 0; FCD = −Q

FAB = 0; FBD = − 34 Q

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Edition

Third

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

derivative with respect to Q of the strain energy of the truss due to the

loads P and Q.F L ∂F 1

yC = ∑ i i i = ( 4306 P + 4263Q )

Ai E ∂Q E

displacement at C.

yC =

(

4306 40 × 103 N ) yC = 2.36 mm ↓

9

73 × 10 Pa

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