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U5MEA19

Prepared by

Mr.Shaik Shabbeer

Mr.Vennishmuthu.V

Assistant Professor, Mechanical Department

VelTech Dr.RR & Dr.SR Technical University

Rigid Body dynamics in general plane motion Equations of

motion - Dynamic force analysis - Inertia force and Inertia

torque DAlemberts principle - The principle of

superposition - Dynamic Analysis in Reciprocating Engines

Gas Forces - Equivalent masses - Bearing loads - Crank shaft

Torque - Turning moment diagrams - Fly wheels Engine

shaking Forces - Cam dynamics - Unbalance, Spring, Surge

and Windup.

If components of a machine accelerate, inertia is

produced due to their masses. However, the

magnitudes of these forces are small compares to the

externally applied loads. Hence inertia effect due to

masses are neglected. Such an analysis is known as

static force analysis

What is inertia?

The property of matter offering resistance to any

change of its state of rest or of uniform motion in a

straight line is known as inertia.

equilibrium?

dynamic equilibrium are

Vector sum of all forces acting on a body is zero

The vector sum of the moments of all forces acting about any

arbitrary point or axis is zero.

produced due to their masses. If the magnitude of these

forces are small compared to the externally applied loads,

they can be neglected while analysing the mechanism. Such

an analysis is known as static force analysis.

If the inertia effect due to the mass of the component is also

considered, it is called dynamic force analysis.

DAlemberts principle.

DAlemberts principle states that the inertia forces and

torques, and the external forces and torques acting on a body

together result in statical equilibrium.

In other words, the vector sum of all external forces and

inertia forces acting upon a system of rigid bodies is zero.

The vector sum of all external moments and inertia torques

acting upon a system of rigid bodies is also separately zero.

systems the individual responses to several disturbances or

driving functions can be superposed on each other to obtain

the total response of the system.

The velocity and acceleration of various parts of reciprocating

mechanism can be determined , both analytically and

graphically.

Piston efforts (Fp): Net force applied on the piston , along

the line of stroke In horizontal reciprocating engines.It is also

known as effective driving force (or) net load on the gudgeon

pin.

crank-pin effort.

The component of FQ perpendicular to the crank is known as

crank-pin effort.

crank effort or turning movement on the crank shaft?

It is the product of the crank-pin effort (F T)and crank pin

radius(r).

Inertia force of the reciprocating parts (F1) acting along the

line of stroke.

The side thrust between the cross head and the guide bars

acting at right angles to line of stroke.

Weight of the connecting rod.

Inertia force of the connecting rod (FC)

Two Masses by Graphical Method

dynamical equivalent. The position of mass m1 may be fixed

arbitrarily at A. Now draw perpendicular CG at G, equal in

length of the radius of gyration of the body, kG .Then join AC

and draw CB perpendicular to AC intersecting AG produced

in

mass m2. The triangles ACG and BCG are similar. Therefore,

crank effort for various position of the crank.

In turning moment diagram, the turning movement is taken

as the ordinate (Y-axis) and crank angle as abscissa (X axis).

UNIT II : BALANCING

Static and dynamic balancing - Balancing of rotating

masses Balancing reciprocating massesBalancing a single cylinder Engine - Balancing

Multi-cylinder Engines, Balancing V-engines, Partial balancing in locomotive Engines-Balancing

machines.

it wasnt completely round and if it didnt rotate evenly

about its central axis, then he had a problem!

What the problem he had?

The wheel would vibrate causing damage to itself and its

support mechanism and in severe cases, is unusable.

A method had to be found to minimize the problem. The

mass had to be evenly distributed about the rotating

centerline so that the resultant vibration was at a minimum.

UNBALANCE:

force or motion is imparted to its bearings as a result

of centrifugal forces is called unbalance or the

uneven distribution of mass about a rotors rotating

centreline.

BALANCING:

unwanted inertia forces or moments in rotating or

reciprocating masses and is achieved by changing the

location of the mass centres.

The objectives of balancing an engine are to ensure:

1. That the centre of gravity of the system remains stationery

during a complete revolution of the crank shaft and

2. That the couples involved in acceleration of the different

moving parts balance each other.

Types of balancing:

a) Static Balancing:

i) Static balancing is a balance of forces due to action of gravity.

ii) A body is said to be in static balance when its centre of gravity

is in the axis of rotation.

b) Dynamic balancing:

i) Dynamic balance is a balance due to the action of inertia forces.

ii) A body is said to be in dynamic balance when the resultant

moments or couples, which involved in the acceleration of

different moving parts is equal to zero.

iii) The conditions of dynamic balance are met, the conditions of

static balance are also met.

experiences a centripetal acceleration and a force is

required to produce it. An equal and opposite force

called centrifugal force acts radially outwards and is

a disturbing force on the axis of rotation. The

magnitude of this remains constant but the direction

changes with the rotation of the mass.

the centre of the mass of rotor lies on the axis of rotation of the shaft.

When this does not happen, there is an eccentricity and an unbalance

force is produced. This type of unbalance is common in steam turbine

rotors, engine crankshafts, rotors of compressors, centrifugal pumps

etc.

The unbalance forces exerted on machine members are time varying, impart

vibratory motion and noise, there are human discomfort, performance of the

machine deteriorate and detrimental effect on the structural integrity of the

machine foundation.

Balancing involves redistributing the mass which may be carried out by

addition or removal of mass from various machine members. Balancing of

rotating masses can be of

1. Balancing of a single rotating mass by a single mass rotating in the same

plane.

2. Balancing of a single rotating mass by two masses rotating in different

planes.

3. Balancing of several masses rotating in the same plane

4. Balancing of several masses rotating in different planes

MASS ROTATING IN THE SAME PLANE

The centrifugal force exerted by mass m1 on the shaft is given by,

F=mrc11

This force acts radially outwards and produces bending moment on the shaft. In

order to counteract the effect of this force Fc1 , a balancing mass m2 may be

attached in the same plane of rotation of the disturbing mass m1 such that the

centrifugal forces due to the two masses are equal and opposite.

1. The plane of the disturbing mass may be in between the planes of

the two balancing masses.

2. The plane of the disturbing mass may be on the left or right side of

two planes containing the balancing masses.

In order to balance a single rotating mass by two masses rotating in different

planes which are parallel to the plane of rotation of the disturbing mass i) the

net dynamic force acting on the shaft must be equal to zero, i.e. the centre

of the masses of the system must lie on the axis of rotation and this is the

condition for static balancing ii) the net couple due to the dynamic forces

acting on the shaft must be equal to zero, i.e. the algebraic sum of the

moments about any point in the plane must be zero. The conditions i) and ii)

together give dynamic balancing.

Problem 1.

Four masses A, B, C and D are attached to a shaft and revolve in the

same plane. The masses are 12 kg, 10 kg, 18 kg and 15 kg

respectively and their radii of rotations are 40 mm, 50 mm, 60 mm

and 30 mm. The angular position of the masses B, C and D are 60 ,

135 and 270 from mass A. Find the magnitude and position of the

balancing mass at a radius of 100 mm.

Problem 2:

The four masses A, B, C and D are 100 kg, 150 kg, 120 kg and 130 kg

attached to a shaft and revolve in the same plane. The corresponding

radii of rotations are 22.5 cm, 17.5 cm, 25 cm and 30 cm and the angles

measured from A are 45, 120 and 255. Find the position and

magnitude of the balancing mass, if the radius of rotation is 60 cm.

Basic features of vibratory systems - idealized

models - Basic elements and lumping of

parameters - Degrees of freedom - Single degree

of freedom - Free vibration - Equations of motion natural frequency - Types of Damping - Damped

vibration critical speeds of simple shaft - Torsional

systems; Natural frequency of two and three rotor

systems

INTRODUCTION

Mechanical vibration is the motion of a particle or body which

oscillates about a position of equilibrium. Most vibrations in

machines and structures are undesirable due to increased stresses

and energy losses.

Time interval required for a system to complete a full cycle of the

motion is the period of the vibration.

Number of cycles per unit time defines the frequency of the vibrations.

Maximum displacement of the system from the equilibrium position is the

amplitude of the vibration.

When the motion is maintained by the restoring forces only, the vibration

is described as free vibration. When a periodic force is applied to the

system, the motion is described as forced vibration.

When the frictional dissipation of energy is neglected, the motion

is said to be undamped. Actually, all vibrations are damped to

some degree.

19 - 36

MOTION

If a particle is displaced through a distance xm from its

equilibrium position and released with no velocity, the

particle will undergo simple harmonic motion,

ma F W k st x kx

mx kx 0

General solution is the sum of two particular solutions,

x C1 sin

k

t C 2 cos

m

C1 sin n t C 2 cos n t

k

t

m

frequency of the motion.

C1 and C2 are determined by the initial conditions:

x C1 sin n t C 2 cos n t

v x C1 n cos n t C 2 n sin n t

19 - 37

C 2 x0

C1 v0 n

HARMONIC MOTION

C1

v0

n

C 2 x0

Displacement is equivalent to the x component of the sum of two vectors C1 C 2

which rotate with constant angular velocity .

n

x xm sin n t

xm

v0 n 2 x02

amplitude

2

period

n

1 n

fn

natural frequency

n 2

19 - 38

MOTION

Velocity-time and acceleration-time curves can be

represented by sine curves of the same period as the

displacement-time curve but different phase angles.

x xm sin n t

v x

xm n cos n t

xm n sin n t 2

a x

xm n2 sin n t

xm n2 sin n t

19 - 39

SOLUTION)

applied whenever the resultant force on a particle is

proportional to the displacement and directed towards

the equilibrium position.

force for a simple pendulum,

Ft mat : W sin ml

g sin 0

l

for small angles,

g

0

l

m sin n t

n

19 - 40

2

l

2

n

g

SOLUTION)

g

An exact solution for

sin 0

l

leads to

l 2

d

n 4

g 0 1 sin 2 2 sin 2

m

2K

l

2

n

g

19 - 41

SAMPLE PROBLEM

For each spring arrangement, determine

the spring constant for a single

equivalent spring.

Apply the approximate relations for the

harmonic motion of a spring-mass

system.

A 50-kg block moves between vertical

guides as shown. The block is pulled

40mm down from its equilibrium position

and released.

For each spring arrangement,

determine a) the period of the vibration,

b) the maximum velocity of the block,

and c) the maximum acceleration of the

block.

19 - 42

SAMPLE PROBLEM

k1 4 kN m k2 6 kN m

Springs in parallel:

- determine the spring constant for equivalent

spring

- apply the approximate relations for the

harmonic motion of a spring-mass system

k

10 4 N/m

n

14.14 rad s

m

20 kg

n

P k1 k2

k

n 0.444 s

vm x m n

P

k1 k2

10 kN m 10 N m

19 - 43

2

n

vm 0.566 m s

am x m an2

0.040 m 14.14 rad s 2

am 8.00 m s 2

SAMPLE PROBLEM

k1 4 kN m k2 6 kN m

Springs in series:

- determine the spring constant for equivalent

spring

- apply the approximate relations for the harmonic

motion of a spring-mass system

n

n

k

2400N/m

6.93 rad s

m

20 kg

2

n

n 0.907 s

vm x m n

P k1 k2

k

P

k1 k2

10 kN m 104 N m

19 - 44

vm 0.277 m s

am x m an2

0.040 m 6.93 rad s 2

am 1.920 m s 2

If an equation of motion takes the form

2

x n

x 0

or

2

n

0

as simple harmonic motion.

Analysis objective is to determine n.

Consider the oscillations of a square plate

I

W b sin2 mb

2

2

1 m 2b 2b

but I 12

2 mb

3

, W mg

3g

3g

sin

0

5b

5b

3g

2

5b

then n

, n

2

5b

n

3g

For an equivalent simple pendulum,

19 - 45

l 5b 3

SAMPLE PROBLEM

the linear displacement and acceleration

to the rotation of the cylinder.

Based on a free-body-diagram equation for

the equivalence of the external and

effective forces, write the equation of

motion.

shown.

at an equation involving only the angular

displacement and acceleration.

Determine the period and natural

frequency of vibrations of the cylinder.

19 - 46

SAMPLE PROBLEM

From the kinematics of the system, relate the linear

displacement and acceleration to the rotation of the cylinder.

x r

2 x 2r

a r

a r r

the external and effective forces, write the equation of motion.

M A M A eff :

Wr T2 2r ma r I

but T2 T0 k 12 W k 2r

Substitute the kinematic relations to arrive at an equation

involving only the angular displacement and acceleration.

Wr 12 W 2kr 2r m r r 12 mr 2

8k

0

3m

19 - 47

8k

n

3m

2

3m

2

n

8k

fn

n 1 8k

2 2 3m

SAMPLE PROBLEM

Using the free-body-diagram equation for

the equivalence of the external and

effective moments, write the equation of

motion for the disk/gear and wire.

W 20 lb

n 1.13 s

n 1.93 s

inertia for the disk known, calculate the

torsional spring constant.

vibration with the periods shown.

With natural frequency and spring

Assume that the moment exerted by the constant known, calculate the moment of

wire is proportional to the twist angle.

inertia for the gear.

Determine a) the wire torsional spring

Apply the relations for simple harmonic

constant, b) the centroidal moment of

motion to calculate the maximum gear

inertia of the gear, and c) the maximum

velocity.

angular velocity of the gear if rotated

through 90o and released.

19 - 48

SAMPLE PROBLEM

Using the free-body-diagram equation for the equivalence of

the external and effective moments, write the equation of

motion for the disk/gear and wire.

M O M O eff :

W 20 lb

n 1.13 s

n 1.93 s

K

I

K I

K

0

I

2

I

2

n

K

the disk known, calculate the torsional spring

constant.

2

1

20

8

2

I 12 mr 2

0.138 lb ft s

2 32.2 12

1.13 2

19 - 49

0.138

K

K 4.27 lb ft rad

SAMPLE PROBLEM

With natural frequency and spring constant

known, calculate the moment of inertia for the

gear.

I

1.93 2

I 0.403 lb ft s 2

4.27

W 20 lb

n 1.13 s

n 1.93 s

to calculate the maximum gear velocity.

m sin nt

m n sin nt

m m n

m 90 1.571 rad

K

I

2

I

2

n

K

K 4.27 lb ft rad

19 - 50

2

2

1.571 rad

1

.

93

s

m m

m 5.11 rad s

PRINCIPLE OF CONSERVATION OF

ENERGY

is conservative - total energy is conserved.

T V constant

2

1 mx

2

2

12 kx 2 constant

x n2 x 2

T1 0

12 Wb m2

2

T2 12 mvm2 12 I m

2

12 m bm 12

12

53 mb 2 m2

23 mb 2 m2

V2 0

T1 V1 T2 V2

19 - 51

0 12 Wb m2 12

53 mb 2 m2 n2 0

n 3 g 5b

SAMPLE PROBLEM

Apply the principle of conservation of

energy between the positions of maximum

and minimum potential energy.

Solve the energy equation for the natural

frequency of the oscillations.

oscillations of a cylinder which rolls

without slipping inside a curved

surface.

19 - 52

SAMPLE PROBLEM

Apply the principle of conservation of energy between

the positions of maximum and minimum potential

energy.

T1 V1 T2 V2

V1 Wh W R r 1 cos

T1 0

W R r m2 2

V2 0

2

T2 12 mvm2 12 I m

1 m R r 2

m

2

12

34 m R r 2 m2

19 - 53

1 mr R r 2

m

2

r

2

SAMPLE PROBLEM

of the oscillations.

T1 0

V1 W R r m2 2

T2 34 m R r 2m2

V2 0

T1 V1 T2 V2

m2 3

0 W R r

4 m R r 2 m2 0

2

m2 3

mg R r 4 m R r 2 m n 2m

2

n2

19 - 54

2

2 g

n

n

3 Rr

3 Rr

2 g

FORCED VIBRATIONS

Forced vibrations - Occur

when a system is subjected

to a periodic force or a

periodic displacement of a

support.

f forced frequency

F ma :

Pm sin f t W k st x mx

W k st x m sin f t mx

mx kx Pm sin f t

mx kx k m sin f t

19 - 55

FORCED VIBRATIONS

x xcomplementary x particular

xm

Pm

k m 2f

Pm k

1 f n

1 f n

mx kx Pm sin f t

mx kx k m sin f t

At f = n, forcing input is in

resonance with the system.

19 - 56

SAMPLE PROBLEM

The resonant frequency is equal to the

natural frequency of the system.

Evaluate the magnitude of the periodic

force due to the motor unbalance.

Determine the vibration amplitude from

the frequency ratio at 1200 rpm.

A motor weighing 350 lb is supported by

four springs, each having a constant 750

lb/in. The unbalance of the motor is

equivalent to a weight of 1 oz located 6

in. from the axis of rotation.

Determine a) speed in rpm at which

resonance will occur, and b) amplitude of

the vibration at 1200 rpm.

19 - 57

SAMPLE PROBLEM

The resonant frequency is equal to the natural

frequency of the system.

m

W = 350 lb

k = 4(350

lb/in)

350

10.87 lb s 2 ft

32.2

k 4 750 3000 lb in

36,000 lb ft

k

36,000

m

10.87

57.5 rad/s 549 rpm

rpm

19 - 58

SAMPLE PROBLEM

Evaluate the magnitude of the periodic force due to

the motor unbalance. Determine the vibration

amplitude from the frequency ratio at 1200 rpm.

1 lb

m 1 oz

16

oz

W = 350 lb

k = 4(350

lb/in)

n 57.5 rad/s

0.001941 lb s 2 ft

32.2 ft s 2

Pm man mr 2

0.001941

xm

Pm k

1 f n

15.33 3000

1 125.7 57.5 2

0.001352 in

xm = 0.001352 in. (out of

phase)

19 - 59

All vibrations are damped to some degree by

forces due to dry friction, fluid friction, or internal

friction.

With viscous damping due to fluid friction,

F ma :

W k st x cx mx

mx cx kx 0

yields the characteristic equation,

m2 c k 0

c

c

2m

2m

k

m

19 - 60

cc

2

m

k

0

m

cc 2 m

k

2m n

m

Characteristic equation,

c

c

2m

2m

m2 c k 0

k

m

Heavy damping: c > cc

x C1e 1t C2 e 2t

- negative roots

- nonvibratory motion

Critical damping: c = cc

x C1 C 2t e nt

- double roots

- nonvibratory motion

x e c

d n

19 - 61

2m t

C1 sin d t C2 cos d t

1

cc

damped frequency

mx cx kx Pm sin f t

x xcomplementary x particular

xm

xm

Pm k

tan

19 - 62

2 c cc f n

1 f n

2 c c

2 2

n 2

magnification

factor

state response

ELECTRICAL ANALOGUES

Consider an electrical circuit consisting of an inductor,

resistor and capacitor with a source of alternating

voltage

E m sin f t L

di

q

Ri 0

dt

C

1

Lq Rq q E m sin f t

C

Oscillations of the electrical system are analogous to

damped forced vibrations of a mechanical system.

19 - 63

ELECTRICAL ANALOGUES

The analogy between electrical and mechanical

systems also applies to transient as well as steadystate oscillations.

With a charge q = q0 on the capacitor, closing the

switch is analogous to releasing the mass of the

mechanical system with no initial velocity at x = x0.

If the circuit includes a battery with constant voltage

E, closing the switch is analogous to suddenly

applying a force of constant magnitude P to the

mass of the mechanical system.

19 - 64

ELECTRICAL ANALOGUES

The electrical system analogy provides a means of

experimentally determining the characteristics of a given

mechanical system.

For the mechanical system,

m1x1 c1 x1 c2 x1 x 2 k1 x1 k 2 x1 x2 0

m2 x2 c2 x 2 x1 k 2 x2 x1 Pm sin f t

For the electrical system,

q1 q1 q2

0

C1

C2

q q

L2 q2 R2 q 2 q 1 2 1 Em sin f t

C2

L1q1 R1 q 1 q 2

of the vibrations of the mechanical system may be inferred

from the oscillations of the electrical system.

19 - 65

Response to periodic forcing - Harmonic Forcing Forcing caused by unbalance - Support motion

Force transmissibility and amplitude transmissibility

- Vibration isolation.

DAMPING

a process whereby energy is taken from the

vibrating system and is being absorbed by the

surroundings.

Examples of damping forces:

viscous force in a fluid,

electromagnetic damping in galvanometers,

shock absorber in a car.

forces.

The system does positive work on the

surroundings.

Examples:

a mass oscillates under water

oscillation of a metal plate in the magnetic field

The rate of loss of energy depends on the

instantaneous velocity

Resistive force instantaneous velocity

i.e. F = -bv where b = damping coefficient

Frequency of damped vibration < Frequency of

undamped vibration

(1)

Characteristics:

- oscillations with reducing amplitudes

- period is slightly longer

- Figure

a1 a2 a3

....... a constant

a2 a3 a4

(2)

Critical damping

No real oscillation

Time taken for the displacement to become effective

zero is a minimum

(3)

critical damping

The system returns very slowly to

the equilibrium position

GALVANOMETER

GALVANOMETER

Damping is due to

induced currents flowing

in the metal frame

The opposing couple

setting up causes the coil

to come to rest quickly

FORCED OSCILLATION

from an external driving agent

Experimental setup:

CHARACTERISTICS OF FORCED

OSCILLATION

Constant amplitude

Transient oscillations at the beginning which

eventually settle down to vibrate with a constant

amplitude (steady state)

CHARACTERISTICS OF FORCED

OSCILLATION

of the driving force

ENERGY

driving frequency

Driving force does work on the system at the

same rate as the system loses energy by doing

work against dissipative forces

Power of the driver is controlled by damping

AMPLITUDE

frequency of free oscillation

the frequency of the driving force

the extent to which the system is

damped

EFFECTS OF DAMPING

becomes slightly less than the natural frequency

Reduces the response of the forced system

PHASE (1)

driving force with its phase lagging behind

If F = F0 cos t, then

x = A cos (t - )

where is the phase lag of x behind F

PHASE (2)

Figure

1. As f 0, 0

2. As f ,

3. As f f0, /2

Explanation

force should be applied to the oscillator

PHASE (3)

When oscillator moves away from the centre, the

driving force should be reduced gradually so that the

oscillator can decelerate under its own restoring force

At the maximum displacement, the driving force

becomes zero so that the oscillator is not pushed any

further

Thereafter, F reverses in direction so that the

oscillator is pushed back to the centre

PHASE (4)

maximum in the opposite direction

Hence, if F is applied 1/4 cycle

earlier than x, energy is supplied

to the oscillator at the correct

moment. The oscillator then

responds with maximum

amplitude.

FORCED VIBRATION

pendulum so that it oscillates exactly at a

frequency of 1 Hz

Couple the oscillator to the driving pendulum by

the given elastic cord

Set the driving pendulum going and note the

response of the blade

FORCED VIBRATION

vibration

Measure the time taken for the blade to perform

10 free oscillations

Adjust the position of the tuning mass to change

the natural frequency of free vibration and repeat

the experiment

FORCED VIBRATION

different natural frequencies of the oscillator

Change the magnitude of damping by rotating

the card through different angles

Plot a series of resonance curves

RESONANCE (1)

a second driving oscillator whose frequency equals

the natural frequency of the system

The amplitude of reaches a maximum

The energy of the system becomes a maximum

The phase of the displacement of the driver leads that

of the oscillator by 90

RESONANCE (2)

Examples

Mechanics:

Destruction of the Tacoma Bridge

Sound:

Resonance tube

Kundts tube

RESONANCE

Electricity

Radio tuning

Light

RESONANT SYSTEM

for resonance, e.g. spring-mass system

There are several driving frequencies which give

resonance, e.g. resonance tube

RESONANCE: UNDESIRABLE

the propeller

The springs supporting the body of a car should

not resonate with the engine

DEMONSTRATION OF RESONANCE

Resonance tube

measuring cylinder

Vary the length of the air column by pouring water

into the cylinder until a loud sound is heard

The resonant frequency of the air column is then

equal to the frequency of the tuning fork

DEMONSTRATION OF RESONANCE

Sonometer

bridge of a sonometer wire

Adjust the length of the wire until a strong vibration

is set up in it

The vibration is great enough to throw off paper

riders mounted along its length

magnetic field

SLIGHT DAMPING

CRITICAL DAMPING

HEAVY DAMPING

AMPLITUDE

PHASE

BARTONS PENDULUM

DAMPED VIBRATION

RESONANCE CURVES

RESONANCE TUBE

variable water level

and a speaker at its

upper end

UNIT V :

controlled and spring controlled centrifugal

governors Characteristics - Effect of friction Controlling Force .

Gyroscopes - Gyroscopic forces and Torques Gyroscopic stabilization - Gyroscopic effects in

Automobiles, ships and airplanes

GOVERNORS

Engine

Speed control

This presentation is from Virginia Tech and has not been edited by

Georgia Curriculum Office.

GOVERNORS

Governors serve three basic purposes:

Maintain a speed selected by the operator which

is within the range of the governor.

Prevent over-speed which may cause engine

damage.

Limit both high and low speeds.

GOVERNORS

speed not readily adjustable by the operator or to

maintain a speed selected by means of a throttle

control lever.

In either case, the governor protects against

overspeeding.

If the load is removed on an operating engine, the

governor immediately closes the throttle.

If the engine load is increased, the throttle will

be opened to prevent engine speed form being

reduced.

EXAMPLE

The

governor on your

lawnmower maintains

the selected engine

speed even when you

mow through a clump

of high grass or when

you mow over no grass

at all.

PNEUMATIC GOVERNORS

Sometimes

are operated by the

stream of air flow

created by the cooling

fins of the flywheel.

AIR-VANE GOVERNOR

When the engine experiences sudden increases in

load, the flywheel slows causing the governor to

open the throttle to maintain the desired speed.

The same is true when the engine experiences a

decrease in load. The governor compensates and

closes the throttle to prevent overspeeding.

CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR

Sometimes

referred to

as a mechanical

governor, it uses

pivoted flyweights

that are attached to a

revolving shaft or gear

driven by the engine.

MECHANICAL GOVERNOR

With

directly proportional to engine rpm.

MECHANICAL GOVERNOR

If the engine is subjected to a sudden load that

reduces rpm, the reduction in speed lessens

centrifugal force on the flyweights.

The weights move inward and lower the spool and

governor lever, thus opening the throttle to

maintain engine speed.

VACUUM GOVERNORS

Located

manifold.

It senses changes in intake manifold pressure

(vacuum).

VACUUM GOVERNORS

As

governor closes or opens the throttle respectively

to control engine speed.

HUNTING

Hunting is a condition whereby the engine speed

fluctuate or is erratic usually when first started.

The engine speeds up and slows down over and

over as the governor tries to regulate the engine

speed.

This is usually caused by an improperly adjusted

carburetor.

STABILITY

Stability is the ability to maintain a desired

engine speed without fluctuating.

Instability results in hunting or oscillating due to

over correction.

Excessive stability results in a dead-beat

governor or one that does not correct sufficiently

for load changes.

SENSITIVITY

required to produce a corrective movement of the

fuel control mechanism.

High governor sensitivity will help keep the

engine operating at a constant speed.

SUMMARY

Maintain

Prevent over-speeding.

Limit high and low speeds.

SUMMARY

Air-vane

(pneumatic)

Mechanical (centrifugal)

Vacuum

SUMMARY

in order to regulate speeds properly. This will

prevent hunting or erratic engine speed changes

depending upon load changes.

Gyroscope

gimbal is mounted in the outer gimbal which itself is mounted on a

fixed frame as shown in Fig. When the rotor spins about X-axis with

angular velocity rad/s and the inner gimbal precesses (rotates)

about Y-axis, the spatial mechanism is forced to turn about Z-axis

other than its own axis of rotation, and the gyroscopic effect is thus

setup. The resistance to this motion is called gyroscopic effect.

GYROSCOPIC COUPLE

shaft supported at two bearings. Let the rotor spins (rotates) about X-axis with

constant angular velocity rad/s. The X-axis is, therefore, called spin axis, Yaxis, precession axis and Z-axis, the couple or torque axis .

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