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The principal properties of hardened concrete are
Shrinkage and Creep deformations
Response to temperature variation
Permeability and Durability

Strength of concrete (IS:516-1959)

1) Compressive Strength:
Most common test on hardened concrete,
because easy to perform and properties of
concrete are qualitatively related to compressive
Percentage strength of concrete at various
The strength of concrete increases with age.
Table shows the strength of concrete at
different ages in comparison with the strength
at 28 days after casting.

Compressive strength
Compressive strength of different grades of

Compressive strength vs W/C Ratio

Strength of concrete
2) Flexural Test:
Concrete is strong in compression and weak in
Steel reinforcing bars are provided to resist all
tensile forces in concrete.
However tensile stress are likely to develop in
concrete due to drying shrinkage, rusting of
steel reinforcement and many other gradients.

Flexural Test
Third point loading

Flexural test
Principles of flexural Testing

Flexural Test

Load transfer for

Both types of loading

Flexural test
The flexural strength of specimen is expressed asmodulus of
The Flexural Strength or modulus of rupture (fb) is given by
fb= pl/bd2(whena> 20.0cm for 15.0cm specimen or >
13.0cm for 10cm specimen)
fb= 3pa/bd2(whena< 20.0cm but > 17.0 for 15.0cm
specimen or < 13.3 cm but > 11.0cm for 10.0cm specimen.)
a = the distance between the line of fracture and the nearer
support, measured on the center line of the tensile side of the
b = width of specimen (cm)
d = failure point depth (cm)
l = supported length (cm)
p = max. Load (kg)

Split Tensile strength

This test is carried out by placing a cylindrical
specimen horizontally between the loading
surfaces of a compression testing machine and
the load is applied until the failure of cylinder.

Split Tensile strength

Positioning of cylinder

Split Tensile strength

Formula :

Creep and Shrinkage

Creep is the time dependent increase in strain and
deformation due to an applied constant load
- Reversible creep and irreversible creep
Shrinkage is made up of plastic shrinkage and
drying shrinkage
Plastic shrinkage occurs when the concrete is
plastic and is dependent on type of cement, w/c
ratio, quantity and size of aggregates, mix
consistency etc.
Drying shrinkage occurs when water is lost from
cement gel - Smaller than 1500 x 10 -06 (strain)

Durability of Concrete
Durability of concrete is defined as its ability to resist
weathering action, Chemical Attack or any other process
of deterioration.
Durability of concrete depends on
1. alkali aggregate reaction,
2. freeze-thaw degradation
3. sulphate attack
.Alkali-aggregate reaction :
Certain aggregates react with the alkali of
Portland cement (released during hydration), in the
presence of water, producing swelling - Form maplike cracks - Use low alkali cement to prevent this
effect - Use of fly ash minimizes

Durability of Concrete
Freeze-thaw process:
Water stored in voids of concrete expands as a result of
freezing - Generates stresses that tend to crack the
concrete after a number of cycles - Air entrainment
improves resistance to freezing-thaw cracking

Sulphate attack:
Sulphates in soil and seawater react with aluminates in
cement to produce compounds that increase in volume Leads to cracking - Use low alumina cement - Fly ash
reduces sulphate attack

Carbonation of concrete:
Carbon-di-oxide from the air penetrates the concrete
and reacts with Ca(OH)2 to form carbonates; this
increases shrinkage during drying
(thus promoting
crack development) and lowers the alkalinity of

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