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Telecommunications

Chapter 6
Updated January 2007

Pankos
Business Data Networks and Telecommunications, 6th edition
Copyright 2007 Prentice-Hall
May only be used by adopters of the book

Telecommunications
From Chapter 1:
Data communications
Telecommunications: Voice and Video Communications

6-2

Technical Elements of
the Public Switched
Telephone Network

Figure 6-1: Elements of the Public Switched


Telephone Network (PSTN)

1. Customer Premises
Equipment

1. Customer Premises Equipment

6-4

Figure 6-2: Customer Premises Equipment


Site
Handset

PBX
4-Pair UTP
Telephone Wiring

PSTN

A typical business site.


The private branch exchange is an internal switch for the site.
4-pair UTP was created for business premises telephone wiring
Company is essentially its own telephone company that connects to the
outside PSTN
6-5

Figure 6-1: Elements of the Public Switched


Telephone Network (PSTN)

The Access System consists of


the access line to the customer
(called the local loop)
and termination equipment at the end office
(nearest telephone office switch).
2.
Access Line
(Local Loop)

2. & 3. End Office


Switch (Class 5)

2.
Access Line
(Local Loop)

6-6

Figure 6-1: Elements of the Public Switched


Telephone Network (PSTN)

3. Transport Core
3.
Switch

3. Trunk
Line

The Transport Core connects end office


switches and core switches.
Trunk lines connect switches.

6-7

Figure 6-1: Elements of the PSTN


Telephone Company Switch

6-8

Figure 6-1: Elements of the Public Switched


Telephone Network (PSTN)
4. Signaling System

Transport is the actual transmission of voice.


Signaling is the control of calling
(setup, teardown, billing, etc.).
SS7 in the United States
C7 in Europe

6-9

Figure 6-3: Points of Presence (POPs)


Local Access and Transport Area (LATA)
Local
Carrier 1
Switch

POP

Other Local Area


Long-Distance
Carrier A

POP

International
Carrier X
Local
Carrier 2
Switch
Local
Carrier 1
Customer

Other Country
Local
Carrier 2
Customer

In the U.S., competing


carriers connect at
points of presence (POPs).

6-10

Figure 6-4: Circuit Switching


The PSTN
has traditionally used
circuit switching.

A circuit is an end-to-end
connection between two subscribers.
Capacity is reserved on all
trunk lines and switches along the way.
Capacity must be paid for even if it is not used.

6-11

Figure 6-5: Voice and Data Traffic


Full-Duplex (Two-Way) Circuit
Voice Traffic:
Fairly Constant Use;
Circuit Switching Is
Fairly Efficient
Full-Duplex (Two-Way) Circuit
Data Traffic:
Short Bursts,
Long Silences;
Circuit Switching Is
Inefficient

The reserved capacity of circuit switching


is OK for voice, but not for bursty data transmission.

6-12

Figure 6-6: Dial-Up Circuits Versus Leased Line


Circuits

Operation
Speed for Carrying
Data
Number of Voice
Calls Multiplexed

Dial-Up Circuits

Leased Line Circuits

Dial-Up. Separate
circuit for each call.

Permanent circuit,
always on.

Up to 56 kbps
Residence can only
Send up to 33.6 kbps

56 kbps to gigabit
speeds

One

Several due to
multiplexing

There are two types of circuits between customer premises:


ordinary dial-up circuits and leased line circuits.

6-13

Figure 6-7: Local Loop Technologies


Technology

Use

Status

1-Pair Voice-Grade
UTP

Residences

Already installed

2-Pair Data-Grade
UTP

Businesses for
Lowest-speed
access lines

Must be pulled to the


customer premises
(this is expensive)

Optical Fiber

Businesses for
higher-speed
access lines

Must be pulled to the


customer premises
(this is expensive)

Residential 1-pair voice-grade UTP is already installed.


This makes it inexpensive to use
Business 2-pair data-grade UTP and fiber for leased lines
must be installed; this is expensive.

6-14

Figure 6-8: Analog Telephone Transmission

Analog
(Analogous)
Electrical Signal
Sound
Wave

Analog signals rise and fall in intensity with the human voice.
No resistance to errors as there is in digital transmission.
Initially, the entire PSTN was analog.

6-15

Figure 6-9: The PSTN: Mostly Digital with Analog


Local Loops
Today's Telephone Network: Predominantly Digital

Local
Loop
(Analog)
Residential
Telephone
(Analog)

Local
Loop
(Digital)

Switch
(Digital)
Switch
(Digital)

Trunk Line
(Digital)

Switch
(Digital)

PBX
(Digital)

Today, everything is digital except for the


local loop access line and residential telephones.
The actual local loop line can carry either analog or digital signals,
but the equipment at both ends is analog.

6-16

Figure 6-10: Codec at the End Office Switch

Telephone
Home

Analog Signal

ADC

Local Loop

Codec
DAC

Digital
Signal

Digital Switch
End Office

A codec at the end office translates between


residential analog and PSTN digital signaling.
ADC = analog to digital conversion
DAC = digital to analog conversion

6-17

Figure 6-11: Frequency Division Multiplexing


(FDM) in Microwave Transmission
Box:
Codec Operation
Microwave uses
radio transmission
for PSTN trunk lines

Channel 1 / Circuit A
Channel 2 / Circuit D
Channel 3 / Circuit C
Channel 4 / Unused
Channel 5 / Circuit E

Each circuit is sent in a separate channel.


If channel bandwidth is large,
there will be fewer channels.
Voice uses 4 kHz-wide channels
to allow more channels.

6-18

Figure 6-12: Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC): Bandpass


Filtering and Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)

Step 1: Bandpass Filtering


Analog Voice
Signal

Subscriber

Box:
Codec
Operation

Analog Electrical
Signal

Filteratat
Filter
End Office Switch
End Office Switch

At the end office, the voice signal is bandpass-filtered


to limit its bandwidth to 4 MHz.
This permits more calls to be multiplexed on trunk lines

6-19

Figure 6-12: Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC): Bandpass


Filtering and Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
Box:
Codec Operation
Step 1: Bandpass Filtering
Signal

0 Hz

Energy Distribution of
Human Speech Along the
Frequency Spectrum

300 Hz

3,400 Hz (3.4 kHz)

20 kHz
Frequency

Bandwidth (3.1 kHz)

Actually, to provide a safety margin, the signal


is filtered to between about 300 Hz and 3.4 kHz
instead of from 0 Hz to 4 kHz.

6-20

Figure 6-12: Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC): Bandpass


Filtering and Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
Step 2: Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Sampling
255 (maximum)
Analog
Signal

Duration
of Sample
(1/8000 sec.)

Box:
Codec Operation

Signal
Amplitude

Nyquist found that signals must be


sampled at twice
their highest frequency.
Sample
For a top frequency of 4 kHz,
Intensity
Sample
thereofmust
be 8,000 samples per second.
(125/255 or Each
01111101)
sample is 1/8000 second.

Time

6-21

Figure 6-12: Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC): Bandpass


Filtering and Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
Step 2: Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Sampling
255 (maximum)
Analog
Signal
Signal
Amplitude

Duration
of Sample
(1/8000 sec.)

In each sampling
period, the intensity
of the signal is
measured.
In pulse code
modulation, the
signal is measured
as one of 256
intensity levels.

Box:
Codec Operation

Sample
Intensity of Sample
(125/255 or 01111101)

Time
One byte stores
one sample.

6-22

Figure 6-12: Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC): Bandpass


Filtering and Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
Step 2: Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Sampling
255 (maximum)
Analog
Signal

Duration
of Sample
(1/8000 sec.)

Signal
Amplitude

Sample
Intensity of Sample
(125/255 or 01111101)

Pulse Code
Modulation (PCM)
produces
8,000 one-byte
samples per second.
This is 64 kbps
of data.
Time
Box:
Codec Operation

6-23

ADC Recap

Box:
Codec Operation

First, Bandpass-Filter the Incoming Signal to 4 kHz


Really about 300 Hz to 3.4 kHz
To reduce transmission requirements

The Codec then Uses PCM for the Conversion


Samples at twice the highest frequency (4 kHz so 8,000
samples/second)
Loudness is recorded with 8 bits per sample (to give 256
loudness levels)
Generates 64 kbps of traffic (8 bits/sample times 8,000
samples per second)
6-24

Figure 6-13: Digital-to-Analog Conversion (DAC)


Box:
Codec Operation

One 8-Bit
Sample

One 8-Bit
Sample
00000100 00000011 00000111

To Customer:
Generated analog signal
(Sounds smooth because
the sampling rate
is very high)

DAC
at End
Office
Switch

From digital PSTN network:


Arriving digital signal

from the PSTN Core


(8,000 Samples/Second)

6-25

Figure 6-14: Cellular Telephony


Mobile Telephone Switching Office

Cellsite
G

PSTN
D

Channel
47

B
A

K
H

C
I
In cellular technology, the region
F
is divided into smaller cells.
J
In each cell, a cellsite serves
cellphones in the cell.

N
L

P
O

Handof

6-26

Figure 6-14: Cellular Telephony


Cellsites

6-27

Figure 6-14: Cellular Telephony


Switching
Office
ChannelsMobile
can beTelephone
reused in different
cells.
Channel reuse supports more customers.
This is the reason for using cells.
Cellsite
(Channel 47 is reused in cells
A, D, and F)
G

PSTN

Channel
47

B
A

K
H

E
C

N
L

O
M

P
Handof

6-28

Figure 6-14: Cellular Telephony


Mobile Telephone Switching Office

Cellsite
PSTN
When a subscriber moves from one
D
cell to another
in a cellular system,
Channel
B
this 47
is called a handoff.
A
E
When a subscriber moves from
one city to another, this is Croaming.
F
(In WLANs, handoffs and roaming
mean the same thing.)

G
K
H

N
L

P
O

Handof

6-29

Figure 6-14: Cellular Telephony


Mobile Telephone Switching Office

Cellsite
G

PSTN
D
Channel
47Mobile Telephone
B
The
Switching Office
A (MTSO) E
coordinates the cellsites and
implements signaling andChandoffs.

K
H
L
I

P
O

The MTSO also connects


cellphones to the PSTN
(called the wireline network).

Handof

6-30

Cellular Technologies
GSM is the worldwide standard for cellular voice
Uses time division multiplexing (TDM)
Uses 200 kHz channels
Divides each second into many frame periods
Divides each frame into 8 slots
Gives same slot in each frame to a conversation
Time Frame 1
Slot 1
Slot 2
Conversation Conversation
A
B

Frame 2
Slot 8
Slot 1
Conversation Conversation
H
A

6-31

Cellular Technologies
Cannot use the same channel in adjacent cells
So can only reuse a channel about every 7 cells
For example, suppose there are 50 cells
Channel can be reused 50 / 7 times
This is 7 (not precise, so round things off)
So each channel can support 7 simultaneous
customers in these 7 cells

6-32

Cellular Technologies
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
Also used in the United States
A form of spread spectrum transmission
Unlike traditional spread spectrum technology, multiple
users can transmit simultaneously
1.25 MHz channels
Can support many users per channel

Can use the same channel in adjacent cells


So can only reuse a channel in every cell
6-33

Figure 6-15: Voice over IP (VoIP)


VoIP carries telephone calls over
LANs and the Internet

PC with
Multimedia Hardware
and VoIP Software

With IP, there is no wasted capacity


as there is with circuit switching.
This reduces cost.
Internet
Media
Gateway

IP Telephone
with
Codec and
TCP/IP Functionality

PSTN

6-34

Figure 6-15: Voice over IP (VoIP)


Stations can be special IP telephones
with IP functionality

PC with
Multimedia Hardware
and VoIP Software

Or a PC with multimedia hardware


and VoIP software
IP phones need a codec to convert
Internet
voice analog signals from the microphone
into digital IP signals
Media
Gateway

IP Telephone
with
Codec and
TCP/IP Functionality

PSTN

6-35

Figure 6-15: Voice over IP (VoIP)

A media gateway connects a


VoIP network to the PSTN
PC with
Multimedia Hardware
and VoIP Software

Handles transport and signaling differences

Internet
Media
Gateway

IP Telephone
with
Codec and
TCP/IP Functionality

PSTN

6-36

Figure 6-16: Speech Codes


Codec
G.711
G.721
G.722
G.722.1
G.723.1A

Transmission Rate
64 kbps (pulse code modulation)
32 kbps (adaptive PCM)
46, 56, or 64 kbps
24, 32 kbps
5.3, 6.3 kbps

There are several codec standards.


They differ in transmission rate, sound quality, and latency.
Both sides must use the same codec standard.

6-37

Figure 6-17: VoIP Protocols


Signaling: SIP or H.323
(Call setup, breakdown, accounting, and other supervisory tasks)

VoIP Transport Packet


Codec Data
Stream

PC with Multimedia and


VoIP Software

RTP
Hdr

UDP
Hdr

IP
Hdr

Transport
(Voice transmission)

IP Telephone

Transport is the transmission of voice


(carries codec data).
Signaling is call supervision.

6-38

Figure 6-17: VoIP Protocols


1. VoIP transport packets use UDP at the transport layer.
Signaling: SIP or H.323
(There
is
no
time
for
retransmissions
toother
repair
errors.) tasks)
(Call setup, breakdown,
accounting, and
supervisory
The receiver puts in fill sounds for lost packets.
3.
The application
message is a
codec data
stream
PC with Multimedia and
VoIP Software

VoIP Transport Packet


Codec Data
Stream

RTP
Hdr

UDP
Hdr

Transport
(Voice transmission)

IP
Hdr

IP Telephone

2. The UDP header is followed by a


Real Time Protocol (RTP) header, which contains
a sequence number and timing information.
Receiver uses timing information to smooth out sound playback.

6-39

Figure 6-17: VoIP Protocols


Signaling: SIP or H.323
(Call setup, breakdown, accounting, and other supervisory tasks)

VoIP Transport Packet


Codec Data
Stream

RTP
Hdr

UDP
Hdr

IP
Hdr

Transport
is call
supervision.
(Voice
transmission)
PC with Multimedia and Signaling
H.323 signaling standard came first for VoIP
VoIP The
Software

IP Telephone

signaling.
SIP is simpler and now dominates VoIP signaling

6-40

Video over IP
The Other VoIP
Its not just voice over IP
Video Telephones
Video Conferencing
PC to PC
Multiparty
Sometimes room-to-room
Video Downloads on Demand

6-41

Figure 6-18: Residential Internet


Access Services
Telephone Modems
Broadband Internet Access

Note:
Speeds and Prices
Change Rapidly

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)


Cable Modem Service
3G Cellular Data Service
WiMAX (802.16d and 802.16e)
Broadband over Power Lines
Fiber to the Home (FTTH)

6-42

Figure 6-19:
Telephone Modem Connection to an ISP
Telephone modems
convert digital computer
signals to analog
telephone signals.

Analog
Digital
33.6 kbps

Client A

Telephone Telephone
Modem

PSTN (Digital)

Analog
Access
Line
56 kbps
6-43

Figure 6-19:
Telephone Modem Connection to an ISP

PSTN (Digital) Digital Leased Line


(No Modem)
56 kbps

Digital

ISP does not have a modem.


It has a digital leased line so
can send at 56 kbps.
(There is no bandpass
filtering on digital leased lines.)

33.6 kbps

ISP
6-44

Figure 6-19:
Telephone Modem Connection to an ISP

PSTN (Digital)
Analog
Digital
33.6 kbps

Analog
Access
Line

Telephone Telephone
Modem
Client A
56 kbps

Digital Access Line


(No Modem)
Digital
56 kbps
33.6 kbps

ISP

Circuit
Dial-up circuits connect the client with the ISP.
56 kbps downstream, 33.6 kbps upstream

6-45

Telephone Modem Limitations


Very low transmission speeds
Long delays in downloading webpages

Subscriber cannot simultaneously use the


telephone line for voice calls
Still used by 30% to 40% of Internet users.

6-46

Figure 6-20: Amplitude Modulation

Binary Data

Modulated Analog
Signal
PSTN

Client A

Serial
Cable

Modem Telephone Telephone


Cable
Amplitude Modulation

Modulation is the conversion of binary computer signals


into analog signals that can travel over an ordinary access line.
Demodulation, at the other ends, converts the modulated
1
0 to digital computer
1
signals back
signals. 1

6-47

Figure 6-20: Amplitude Modulation


Modulated Analog
Signal
Binary Data
In amplitude modulation, there are
two amplitude (loudness levels)
one for 1 and one for 0
Serial Modem Telephone Telephone
Cable
Cable

Client A

PSTN

Amplitude Modulation

1011 is loud-soft-loud-loud

6-48

Figure 6-21: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line


(ADSL)
Subscriber
Premises

PC

ADSL
Modem

Splitter

Telephone Company
End Office Switch

Data
WAN
Single Pair of
Voice-Grade
UTP Wires
DSLAM

PSTN

Telephone

ADSL ALSO uses the existing residential local loop technology.


Inexpensive because no need to pull new wires, but
1-pair voice-grade UTP is not designed for high-speed transmission.

6-49

Figure 6-21: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line


(ADSL)
1.
Telephone Company
Subscriberneeds an ADSL modem.
Subscriber
Premises
Also needs a splitter for each End Office Switch
telephone wall outlet.

PC

ADSL
Modem

Splitter

Data
WAN
Single Pair of
Voice-Grade
UTP Wires
DSLAM

PSTN

Telephone

2.
Telephone carrier needs a digital subscriber line
access multiplexer (DSLAM) to separate the two signals.

6-50

Figure 6-21: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line


(ADSL)
Subscriber
Premises

PC

ADSL
Modem

Telephone Company
DownstreamData
Data End Office Switch
Downstream
Up
1.5
Mbps
Up to
to 3
Mbps
Upstream Data
Up to 512 kbps
Single Pair of
Voice-Grade
UTP Wires
DSLAM

Splitter
Telephone

Data
WAN

PSTN

Ordinary Telephone
Service

Unlike telephone modems, ADSL service


provides simultaneous voice and data transmission.

6-51

Figure 6-21: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line


(ADSL)
Subscriber
Premises

PC

ADSL
Modem

Upstream Data
Up to 512 kbps

Data
WAN

Single Pair of
Voice-Grade
UTP Wires

DSLAM
Speed is asymmetric
Ordinary
Telephone
Faster
downstream
than upstream
Service
(Up to 3 Mbps versus up to 512 kbps)
Ideal for Web access
Acceptable for e-mail
Good for residential use

Splitter
Telephone

Telephone Company
Downstream
Data End Office Switch
Downstream Data
Up
Mbps
Uptoto1.5
3 Mbps

PSTN

6-52

Figure 6-22: Cable Modem Service


Maximum download
throughput is about 5 Mbps

Coaxial Cable
in Neighborhood
(Shared Throughput)

ISP
Coaxial Cable
Drop Cable
UTP
or
USB

PC

Cable
Modem

Optical
Fiber to
Neighborhoods
Neighborhood
Splitter

Cable Television
Head End

Subscriber Premises

Cable modem service brings high-speed


optical fiber lines to the neighborhood.

6-53

Figure 6-22: Cable Modem Service

In the neighborhood,
thick coaxial cable
brings service to
households.
ISP

Thick Coaxial Cable


in Neighborhood
(Shared Throughput)
Thin
Coaxial Cable
Drop Cable
UTP
or
USB

PC

Cable
Modem

Subscriber Premises

This bandwidth is
Optical
Fiber toshared by
Neighborhoods
everyone in the
neighborhood.
Neighborhood
Splitter

Cable
Television
A thin
coax
line
Head
End
goes to
each
homes
cable modem.

6-54

Figure 6-22: Cable Modem Service


Thick Coaxial Cable
in Neighborhood
(Shared Throughput)

Maximum download
throughput is about 5 Mbps
ISP

Thin
Coaxial Cable
Drop Cable
UTP
or
USB

PC

Cable
Modem

Subscriber Premises

Optical
Fiber to
Neighborhoods
Neighborhood
Splitter

Cable Television
Head End

Downstream speeds up to 5 Mbps.


Upstream speeds up to about 1 Mbps.

6-55

ADSL versus Cable Modem Service


Do Not Over-Stress the Importance of Sharing
Cable modem service usually is still faster than ADSL
service
DSLAM sharing can slow ADSL service too

The Bottom Line Today:


Cable modem service usually is faster
ADSL service usually is cheaper
ADSL offers more speed-price options

Both are improving rapidly in terms of speed and


(sometimes) price
6-56

Figure 6-23: Third-Generation (3G)


Cellular Data Services
Cellphone connects to computer via a cellphone
modem or USB
Traditional GSM and CDMA
Limited to only about 10 kbps
Far too slow for usability

6-57

Figure 6-23: Third-Generation (3G) Cellular


Data Services
Both GSM and CDMA are evolving
Second Generation (now dominant)
Only 10 kbps data transmission

Third Generation
Low end: comparable to telephone modem service
High end: comparable to low-speed DSL service

Future
Speeds comparable to high-end DSL or cable modem
service
100 Mbps or more (fast enough for good video)
6-58

Figure 6-18: Residential Internet


Access Services
WiMax (802.16)
Wireless Internet access for metropolitan areas
Basic 802.16d standard: ADSL speeds to fixed locations
Will use dish antennas
Just reaching the market
802.16e will extend the service to mobile users
Will use omnidirectional antennas

6-59

Figure 6-18: Residential Internet


Access Services
New
Satellite Internet
Access
Very expensive
Often needed to
serve rural areas

6-60

Figure 6-18: Residential Internet


Access Services
Broadband over Power Lines
Broadband data from your electrical company
It already has transmission wires and access to
residences and businesses
It can modulates data signals over electrical power
lines
It works, but has very limited availability and is slow
Especially promising for rural areas
6-61

Figure 6-18: Residential Internet


Access Services
Fiber to the Home (FTTH)
Carrier runs fiber to the home
Provides speeds of tens of megabits per second for highspeed video, etc.
Less if fiber only goes to the curb (FTTC)
Or to the neighborhood (FTTN)
Much faster than other residential internet access
services
Could dominate residential (and business) Internet
access in the future

6-62

Internet Access and VoIP


Most ISPs are Planning to or Already Provide VoIP
Telephone Service
An alternative to the local telephone company service
Media gateways will interconnect with the PSTN
Should be less expensive that traditional phone service
Questions remain
Voice quality and reliability
911 and 911 location discovery
Regulation and taxation
Laws that require wiretapping with warrants
6-63

Topics Covered

Telecommunications
Data Communications versus Telecommunications
The PSTNs Technical Elements
Customer premises equipment (PBX and 4-pair UTP)
Access system (local loop)
Transport core
Signaling (call setup and management)

POP to interconnect carriers


6-65

Telecommunications
Access Lines
For residences, 1-pair voice-grade UTP
DSL uses existing residential access lines to carry data
by changing the electronics at each end (DSL modem in
the home and DSLAM at the end office switch)
DSL is cheap because 1-p VG UTP is already in place
For businesses,
2-pair data-grade UTP for speeds up to a few Mbps
Optical fiber for faster speeds
Usually must be pulled into place, so expensive
Eventually, fiber to the home (FTTH), FTTC, FTTN
6-66

PSTN Transmission
Circuit Switching
Reserved capacity end-to-end
Acceptable for voice, but not for bursty data transmission
Dial-up and leased line circuits

Analog and Digital Transmission


Analog signals on the local loop
ADC and DAC at the end office switch
ADC: bandpass filtering and sampling for 64 kbps
DAC: sample values are converted to sound levels
6-67

Cellular Telephony
Cells Allow Channel Reuse
Channel reuse allows more customers to be served with
a limited number of channels

GSM: most widely used technology for cellular


telephony
CDMA for greater channel reuse
Handoffs and Roaming

6-68

VoIP
To allow voice to be carried over data networks
Converge voice and data networks
Phone needs a codec
Transport: UDP header followed by RTP header
Signaling: H.323 and SIP
Video over IP
6-69

Residential Internet Access


Services
Telephone Modems
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
Cable Modem Service
3G Cellular Data Service
WiMAX (802.16 and 802.16e)
Broadband Over Power Lines
Fiber to the Home (FTTH)
6-70