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Spectral Efficiency Workshop

21st Dec 2007-Mumbai

Company Confidential
1
Nokia Siemens Networks

SPECTRAL EFFICIENCY (SE)


Evaluation of Spectral Efficiency

Company Confidential
2
Nokia Siemens Networks

GSM Standards Evolution

Release 7
Release 6

ETSI

Voice Capacity Optimization/


LTE interworking

Release 8

3GPP

a
u
d
ra

GSM
Phase 2+

lu
o
v
E
l

Release 5

Release 4

Release 99

2004

Multiple TBF (Iu), GERAN Iu, Location Services over


Gb/Iu, Enhanced PC, WB-AMR, 8-PSK AMR HR

2002

Network Assisted Cell Change (NACC), GSM 700, Dynamic


ARFCN Mapping

2000

GSM-WCDMA Interworking, GSM 850MHz, Dual Transfer


Mode (DTM), Enhanced Measurement Reporting (EMR)
Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR), EDGE, GPRS for PCS1900, TFO, Location
Services, Enhanced QoS in GPRS

Release 97

Packet Data (GPRS) CS1-4, ASCI Phase 2

Release 96

CS Data 14.4 kbit/s, HSCSD, Hierarchical Cell Structure, Fast Moving


Mobile, ASCI Phase 1
DCS 1800, GSM-DCS Roaming, Multi-Band GSM/DCS, EFR, CLID, Call Waiting, Hold,
Multi Party, Advice of Charge, Half Rate Speech, G3 Fax

Basic telephony, Emergency Calls, SMS, CS Data 9.6 kbit/s, Frequency Hopping, Power Control, DTX

Company Confidential
3
Nokia Siemens Networks

2005-07

DARP (SAIC), DTM Enhancements, PS Handover,


MBMS, Multiple TBF (Gb), GSM TAPS Bands (TETRA)

Release 98

GSM Phase 2
GSM Phase 1

n
it o

Enhanced CS Video, DTM HO, New Frequency


Bands, Dual Carrier, MS Diversity, Dual Symbol Rate

2008

1998

1995
1992

Spectral Efficiency &


Effective Frequency Load (EFL) Concept

Company Confidential
4
Nokia Siemens Networks

Effective Frequency Load Defined


EFL is a measure of the average frequency utilization in the area Represents how loaded each
frequency can be across the system
EFL is proportional to Erlang/sector/MHz or Erlang/MHz/SqKm or Erlang/sector
EFL is directly proportional to the carried traffic x % higher EFL = x % more carried traffic
20/(7.2*18) where 20 ( BBH erlangs),(7.2 = 32-4-2( 4 trx- SDCCH-CCCH),18 ( total hopping
frequencies)
Busy hour
area level
average
Erlangs/cell

ErlBH
1
EFL

Tot # freq Ave # ( TCH )


TRX

Total number
of hopping
frequencies
used to carry
the traffic
Company Confidential
5
Nokia Siemens Networks

Average
number of
timeslots/TR
X

Effective Frequency Load


EFL is a measure of the average frequency utilization in the area Represents how
loaded each frequency can be across the system
Assume 1.2 MHz (6 x 200 kHz carriers) of hopping frequencies
Assume in each cell 5 simultaneous voice users on the average
In this case the EFL is ~ 5 Erlangs / 48 timeslots = 10.4%
In each hopping frequency we can have 8 (timeslots per carrier) x 10.4% = 0.83
Erlangs or 6 X 0.83 = 4.98 Erlangs in hopping layer
Busy Hour Erlangs per cell

EFL =
Average number of TSLs per TRX
Total number of hopping frequencies

s
ot
l
es
im

r
pe

200 kHz

Company Confidential
6
Nokia Siemens Networks

r
ie
r
r
ca

e
m
i
T

200 kHz

200 kHz

200 kHz

200 kHz

6 frequencies @ 200 kHz each

200 kHz

Frequency

Spectral Efficiency & Performance


Spectral efficiency refers to the amount of information that can be transmitted
over a given bandwidth. It is a measure of how efficiently a spectrum is utilized
Standard Measure: Erl/MHz/km
NSN Measure: Effective Frequency Load ( Erl/MHz) [ Per BTS measure in a cluster ]
Spectral Efficiency is equivalent to performance , assuming no lack of radio resources or HW
blocking i.e Similar NWs with Similar features, will perform similarly if loaded same (equal EFL)

Performance is a
trade-off between
capacity AND
quality

Key Performance
Indicator DCR, BQS

Two alternative solutions

Operating
Point

Targeted quality level

PERFORMANCE GAIN: Quality Enhancement


is measured in terms of
increased quality
for the same load

Increased
Increasedperformance
performance
(spectral
efficiency)
(spectral efficiency)delivers
delivers
improved
improvedquality
qualityand/or
and/orhigher
higher
capacity
for
the
same
quality
capacity for the same quality
criteria
criteria
Company Confidential
7
Nokia Siemens Networks

Dropped calls due to


coverage gaps
Effective freq Load or Traffic
Load

CAPACITY GAIN: Capacity Increase is measured


in terms of additional load
at the same quality level

Capacity GAIN Calculation

What is the capacity limitation for Hopping layer?

FAR = (Total No of Hopping Frequencies)


No of Frequencies in each MA List
FAR indicates the reuse profile of MALs
FAR=1 indicates single MAList reused on all sectors

EFL =

Frequency Load
FAR

Frequency Load = Fractional loading x Hardware utilisation


EFL is Effective Frequency load

EFL is the key factor since it indicates the actual on-air


transmit time of any individual frequency in the hopping
list (it is a combination of Freq load and Reuse distance
(FAR))
The Maximum EFL Target is the soft limit that decides the
number of Hopping TRXs that can be equipped using the
available frequencies

Based on trial results & simulations the maximum EFL planned to avoid significant
Company Confidential
Quality
degradation is 8-10% for an Optimised network
8
Nokia Siemens Networks

Maximizing Spectral Efficiency


Study the NW

Radio NW Planning

Remove Coverage Issues

(Audit/Performance Monitor/

(Physical Optimization/

Remove Unnecessary Neighbors

Configuration Check)

Interference Containment)

Create Necessary Neighbors

Utilize Power Control Gain


(Decide on ICE)

Decide on IDD

Utilize Hopping Layer Gains


(Decide on CoCa Booster)

Revisit BCCH Plan (tighter


but cleaner reuse) and
Hopping layer Freq retune
(AdHoc plan with AFP toolOptimizer)

Need to add Capacity ??


Consider Adding TRXs?

Decide on CoCa + ICE + IDD

Adding new Sites?


Decide on AMR FR/HR
usage %,
Perform AMR parameter
optimization
Decide on Antenna Hopping

Adding micro cells?

MAIO cluster planning


Monitor traffic and IM
Decide on Split (Hot) sector
configuration
Decide on Deploying DFCA

Company Confidential
9
Nokia Siemens Networks

Decide on BSS
Synchronization and

Decide on SRC

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