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OUTLINE
h The History
h The State
h The Market
h The Public
h Conclusion
THE HISTORY
The beginning

h 1926: 1st film in Indonesia:


µLoetoeng Kasaroeng¶

h 1920s: Indonesian Film


Industry started by Chinese
& Dutch traders

h Japan¶s occupation:
- no imported films
- no commercial films
- only propaganda films
Independence Era: 1945-1950
h Government established some
film institutions: PFN, PARFI,
GPBSI
h Imported films > national films
h 1948 : Cine Drama Institute
established
h Indonesian film makers started
to produce films
OLD-ORDER ERA
h More Indonesian
filmmakers & film
organizations
h Some filmmakers study
abroad
h The most popular film:
Darah & Doa (Blood &
Prayers) by Usmar Ismail,
challenge American film
distributors
h Main theme: drama &
speech
NEW-ORDER ERA
h 1970-1980s: peak of
film industry
h State¶s intervention
on national film:
production,
distribution,
exhibition
h 1990s: the decline of
film industry
h 1998: µKuldesak¶, a
collaborative
production of some
young film makers,
signed the shifting of
seniority in film
production system
REFORM ERA
h 1998-now : more independent films
h 2000 ± 2002: shifting of production
and consumption system
h 2006: returning Citra to
Government
h 2007-now: anti-censorship
movement
THE STATE
STATE: REGULATION &
INTERVENTION
h Out of date law & regulation
1. Film Ordonantie No. 507, 1940
(Dutch era)
2. UU (The Film Act) No. 1, 1964
(Old Order)
3. UU (The Film Act) No. 8, 1992
(New Order)
h Censorship (film-cutting) is still applied
h Expensive tax: materials, artists,
company, audience
h No tax return to film industry
Who¶s in the power (Satriago&Wiroto 2007)
Major business players Govt. action themes Impact
producers distributor exhibitors
s
Dutch Dutch Dutch Endorsed movie Local excotism Growth of number of
The Ducth and theatre theatres
European+US Chinese China Local drama
Chinese- Overseas Overseas business Folklore Emerged of local talents
Indonesian development
Local

The Japan Japanese Japanese Japanese Banned of non- Japanese Closing of Chinese
Govt.+ Govt. controlled Japan allied propaganda owned companies
Colonialism Indonesian movies Nationalism Growth of stage
controlled Endorsed local perfomances
Era company movies for Japan Growth of nationalism
propaganda spirit

Locals Locals Locals Banned of Nationalism Film as political tools for


Old Order American Movies communication
Chinese- Chinese- Chinese- Drama
Indonesians Indonesian Indonesian Import movies from Indiia
Groups Groups and Mandarin flooded

Locals PERFIN GPBSI Import film quota War-propaganda Film is controlled


New Order
Chinese- Treat film as Sex Mushrooming of rural
Indonesians information tools violence theatre
India- Commedy
Indonesians Action
Young Producers Group 21 Treat film as Teenage drama Growing of local
Reform cinemas distribute cultural assets production and new
Social/cultural
The big 5- directly behavior young talents
sinetron phenomena Indonesian movies
Independent Political content accepted in international
film makers festivals
THE MARKET
MARKET: IMPORT, TV, PIRACY
h Imported films:
Hollywood & Bollywood
h Free films in nationally
broadcasted
television stations that
VCD¶s and DVD¶s piracy
h The decline of theatre¶s
number (non-group)
h The rise of mal-theatres
h Hidden data of number
audience in theatres
FILM PRODUCTION CYCLE
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INDUSTRY STRUCTURE- NATIONAL
FILM
 
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NATIONAL FILM PRODUCTION
800 721
700 1940-
604 s
600 1950-s
500 1960-s
401
400 321 1970-s
300 1980-s
200 1990-s
44 65 86 01-05
100
0
National vs imported films

imported
films ota
imported
films
national
films

s s s
Theatres, Screen, Seats & Audience

Theatres Screens Seats Audience in i i n


GAP OF INCOME AMONG PLAYERS
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PUBLIC
Public: appreciation & participation
h Shifting audience: adult ->
young
h More independent films
- national/jakarta 2002-
2004:1600 films
 Local Yogya Film: 2000-
2008: 270 films
h More film festivals
h More independent µtheatres¶
h More channel of distribution
CONCLUSION
The future of Indonesian
film
h Indonesian film industry lies on the
dynamic interplay between state,
market and public
h The regulation on film industry shows
government¶s ambivalence
- national film: government¶s
- imported film: private companies
(under multinational companies)
h The momentum: political will, human
resources, technology, potential
audience, appreciations, independent
films, alternative exhibitors
THE END «.