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Third Edition

CHAPTER MECHANICS OF

11 MATERIALS
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
John T. DeWolf
Energy Methods

Lecture Notes:
J. Walt Oler
Texas Tech University

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Edition
Third
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf

Energy Methods
Strain Energy Sample Problem 11.4
Strain Energy Density Work and Energy Under Several Loads
Elastic Strain Energy for Normal Stresses Castigliano’s Theorem
Strain Energy For Shearing Stresses Deflections by Castigliano’s Theorem
Sample Problem 11.2 Sample Problem 11.5
Strain Energy for a General State of Stress
Impact Loading
Example 11.06
Example 11.07
Design for Impact Loads
Work and Energy Under a Single Load
Deflection Under a Single Load

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Strain Energy
• A uniform rod is subjected to a slowly increasing
load
• The elementary work done by the load P as the rod
elongates by a small dx is
dU = P dx = elementary work

which is equal to the area of width dx under the load-


deformation diagram.

• The total work done by the load for a deformation x1,


x1
U = ∫ P dx = total work = strain energy
0
which results in an increase of strain energy in the rod.

• In the case of a linear elastic deformation,


x1
U = ∫ kx dx = 12 kx12 = 12 P1x1
0
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Strain Energy Density


• To eliminate the effects of size, evaluate the strain-
energy per unit volume,
x1
U P dx
V
= ∫A L
0
ε1
u = ∫ σ x dε = strain energy density
0

• The total strain energy density resulting from the


deformation is equal to the area under the curve to ε1.

• As the material is unloaded, the stress returns to zero


but there is a permanent deformation. Only the strain
energy represented by the triangular area is recovered.

• Remainder of the energy spent in deforming the material


is dissipated as heat.
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Strain-Energy Density
• The strain energy density resulting from
setting ε1 = εR is the modulus of toughness.

• The energy per unit volume required to cause


the material to rupture is related to its
ductility as well as its ultimate strength.

• If the stress remains within the proportional


limit,
ε1
Eε12 σ 12
u = ∫ Eε1 dε x = =
2 2E
0

• The strain energy density resulting from


setting σ1 = σY is the modulus of resilience.
σ Y2
uY = = modulus of resilience
2E

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Elastic Strain Energy for Normal Stresses


• In an element with a nonuniform stress distribution,
∆U dU
u = lim = U = ∫ u dV = total strain energy
∆V →0 ∆V dV

• For values of u < uY , i.e., below the proportional


limit,
σ x2
U =∫ dV = elastic strain energy
2E

• Under axial loading, σ x = P A dV = A dx


L
P2
U =∫ dx
2 AE
0

• For a rod of uniform cross-section,


P2L
U=
2 AE

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Elastic Strain Energy for Normal Stresses


• For a beam subjected to a bending load,
σ x2 M 2 y2
U = ∫ dV = ∫ 2
dV
2E 2 EI

• Setting dV = dA dx,

M 2  2 
L L
M 2 y2
My U =∫ ∫ dA dx = ∫ 2∫
y dA dx
σx = 2 
I 0 A 2 EI 0 2 EI  A 
L
M2
=∫ dx
2 EI
0

• For an end-loaded cantilever beam,


M = − Px
L
P2 x2 P 2 L3
U =∫ dx =
2 EI 6 EI
0

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Strain Energy For Shearing Stresses


• For a material subjected to plane shearing
stresses,
γ xy
u= ∫τ xy dγ xy
0

• For values of τxy within the proportional limit,


2
1 Gγ 2
τ xy
u= 2 xy = 12 τ xy γ xy =
2G

• The total strain energy is found from


U = ∫ u dV
2
τ xy
=∫ dV
2G

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Strain Energy For Shearing Stresses


• For a shaft subjected to a torsional load,
2
τ xy T 2ρ 2
U =∫ dV = ∫ 2
dV
2G 2GJ

• Setting dV = dA dx,
T 2  2 
L L
T 2ρ 2
U =∫∫ dA dx = ∫ 2∫
ρ dA dx
2 
0 A 2GJ 0 2GJ  A 
Tρ L
τ xy = T2
J =∫ dx
2GJ
0

• In the case of a uniform shaft,


T 2L
U=
2GJ

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Sample Problem 11.2


SOLUTION:
• Determine the reactions at A and B
from a free-body diagram of the
complete beam.

• Develop a diagram of the bending


moment distribution.

• Taking into account only the normal • Integrate over the volume of the
stresses due to bending, determine the beam to find the strain energy.
strain energy of the beam for the
loading shown. • Apply the particular given
conditions to evaluate the strain
• Evaluate the strain energy knowing energy.
that the beam is a W10x45, P = 40
kips, L = 12 ft, a = 3 ft, b = 9 ft, and E
= 29x106 psi.

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Sample Problem 11.2


SOLUTION:
• Determine the reactions at A and B
from a free-body diagram of the
complete beam.
Pb Pa
RA = RB =
L L

• Develop a diagram of the bending


moment distribution.
Pb Pa
M1 = x M2 = v
L L

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Sample Problem 11.2


• Integrate over the volume of the beam to find
the strain energy.
a b
M12 M 22
U =∫ dx + ∫ dv
2 EI 2 EI
0 0
a 2 b 2
1  Pb  1  Pa 
Over the portion AD, = ∫  x
2 EI  L 
 dx + ∫  x  dx
2 EI  L 
0 0
Pb
M1 = x
L 1 P 2  b 2a 3 a 2b3  P 2a 2b 2
= + = ( a + b)
Over the portion BD, 2 EI L2  3 3  6 EIL2
Pa
M2 = v P 2a 2b 2
L U=
6 EIL

P = 45 kips L = 144 in. ( 40 kips ) 2 ( 36 in ) 2 (108 in ) 2


6( 29 × 103 ksi )( 248 in 4 )(144 in )
U=
a = 36 in. b = 108 in.
E = 29 × 103 ksi I = 248 in 4 U = 3.89 in ⋅ kips

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Strain Energy for a General State of Stress


• Previously found strain energy due to uniaxial stress and plane
shearing stress. For a general state of stress,
(
u = 12 σ xε x + σ yε y + σ zε z + τ xyγ xy + τ yzγ yz + τ zxγ zx )
• With respect to the principal axes for an elastic, isotropic body,
u=
1 2
2E
[
σ a + σ b2 + σ c2 − 2ν ( σ aσ b + σ bσ c + σ cσ a ) ]
= uv + ud
1 − 2v
uv = ( σ a + σ b + σ c ) 2 = due to volume change
6E

ud =
1
12G
[ ]
( σ a − σ b ) 2 + ( σ b − σ c ) 2 + ( σ c − σ a ) 2 = due to distortion

• Basis for the maximum distortion energy failure criteria,


σ Y2
ud < ( u d ) Y = for a tensile test specimen
6G

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Impact Loading
• To determine the maximum stress σm
- Assume that the kinetic energy is
transferred entirely to the
structure,
U m = 12 mv02

- Assume that the stress-strain


diagram obtained from a static test
is also valid under impact loading.
• Consider a rod which is hit at its
• Maximum value of the strain energy,
end with a body of mass m moving
2
with a velocity v0. σm
Um = ∫ dV
2E
• Rod deforms under impact. Stresses • For the case of a uniform rod,
reach a maximum value σm and then
2U m E mv02 E
disappear. σm = =
V V

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Example 11.06
SOLUTION:
• Due to the change in diameter, the
normal stress distribution is
nonuniform.
• Find the static load Pm which produces
the same strain energy as the impact.
• Evaluate the maximum stress
resulting from the static load Pm
Body of mass m with velocity v0 hits
the end of the nonuniform rod BCD.
Knowing that the diameter of the
portion BC is twice the diameter of
portion CD, determine the maximum
value of the normal stress in the rod.

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Example 11.06
• Find the static load Pm which produces
the same strain energy as the impact.
Pm2 ( L 2 ) Pm2 ( L 2 ) 5 Pm2 L
Um = + =
AE 4 AE 16 AE
16 U m AE
Pm =
5 L

• Evaluate the maximum stress resulting


SOLUTION:
from the static load Pm
• Due to the change in diameter, P
σm = m
the normal stress distribution is A
nonuniform.
16 U m E
=
U m = 12 mv02 5 AL

2 2 8 mv02 E
σm σm V =
=∫ dV ≠ 5 AL
2E 2E

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Example 11.07
SOLUTION:
• The normal stress varies linearly along
the length of the beam as across a
transverse section.

• Find the static load Pm which produces


the same strain energy as the impact.
• Evaluate the maximum stress
A block of weight W is dropped from a resulting from the static load Pm
height h onto the free end of the
cantilever beam. Determine the
maximum value of the stresses in the
beam.

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Example 11.07
• Find the static load Pm which produces
the same strain energy as the impact.

For an end-loaded cantilever beam,


Pm2 L3
Um =
6 EI
6U m EI
Pm =
L3
SOLUTION:
• The normal stress varies linearly • Evaluate the maximum stress
along the length of the beam as resulting from the static load Pm
across a transverse section. M m c Pm Lc
σm = =
U m = Wh I I
2 2 6U m E 6WhE
σm σm
=∫
2E
dV ≠
2E
V =
(
LI c 2
=
) (
L I c2 )
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Design for Impact Loads


• For the case of a uniform rod,
2U m E
σm =
V
• For the case of the nonuniform rod,
16 U m E
σm =
5 AL
V = 4 A( L / 2 ) + A( L / 2 ) = 5 AL / 2
8U m E
σm =
V

• For the case of the cantilever beam


Maximum stress reduced by: 6U m E
• uniformity of stress
σm =
(
L I c2 )
• low modulus of elasticity with ( ) ( ) ( )
L I / c 2 = L 14 πc 4 / c 2 = 14 πc 2 L = 14 V
high yield strength
24U m E
• high volume σm =
V
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Work and Energy Under a Single Load


• Strain energy may also be found from
the work of the single load P1,
x1
U = ∫ P dx
0

• For an elastic deformation,


x1 x1
• Previously, we found the strain U = ∫ P dx = ∫ kx dx = 12 k x12 = 12 P1x1
energy by integrating the energy 0 0
density over the volume.
For a uniform rod,
• Knowing the relationship between
2
σ force and displacement,
U = ∫ u dV = ∫ dV
2E PL
L
x1 = 1
=∫
( P1 A) 2 Adx = P12 L AE
2E 2 AE 2
 P L  P L
0 U = 12 P1 1  = 1
 AE  2 AE

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Work and Energy Under a Single Load


• Strain energy may be found from the work of other types
of single concentrated loads.

• Transverse load • Bending couple • Torsional couple

y1 θ1 φ1
U= ∫ P dy = 1Py
2 1 1
U = ∫ M dθ = 12 M1θ1 U = ∫ T dφ = 12 T1φ1
0 0 0
 3 2 3
1 P  P1L  = P1 L 1 M  M1L  = M12 L 2
1 T  T1L  = T1 L
= = 2 1 EI 
= 2 1 JG  2 JG
2 1 3EI  6 EI 2 EI
 

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Deflection Under a Single Load


• If the strain energy of a structure due to a
single concentrated load is known, then the
equality between the work of the load and
energy may be used to find the deflection.

• Strain energy of the structure,


2 2
FBC LBC FBD LBD
U= +
2 AE 2 AE

=
[ ]
P 2l ( 0.6 ) 3 + ( 0.8) 3
= 0.364
P 2l
From the given geometry, 2 AE AE
LBC = 0.6 l LBD = 0.8 l
• Equating work and strain energy,
From statics, P2L 1
U = 0.364 = P yB
FBC = +0.6 P FBD = −0.8 P AE 2
Pl
y B = 0.728
AE

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Sample Problem 11.4


SOLUTION:
• Find the reactions at A and B from a
free-body diagram of the entire truss.

• Apply the method of joints to


determine the axial force in each
member.

• Evaluate the strain energy of the


Members of the truss shown consist of truss due to the load P.
sections of aluminum pipe with the
cross-sectional areas indicated. Using • Equate the strain energy to the work
E = 73 GPa, determine the vertical of P and solve for the displacement.
deflection of the point E caused by the
load P.

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Sample Problem 11.4


SOLUTION:
• Find the reactions at A and B from a free-
body diagram of the entire truss.
Ax = −21 P 8 Ay = P B = 21 P 8

• Apply the method of joints to determine


the axial force in each member.

FDE = − 17 P FAC = + 15 P FDE = 54 P FAB = 0


8 8

FCE = + 15 P FCD = 0 FCE = − 21 P


8 8

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Sample Problem 11.4

• Evaluate the strain energy of the • Equate the strain energy to the work by P
truss due to the load P. and solve for the displacement.
1 Py
Fi2 Li 1 Fi2 Li =U
U =∑ ∑ Ai E
= 2
2 Ai E 2 E
2U 2  29700 P 2 
=
1
2E
(
29700 P 2 ) yE =
P
=
P  2 E 

yE =
( 29.7 × 103 )( 40 × 103 )
y E = 16.27 mm ↓
9
73 × 10

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Work and Energy Under Several Loads


• Deflections of an elastic beam subjected to two
concentrated loads,
x1 = x11 + x12 = α11P1 + α12 P2
x2 = x21 + x22 = α 21P1 + α 22 P2

• Compute the strain energy in the beam by


evaluating the work done by slowly applying
P1 followed by P2,
(
U = 12 α11P12 + 2α12 P1P2 + α 22 P22 )
• Reversing the application sequence yields
(
U = 12 α 22 P22 + 2α 21P2 P1 + α11P12 )
• Strain energy expressions must be equivalent.
It follows that α12=α21 (Maxwell’s reciprocal
theorem).
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Castigliano’s Theorem
• Strain energy for any elastic structure
subjected to two concentrated loads,
(
U = 12 α11P12 + 2α12 P1P2 + α 22 P22 )
• Differentiating with respect to the loads,
∂U
= α11P1 + α12 P2 = x1
∂P1
∂U
= α12 P1 + α 22 P2 = x2
∂P2

• Castigliano’s theorem: For an elastic structure


subjected to n loads, the deflection xj of the
point of application of Pj can be expressed as
∂U ∂U ∂U
xj = and θ j = φj =
∂Pj ∂M j ∂T j

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Deflections by Castigliano’s Theorem


• Application of Castigliano’s theorem is
simplified if the differentiation with respect to
the load Pj is performed before the integration
or summation to obtain the strain energy U.
• In the case of a beam,
L L
M2 ∂U M ∂M
U =∫ dx xj = =∫ dx
2 EI ∂Pj EI ∂Pj
0 0

• For a truss,
n n
Fi2 Li ∂U F L ∂F
U =∑ xj = =∑ i i i
2A E
i =1 i
∂Pj i =1 Ai E ∂Pj

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Sample Problem 11.5


SOLUTION:
• For application of Castigliano’s theorem,
introduce a dummy vertical load Q at C.
Find the reactions at A and B due to the
dummy load from a free-body diagram of
the entire truss.
• Apply the method of joints to determine
the axial force in each member due to Q.
Members of the truss shown
consist of sections of aluminum • Combine with the results of Sample
pipe with the cross-sectional areas Problem 11.4 to evaluate the derivative
indicated. Using E = 73 GPa, with respect to Q of the strain energy of
determine the vertical deflection of the truss due to the loads P and Q.
the joint C caused by the load P.
• Setting Q = 0, evaluate the derivative
which is equivalent to the desired
displacement at C.

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Sample Problem 11.5


SOLUTION:
• Find the reactions at A and B due to a dummy load Q
at C from a free-body diagram of the entire truss.
Ax = − 34 Q Ay = Q B = 34 Q

• Apply the method of joints to determine the axial


force in each member due to Q.

FCE = FDE = 0
FAC = 0; FCD = −Q

FAB = 0; FBD = − 34 Q

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Sample Problem 11.5

• Combine with the results of Sample Problem 11.4 to evaluate the


derivative with respect to Q of the strain energy of the truss due to the
loads P and Q.F L  ∂F 1
yC = ∑  i i  i = ( 4306 P + 4263Q )
 Ai E  ∂Q E

• Setting Q = 0, evaluate the derivative which is equivalent to the desired


displacement at C.

yC =
(
4306 40 × 103 N ) yC = 2.36 mm ↓
9
73 × 10 Pa

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