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# DERIVATIVES

## Basic Rules of Differentiation

Derivatives of a Function
Derivative of a function at a certain point,
is the slope of the function at that
particular point.
In the previous lesson, we derived the
formula for the derivatives as:
f x h f x
f ' x lim
h 0
h

## Using this formula can be cumbersome.

If this limit exist, for certain values of x in
the domain of function f, we say that the
functions is differentiable at x.

## Basic Rules of Differentiation

In this lesson we are going to
learn and use
some basic rules of
differentiation that are
derived from the definition.
For these rules,
lets assume that we are
discussing
differentiable functions.

## Notations for Derivatives

Apart from f the common
notations for derivatives are:
dy
dx

df
dx

d
f (x)
dx

## Rule 1: Derivative of a constant

d c
0any constant,c.
,
for
dx
This rule states that the derivative of a constant is zero.
For example,

f ( x) 5
f ' ( x) 0

## Rule 2: The Power Rule

d xn
nx n 1
dx, where n is any real number

## This rule states that the derivative of x raised to a power is the

power times x raised to a power one less or n-1.
For example,

f x x5
f ' x 5x 4
Notice that the derivative is the original power, 5 times x
raised to the fourth, which is one less than 5.

## Rule 3: Derivative of a Constant Multiple of a Function

d
cf ( x, )where
c dc isf (ax)constant

dx
dx

## This rule states that the derivative of a constant times a

function is the constant times the derivative of the function.
For example, find the derivative of f x 5x 4

d
f x d 5x 4
dx
dx
d 4
5
x
dx
5 4 x3

20 x 3

## Rule 4: Derivative of a Sum or Difference

d
d
d
f ( x) g ( x) f ( x) g ( x)
dx
dx
dx

d c
0
dx

## This rule states that the derivative of a sum or difference is

the sum or difference of the derivatives.
For example, find the derivative of x2 +2x -3

d 2
d 2
d
d
x 2x 3
x 2 x 3
dx
dx
dx
dx
2x 2 0
2x 2

## The derivative of x squared is done by the Power Rule (2), the

derivative of 2x is done by rule 3 and power rule and the derivative
of 3, a constant is 0.

x
dx

## More Examples: Find d

Youll notice none of the basic rules specifically mention radicals, so you
should convert the radical to its exponential form, x1/2 and then use the
power rule.

d
dx

d 12 1 12 1 1 21
1
1

x x x x 1
dx
2
2 x
2
2
2x

More Examples:

d 4 x3 2 x 7

dx
x

Find

Rewrite the expression so that you can use the basic rules of differentiation.

4 x3 2 x 7 4 x3 2 x 7

4 x 2 2 7 x 1
x
x
x
x
Now differentiate using the basic rules.

d 4 x3 2 x 7
d

4 x 2 2 7 x 1
dx
x
dx

d
d
2 d 7 x 1
4x2
dx
dx
dx
4 2 x 0 7 1x 11

8 x 7 x 2
7
8x 2
x

## Another example: Find the slope and equation of the tangent

line to the curve
y 2 x 2 at1 the point (1,3).

Recall from the previous lesson, the derivative gives the slope of the tangent to the
curve. So we will need to find the derivative and evaluate it at x = 1 to find the
slope
at the point (1,3). Then well use the slope and the
point to write the equation of the tangent line
using the point slope form.

## Another example: Find all the x values where y x 3 2 x 2 x

has a horizontal tangent line.
Find the derivative.

d 3

x 2 x 2 x 3x 2 4 x 1
dx
Since horizontal lines have a slope of 0, set the derivative equal to 0 and
solve for x.

3x 2 4 x 1 0

3x 1 x 1 0

3x 1 0 or x 1 0
x

1
or x 1
3

## Thus the x values where

the function has horizontal
tangents is at x = -1 , -1/3.

The graph below shows the function from the last example
and the horizontal tangent lines at x=-1 and x=-1/3.

## Rule 5: Product Rule

d
f ( x) g ( x) f ( x) g ( x) g ( x) f ( x)
dx
In other words:
The derivative of f times g is the first
times the derivative of the second plus
the second times the derivative of the
first.

Product Rule
d
f x g x
dx

d
d
f ( x) g ( x) g ( x) f ( x)
dx
dx

1 x 2 x 5 21x

3
7
2
Ex. f ( x) x 2 x 5 3x 8 x 1

f ( x) 3 x 2 2 3 x 7 8 x 2
Derivative
of the first
function

16 x

Derivative of
the second
function

9
7
6
4
2

f ( x) 30 x 48 x 105 x 40 x 45 x 80 x 2

## Another notation to express the product rule:

Some times the two functions are expressed
as u and v, so here u is u(x) and v is v(x)
meaning both are functions of x.

d
dv
du
uv u v
dx
dx
dx

d uv u dv v du

## This is sometimes memorized as:

d 2
3
x 2 3 6 x 2 5 2 x3 5 x 2x
x

3
2
x

5
x

dx

d
5
3
3
2
x

5
x

6
x
15 x

dx

d
2 x 5 11x 3 15 x
dx

10 x 4 33 x 2 15

6 x 4 5 x 2 18 x 2 15 4 x 4 10 x 2
10 x 4 33x 2 15

f(x) of
(2x2 1)(3x . 4)
Find the derivative
1. The Product Rule

first

derivative of
derivative of
second

the second
the first

d
3x 4 (3x 4) d 2 x 2 1
dx
dx
f ( x) (2 x 2 1) 3 (3 x 4) 4 x
f ( x) (2 x 2 1)

f ( x) 6 x 2 3 12 x 2 16 x
f ( x) 18 x 2 16 x 3
2. Same derivative by expanding and using the Power Rule.

f ( x) (2 x 2 1)(3 x 4)
f ( x) 6 x 3 8 x 2 3x 4
f ( x) 18 x 2 16 x 3

## Notice in the first example, finding the derivative of the

function

f ( x) ,(2 x 2 1)(3 x 4)

## the derivative could be found

two different ways. Whether you use the Product Rule or
rewrite the function by multiplying and find the derivative
using the Power Rule, the result or the derivative,

f ' x 18 x,2 16 x 3

Find f(x) for

f x x3

x 1

3

f ( x) x x 1

## Now use the Product Rule.

1
2

derivative of
derivative of
second

f ' x first
the second
the first

1
1

d 3
d
3
2
2
x 1 x 1
f ( x) x
x

dx

dx

Example 2 continued
1
1
d 2 2 d 3
x 1 x 1
f ( x) x
x

dx

dx
1
1

3 1
2
2

f ( x) x x 0 x 1 3 x 2
2

5
1 52
f ( x) x 3 x 2 3x 2 Recall when you are multiplying
2
the same base you add the exponents.

7 52
f ( x) x 3 x 2
2

## *The derivative could also be found by performing the

multiplication and then finding the derivative.

Find the derivative of the function below using the product rule of
differentiation or the power rule.

1
1
y ( x )( x 1)
x
x

d

dx

d
d
f(x) f(x) g(x)
g(x)
f(x)
dx
dx

g(x)
g(x)2

## This rule may look overwhelming with the

functions but it is easy to learn if you can repeat
these words: The derivative of a quotient is the
bottom times the derivative of the top minus the
top times the derivative of the bottom over the
bottom squared.
Derivative of

a quotient

derivative of
derivative of
top

bottom
the top

the bottom

bottom 2

## Expressing quotient rule in terms of function u and v

(remember u and v are functions of x):

du
dv
v u
d u
dx
dx

2
dx v
v

v du u dv
u
d
2
v
v

or

x 2 3 6 x 2 5 2 x3 5 x 2 x
d 2 x3 5 x

2
2
2
dx x 3
x 3

x2 3x 1

dx
x

## First we will find the derivative by using The Quotient Rule

Derivative of

a
quotient

derivative of
derivative of
top

bottom
the
top
the
bottom

d x 3x 1

dx
x

bottom 2

d 2
d
x 3 x 1 ( x 2 3 x 1) x
dx
dx
x2
x 2 x 3 ( x 2 3x 1) 1

x2
2 x 2 3x x 2 3x 1

x2
x2 1
2
x

## Another way to do the same problem is to do the division first and

then use the power rule.

x 2 3x 1 x 2 3x 1
x 3 x 1
x
x
x x
Now find the derivative.
2
d
1
x
1
1
2
2
x 3 x 1 0 1 x 1 x 1 2 2
dx
x
x

Again, notice there is more than one method you could use
to find the derivative.

## Example 2: Find the derivative of

f x

x
x2 1

For this quotient doing the division first would require polynomial
long division and is not going to eliminate the need to use the
Quotient Rule. So you will want to just use the Quotient Rule.

f ' x

1 1 x 2 x

x2 1

d
x x d x2 1
dx
dx
2
x2 1

x2 1 2x2

## Differentiable Function are Continuous

A function is continuous at every point where it has a derivative.

Theorem 1
If f has a derivative at x = c, then f is continuous at x = c.

## Continuous Function may or may not be Differentiable

For Example the absolute function, f =|x|, is
not differentiable at x = 0,

f x h f x
f ' x lim
h 0
h

dy
y
dx

dy d dy d 2 y
y

2
dx dx dx dx

dy
y
dx
y

y
dx

(y double prime)

## is the third derivative.We will learn

later what these
higher order
derivatives are
used for.
is the fourth derivative.

## Higher Order Derivatives:

Find the second and third derivative of the function below:

y 4x 7x 9
5

CONCLUDING REMARKS

CONCLUDING REMARKS