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Recent Trends in Power

Electronics Technology for


21st Century and Beyond
K.VIJAYA BHASKAR
Professor
Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering,
VBIT Ghatkesar,
Hyderabad

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
KEY ENABLER FOR POWER PROCESSING
PE - TECHNOLOGY TRENDS
OVERALL WORLD SCENARIO FOR
POWER ELECTRONICS SYSTEMS
DEVICES Vs TOPOLOGIES
INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS TRENDS
FUTURE MARKET GROWTH

RESEARCH
POWER ELECTRONICS
Interference
issues

[Multi - disciplinary area]

All rounder in Cricket / Kapil Dev,

[Multi - skilled exposure]

Andrew Symonds, Jacques Kallis

EMI/EMC
Issues

Robotics &
Automation

Power Converters
DC/AC
/ Inverters
applications
Devices -> to -> Converter Topologies

SemiConductors &
Physics

Devices
Power

Power
Electronics

Control
Theory

AC/DC Drives
& Control

Embedded
Processors

Device
Technology

(Topologies)
Circuit
Theory /
Field Theory &
Control
Automation

Control
Signal
Processing

Topologies -> to -> Devices [New devices]

KEY ENABLER OF POWER TECHNOLOGIES


POWER ELECTRONICS
SYNERGY OF POWER & ELECTRONICS
I/P

SOURCE

INTERFACE

POWER
PROCESSOR

AC/DC

FEED-BACK
SYSTEM

O/P

LOAD

LINEAR/NON-LINEAR
Resistive R
Inductive L
R-L type
Lighting load
Motor load
Fan type of load
Heater type of load
Compressor
Full bridge rectifier
Computer load

PE - TECHNOLOGY TREND GRAPH

QUICK LOOK @ OVERALL WORLD


SCENARIO ON PE SYSTEMS
Current Leading Countries involved in the
growth of Power Electronic Products &
Systems on Research and Development
Europe Germany, Denmark, Switzerland,
Spain and UK
USA
Asia China, India, Taiwan and Singapore

MAIN PE SYSTEMS - RESEARCH

DC Power Supplies
Linear Regulated type
Switch Mode type - SMRs
SMPS Line Operated type
Converters
AC/DC
DC/DC
AC/AC
Inverters
DC/AC Solar, Wind Energy & Renewables
Industrial Drives & Motor Controls
DC Motors
AC Motors
Stepper Motors
Switched Reluctance drives
Brushless drives
UPS Systems On line type & Off line type
Power Transmission Area - Distributed Reactive Power Compensators ( SVCs, STATCOMs)
HVDC Area High Power MW level Converters (ABB, SIEMENS)
Energy Storage Area Fuel Cells & their Converters, New Storage Batteries, Super / Ultra Capacitors
Transportation Area - Electric Cars, Hybrid Cars, AC Power Traction
Energy Efficient Systems & Smart Grid Systems

MARKETS FIERCE COMPETITION


Devices Vs Topologies
o Stiff competition exists between Power Devices &
Power Topologies --- Vice Versa
o For some time, devices dictated the trend of
topologies and at a later time, topologies dictated
the trend of devices --This continues even to-day
o Such a demanding requirement for both, is the
essential market driver for evolving new
semiconductor based materials & material
research for manufacturing new power devices
and arriving at new power topologies

CURRENT RESEARCH ON
SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS
Popular trends:
o SiC - CREE Inc., USA - MOSFETs & Diodes
o GaN - USA - Diodes
o Nanomaterials
Main Drivers :
o High Power, High Temp. Lower losses, capability for Wind
Energy & Smart Grid Markets.in order to build high power
MW level converters with ease and flexible sustained reliable
field operations, for the Wind turbine based MW Converters &
other Wind Farm applications ---- SEMIKRON is the leading
Power devices & modules supplier for Wind Power Converters

WIDE BAND GAP BASED POWER SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS


Materials employed: SiC, GaN
SiC Properties:

High band Gap compared to Si 3 times


High Dielectric strength 10 times
High Thermal Conductivity 3 times
High Temp. capability 4 times

MOST POPULAR SiC HB MODULE


FROM CREE

TYPICAL APPLICATIONS OF SiC


Silicon Carbide Logic Circuits Work at
Blistering Temperatures
Logic circuits that thrive at 550 C
could simplify jet engines,
spacecraft, and more

SiC BASED CONVERTER FROM CREE


INC.,

How B. Jayant Baliga Transformed Power Semiconductors

Recipient:Prof.B. Jayant Baliga was awarded the 2014 IEEE


Medal of Honor for his many contributions to the field of power
semiconductors. The 2014 IEEE Medal of Honor recipient
pioneered the IGBT, now found in cars, lighting, robots, and
more

KEY DOMINANT PLAYERS


POWER COMPONENTS

SEMIKRON
IR
INFINEON
MITSUBHISHI
IXYS
TOSHIBA
HITACHI

PRESENT RESEARCH ON MLCs &


ASSOCIATED TOPOLOGIES
2 Level type of MLCs
3 Level type of MLCs
Neutral Point Clamped (Diode Clamped)
type NPC
Flying Capacitor type FC
Cascaded H-Bridge type CHB

TYPICAL EXAMPLES
Diode Clamped 3 Level Inverter

ANOTHER EXAMPLE
Flying Capacitor type Inverter 3 Level

YET ANOTHER EXAMPLE


Cascaded H-Bridge Inverter

HIGH POWER CONVERTER TYPES &


MLCs

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF MLCs


Compressors, extruders, pumps and fans
Grinding mills, rolling mills, conveyors,
crushers, blast furnace blowers, gas turbine
starters, mixers and mine hoists
Reactive Power Compensation
Marine propulsion
HVDC Transmission
Wind energy conversion
Railway Traction

R&D LEVEL CHALLENGES OF MLCs


Improvement of
Energy efficiency
Reliability
Power density
Simplicity
Cost
Handling of Voltage & Current stress levels
under multi stack configurations
Incorporating appropriate filters & their sizing

TYPICAL MLCs RATINGS


o MV Level from 2.3kV to 6.6kV
o High Power levels from 1- 50MW
o These classifications include direct AC-AC
Conversion as well as DC-AC-DC indirect
Conversion

MULTI-CELL CONVERTERS SUMMARY

CURRENT PURSUING AREAS &


APPLICATIONS OF PE - TECHNOLOGY
DEVELOPMENT IN THE WORLD
Renewable Energy
SOLAR
WIND
Energy storage: Fuel Cells, New types of batteries;
EV Electric Vehicle Technology: Hybrid Cars development
Smart Grid : Energy Conservation & Improvements
Reactive Power Compensators Distributed type
(as a substitute to FACTS meant for high power
applications)
Power Filters : Active, Passive and Hybrid Filters
High Voltage Direct Current Transmission HVDC

SOLAR APPLICATIONS
SunPower 215
Benefits:
High efficiency: Industry leading panel
efficiency of 17.3%
More Power: Delivers up to 50% more
power per unit area compared to
conventional solar panels

SPR-210-WHT-I/U

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GRID CONNECT 1 kW SOLAR POWER SYSTEM


USING SUNNY BOY INVERTER SB1100 &
SUNPOWER MODULES SPR-215s
RESIDENTIAL APPLICATION - AUSTRALIA

GRID CONNECT 30 kW SOLAR POWER SYSTEM


USING SMA INVERTERs &
SUNPOWER MODULES SPR-215s
COMMERCIAL APPLICATION - AUSTRALIA

POPULAR SOLAR INVERTERS


(SMA & FRONIUS)

SIZING ISSUE - SMA SUNNY BOY


SB1100 MODEL WITH SUNPOWER
MODULES
Optimal Configuration ------ 5 Nos. of
SPR-215s
Less than 5 modules on this inverter
leads to Yield Loss
More than 5 modules result in Yield
Loss
More than 7 modules result in
System in danger
PV Moules are SunPower

TYPICAL GRID SYSTEM REPORT


BASED ON NSOL - SIMULATION

SOLAR FARM PROJECT IN WA

OLIVENZA, SPAIN 18 MW

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COMPLIANCE ISSUES FOR GRID


CONNECT SOLAR INVERTERS AUSTRALIA
Grid-connect Inverters in Australia need
certain AS Standards approvals
AS4777 Certification -----Certificate of Suitability ------Special procedures & approvals for
changing the parameters on the
Inverters (SMA) under weak grid supply
conditions ----- frequency, voltage etc.,
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CURTIN UNIVERSITY RESEARCH WORK


ON WIND ENERGY SYSTEMS
A 30 kW variable speed experimental wound
rotor (slip-ring) induction generator and control
electronics for interfacing with a weak grid
Tandem Induction Generators A double stator
one fixed and one movable- machine with a
common squirrel cage rotor
Permanent Magnet Generator using
Neodymium-Iron Boron magnets
Grid connected inverter for PM Generator

Bluefont Technologies

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20kWPMGENERATORTESTBED

Driving Machine

20 kW PM Generator
Bluefont Technologies

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LABORATORY TEST RIG CURTIN UNIVERSITY


FLUKE 179
D IG IT A L M U L T I M E T E R

FLUKE 179
D IG IT A L M U L T I M E T E R

FLUKE 43
P o w e r Q u a lit y A n a ly z e r

IN P U T

OUTPUT

FLUKE 43
P o w e r Q u a lit y A n a ly z e r
+

FLUKE 330

CLA M P M ETERS

0 -4 4 0 V V A R IA C

0 .1
C ir c u it B r e a k e r

3 4 1 5 V S u p p ly

Vg

FLUKE 330

CLA M P M ETERS
4 4 0 V I s o la t io n
tra n s fo rm e r

240 V
S in g -le P h a s e

c
CH 2

5 K W IN V E R T E R
3
V

CH 1

YO K O GA W A 2533
D ig i t a l P o w e r M e t e r

1400V 70A
1 2 W C o n n e c t io n

YO K O GA W A 2533
D ig it a l P o w e r M e t e r

1400V 70A
3 3 W C o n n e c t io n

Bluefont Technologies

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CH3

POWERELECTRONICINTERFACEFORVARIABLESPEED
PMGENERATORFORWINDENERGY

DC Link

Bluefont Technologies

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RE LABORATORY SET-UP
CURTIN UNIVERSITY

EXPERIMENTAL TEST RESULTS

DOMINANT PLAYERS IN WIND


ENERGY MARKET
VESTAS DENMARK / GERMANY
7MW - WIND TURBINE
SIMENS
GE
GAMESA 5MW OFF-SHORE WT
ENERCON

SMART WIRES TECHNOLOGY


SMART GRID
Smart Wire DSR - Overview
Functions as a current limiter to divert current
from the overloaded lines to underutilized ones
Increases line impedance by injecting a pretuned value of magnetizing inductance of the
Single-Turn Transformer
Each module can be triggered at a predefined
set point to reflect a gradual increase, or
controlled remotely for an immediate change, in
line impedance
DSRs automatically sense faults and remove
themselves from the circuit, returning the
native circuit, eliminating the need for
modifications to the existing protection
schemes. Fault sensing and switching occurs in
5ms or less
Two modes of operation:
Devices can operate autonomously without
communication
Two way communications enabled for greater
control and line monitoring

One DSR module per


phase per mile changes
line impedance (138
kV) by roughly 2%

42

DSR SITE INSTALLATION - USA

DSRs FUNCTIONALITY
POWERLINE GUARDIANTM
Distributing Power Flow Control Enabling the Dynamic Grid of the Future
Overloads drive up generation costs and force you to shed load. But Smart Wires PowerLine Guardian TMis a fast
and simple solution. It pushes power away from heavily loaded lines to lines with available capacity, preventing
overloads, reducing generation costs and eliminating power outages.
PowerLine GuardiansTMfunction as distributed series reactors installed along the transmission line and are
attached directly to the conductor. The modules have been tested under a variety of conditions, including high
fault levels, field contingencies, and are expected to operate continuously for more than twenty years with no
maintenance. PowerLine GuardiansTMare currently operational on three high voltage transmission lines.
Power Flow ControlProvides incremental line impedance control, which when aggregated across the line,
can significantly change power flows
MonitoringSenses critical parameters such as conductor temperature, vibration, sag, fault location, and the
presence of geomagnetic induct current all of which greatly adds to the situational awareness of the grid.
Quick InstallationTypical PowerLine GuardianTMinstallations can be completed in less than one month
BenefitsPower flow control and monitoring delivered by PowerLine Guardians TMprovide various high value
applications.
Overload Mitigation
RAS/SPS Simplification
Congestion/Uplift Reduction
Phase Balancing
Construction and Maintenance Support
Circular/Inadvertent/Unscheduled Flow Mitigation
Geomagnetic Induced Current Flow Detection and Mitigation
Grid Resiliency

DSRs EXTENDED FUNCTIONALITY


QUOTABLE:Classically, before the existence of power-flow
controllers, the power would flow along the line of least impedance.
Now, we were looking at changing the impedance of each path to
incent power to flow where it could be most easily and safely
accommodated.
Out of that initiative, Smart Wires formed as a private firm in 2010,
offering three products made in its new plant in Wilmington, NC:
Powerline Guardian uses distributed series reactors installed along
the transmission line and attached directly to the conductor to
increase impendence on overloaded wires;
Router, which redirects the power flow to less-loaded parallel wires,
and
Powerline Commander, a proprietary monitoring, control and data
aggregation software that offers bi-directional communications
most often using a wireless radio-based protocol with the backoffice operations control room, so utility personnel can monitor the
system continually and reroute power within moments, if needed.

DSR CIRCUIT THEORY


GEORGIA TECH. UTY. NC, USA
http://www.smartwires.com/solutions/

DSR EXTENDED THEORY

DSSC USING INVERTER

DSSC WITH PWM INVERTER

DSSC PROTOTYPE MODEL


GEORGIA TECH.UTY.NC,USA

TVA INSTALLATION OF DSRs


Oct. 15 20, 2012

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INSTALLATION, TESTING
AND MAINTENANCE
Each DSR is packaged into a
wooden protective shipping
crate for deployment.
Prior to install the DSR may be
fully tested and provisioned in
the field while unassembled in
the crate.
The two halves are positioned
on the line and secured
together with a torque wrench
The devices run self diagnostics
and can be remotely tested
The devices are maintenance
free
SWG provides installation
training

Open DSR Unit

Shipping Crates and Field Testing

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DISTRIBUTEDSERIESREACTOR(DSR)
336to1590kcmil

150-250lb

(conductor size)

115-500kV

OpenDSRUnit

63kA RMS (150kA peak)fault current


for 30 cycles

Life: 20+ year life; zero maintenance


Install: de-energized or live line
Fault current: sense within 5 s, then automatic transition from injection to monitoring
mode in 5 ms.
No corona at operating voltage
Environmental: Resistant to - salt fog, Aeolian vibration, ice buildup, thermal cycling
Conductor impact: No mechanical or thermal conductor degradation
Lightning Strike: tested to line BIL
Wind loading: up to 150 mph
Communications: Module to ground or SCADA link as specified by owner.

50 H per module per mile changes typical 138 kV conductor


impedance by roughly 2%

Power flow control for the Grid

Copyright 2013 Smart Wire Grid, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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DSR CHARACTERESTICS FOR 750A DESIGN

Injection mode: 50 H per module


Monitoring mode:
1 H per module

RESEARCH ON COMPONENTS

RESEARCH TOPICS ON
CONVERTERS

SIZING ISSUES OF PE CONVERTERS

SYSTEM LEVEL RESEARCH

CURRENT POTENTIAL AREA FOR PE


RESEARCH

ANOTHER POTENTIAL AREA OF


RESEARCH
Flexible AC Transmission: The FACTS
Machine
Flexible power electronics will make
the smart grid smart

FACTS

FUTURE PE RESEARCH POTENTIAL


AREA

TYPICAL POTENTIAL RESEARCH

OVERALL SYSTEM TRENDS

POSSIBLE FUTURE EXTENSIONS FOR


RESEARCH

IEEE RELEASE ON SMART GRID


Detailed Table of Contents of Smart Grid
Research & Vision beyond 2050
Available to-day
Exhaustive Report released

THANK YOU
Any questions please?