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MORPHOLOGY OF
FLOWERING
PLANTS

MORPHOLOGY -

Study of external character


of an organisms.
ANGIOSPERMSFlowering plants.
3

Leafs,roots and stem are called


vegetative parts
Because they can store food unlike
flowers which cannot

PARTS OF FLOWERING
PLANTS

PARTS OF FLOWERING
PLANTS

PARTS OF FLOWERING
PLANTS
Root system - parts of plants below the soil
surface
Shoot system - above the soil surface
Stem
- main axis of shoot
Leaf
- green, flat, photosynthetic
Node
- parts of stem from where leaf
originate
Internode
- space between adjacent node
Axillary bud
- bud found from axil of leaf
Terminal bud (apical bud) - bud at the tip
8

THE ROOT

Non-green underground part


Radicle of the embryo
Positive geotropic
Positive hydrotropic
Negative phototrophic
Branches of root developed from
pericycle (endogenous in origin)

TYPES OF ROOT SYSTEM


Tap

root system
Fibrous root system
Adventitious root system

10

TAP ROOT

Consists of a main roottap root or primary root


Primary root penetrates
into the deep soil- fixes
the plant body
Lateral roots are
developed from primary
root- absorb nutrients
E.g. Hibiscus

11

Tap root is the direct prolongation of


the radicle of the embryo
12

FIBROUS ROOT
SYSTEM

Radicle

stops its
growth and fibrelike structures
are developed
They do not
penetrate into
the deep soil
E.g. root system
of grass

13

ADVENTITIOUS ROOT
Root which SYSTEM
developed from
any part of the
plant body other
than the root
system
E.g. Banyan tree
(roots are
developed from
lateral
branches)

14

FUNCTIONS OF
ROOT
SYSTEM
To

anchor the plant to the soil


To absorb water and nutrients
Some roots modified to perform
special functions like
respiration, food storage,
assimilation, mechanical
support etc.
15

MODIFICATION OF ROOT
TAP ROOT MODIFICATIONS:

1.Conical
2.Fusiform
3.Napiform
4.Tuberous
16

MODIFICATION OF ROOT
ADVENTITIOUS ROOT MODIFICATION

1. Tubercular
2. Fasciculated
3. Beaded root
4. Nodulous

root
5. Prop root

6. Stilt root
7. Climbing root
8. Assimilatory root
9. Haustoria
10. Velamen root
11. Respiratory root

17

TM1: CONICAL
Root

is swollen
i.e. broad at
the tip and
tapers towards
the lower end
E.g. Carrot
18

TM2: FUSIFORM ROOT


Root

is swollen
in the middle
and tapering at
the tip + base
Spindle shaped
E.g. Radish
19

TM 3: NAPIFORM ROOT
Swollen
spherically at
the upper end
Sharply tapering
towards the
lowering end
E.g. beet root
20

21

TM 4: TUBEROUS ROOT
Root is thick
and fleshy but
does not have a
definite shape
E.g. Mirabilis
22

AM 1: TUBERCULAR
ROOT
Root is swollen
+ no definite
shape
They occur
singly
Food storage
E.g. Sweet
potato

23

AM2: FASCICULATED
ROOT
Storage

root
occur as a
cluster at the
base of the stem
Food storage
E.g. Asparagus
24

AM 3: MONOLIFORM
ROOT
Storage root swell at interval

Food storage
Beaded structure
E.g. Bitter gourd

25

AM 4: NODULOSE ROOT
Slender root
swollen at the tip
Food storage
E.g. Mango ginger
26

AM5: PROP (PILLAR)


ROOT
Adventitious

aerial root
Produced from
stem or branch
Active as a pillar
supporting the
plant
E.g. Banyan tree

27

AM6: STILT ROOT

Adventitious
aerial root
Developed from
lowermost node
of aerial stem
Support the
main stem
E.g. Screw pine,
Sugar cane
28

Adventitious
root green in
colour
Presence of
chlorophyll
Photosynthetic
in function
E.g. Tinospora
29

AM8: HAUSTORIA
(SUCKING ROOT)
Seen in parasitic plant (live on
other plants and absorb food from
it)
Parasitic plant produces
adventitious root which enter the
host and absorb food from it. These
specialised sucking roots are called
Haustoria
E.g. Loranthus, Cuscutta

30

LORANTHUS

1. Partial

stem
parasite
2. They prepare
their own food
material
3. Haustoria
establish contact
with the xylem
only

CUSCUTTA

1. Total

stem
parasite
2. They absorb
food materials
from the host
3. Haustoria
establish
contact with the
xylem and
phloem
31

32

AM 9: VELAMEN ROOT
Moisture absorbing
Aerial
Seen in epiphytic
plant (depending the
host only for shelter)
Velamen root- Absorb
moisture
Clinging root- for
attachment
33

AM 10: RESPIRATORY
ROOT
(PNEUMATOPHORE)

Marshy plant less


oxygen content)
Negatively
geotropic
Respiratory root
E.g. Mangroves
(Avicennia)

34

STEM

Aerial part of the plant body


Developed from plumule
Positively phototropic
Negatively geotropic
Exogenous origin
1. Reduced stem
2. Erect stem
3. Weak stem
35

STEM
FUNCTIONS
1. Support for the branch.
2. Conduction of water and minerals.
3. Transportation of food.
4. Modified to perform special
functions like storage,
photosynthesis etc.
36

S 1: REDUCED
STEM
Under ground
structure
Non-green
Produce aerial
shoot
E.g. Onion, Garlic
37

38

S2: ERECT STEM


Strong and remain erect
without any support
1. Caudex
- e.g. Coconut tree
2. Culm
- e.g. Bamboo
3. Decurrent
- e.g. Teak
4. Excurrent
- e.g.
Eucalyptus
39

CAUDEX
Unbranched
Cylindrical
Crown of
leaves at the
tip
E.g. Coconut,
Areca nut

40

CULM

Erect stem with solid and hollow internodes


E.g. Bamboo, Wheat
41

DECURRENT
The trunk
disappears after
some distance
+
divided into
several branches
E.g. Teak, Ficus
42

EXCURRENT
Main stem is
thickest at the base
+
tapers gradually
towards the apex
E.g. Eucalyptus,
Polyalthia (Mast tree
or Arana maram)
43

S 3: WEAK STEM
Slender stem
Cannot stand
erect.
May climb upon a
support.
May grow
prostrate on the
ground
E.g. Passion fruit,
Cucurbita etc.

44

STEM
MODIFICATION
Modified to perform
1. Vegetative propagation
2. Perennation- Tiding over
unfavourable condition
E.g. Amorphophallus (During
unfavorable condition aerial stem
destroys but the under ground stem
survives.
45

SM1: UNDERGROUND STEM


MODIFICATION
They store food materials
Underground stem reduces aerial
shoot
Distinguishable characters of
underground stem from root

1.
2.
3.
4.

Have node and internode


Covered with scale leaves
Adventitious roots
Buds develop from the axils of the
scale leaves
46

The underground modifications are:


RHIZOME
CORM

: E.g. Ginger
: E.g. Amorphophallus

STEM TUBER : E.g. Potato


BULB
: E.g. Onion

47

RHIZOME
Thick, prostrate
Grow horizontally
beneath the soil
Nodes and internodes
Irregularly branched
Stem is thick and
fleshy
E.g. Ginger
48

49

CORM
Solid, condensed
underground stem
Definite shape
Clear apical bud
Grow vertically
Apical bud develop
into aerial shoot
Adventitious root +
scale leaves are
present
E.g. Amorphophallus

50

STEM TUBER
It is the swollen end of
special underground
branch arising from
the axil of a lower
leaf.
Several depressions
are seen on the
surface of the tuber.
Each depression
contains a small bud.
The bud with scars of
scale leaves- eye of
the potato.

51

BULB

Short
Highly condensed
Stem is reduced to
disc like structure
Stem bears root and
scale leaves
Scale leaves- food
storage
Terminal bud- middle
E.g. Onion, Garlic
52

SM2: SUBAERIAL STEM


MODIFICATION

Aerial stem may be erect stem


or
weak stem
Creepers
climbers
Subaerial stem modifications are
1.
2.
3.
4.

Runner
Offset
Sucker
stolon

53

RUNNER

A creeper with
long and slender
internode
Leaves and
adventitious
root developed
from each node
E.g. Oxalis,
Hydrocotyle
54

OFFSET
Creeper with short
and thick
internode
Produce cluster of
leaves and
adventitious root
from the node
E.g. Pistia
55

PISTIA

56

SUCKER

Lateral branch
formed from axillary
bud of the basal
underground portion
of the main stem
The sucker grows
horizontally beneath
the soil, turns
upward with a new
shoot
E.g. Chrysanthemum

57

STOLON
A special type of
runner originate from
the base of the stem
After growing aerially
for sometimes the
branch fixes
downwards to touch
the soil where its
terminal buds give rise
to new shoot and root
E.g. Jasmine

58

SM 2: AERIAL STEM
MODIFICATION
The aerial stem modifications are

1. Tendril
2. Thorn
3. Phylloclade
4. Cladode
59

STEM TENDRIL
Slender, thin,
leafless coiled
structure produced
by weak stem.
Helps the plant body
to climb on support.
TERMINAL BUD - grape vine
AXILLARY BUD - passion
flower
STIPULE
- water melon

60

STEM TENDRIL

61

THORNS

Hard, Straight
Pointed structure
Supportive function
Modification of
axillary bud
Thorn- endogenous
origin
Spine- exogenous
in origin
E.g. Citrus, Rose

62

PHYLLOCLADE

Green, flattened or
cylindrical.
It is a xerophytic
adaptation. Leaves
modified into spine.
It reduces the rate
of transpiration.
Stem and branches
are fleshy.
E.g. Opuntia

63

CLADODE
Cladode is a
phylloclade
having one or
2 inner node
E.g. Asparagus

64

LEAF

Flattened, green, photosynthetic


structure.
Exogenous in origin
Originated from leaf primordia
Leaf primordia are the exogenous
projections of the apical meristem
FUNCTIONS:
1.
2.
3.

Transpiration
Photosynthesis
Respiration
65

STRUCTURE OF LEAF
A dicot leaf
consists of 3 parts:
1. Leaf base
2. Petiole
3. Lamina
66

LEAF BASE
Basal part of the leaf connected with the stem
Stipule
: small lateral outgrowth
developed on either side
of leaf base
Stipulate
: A leaf with stipule
Exstipulate : A leaf without stipule
Pulvinus
: In leguminous plant leaf base
is swollen
The monocot leaf has sheathing leaf base.
E.g. Banana leaf
67

PETIOLE

Stalk of the leaf


Petiolate

: Leaf with petiole


E.g. Hibiscus
Sessile : Leaf without petiole
E.g. Ixora
Rachis : Main stalk of
compound
leaf
E.g. Rose, Moringa
68

LAMINA
The green expanded part of the leaf
Photosynthetic
Midrib
- Part of the petiole
entering into the lamina
Vein
- Branches of Midrib
Leaf apex - Tip of the leaf
Leaf margin- Edge of the lamina
69

TYPES (SHAPE) OF
LEAVES

70

TYPES (SHAPE) OF
LEAVES

71

TYPES (SHAPE) OF
LEAVES

72

TYPES (SHAPE) OF
LEAVES

73

TYPES (SHAPE) OF
LEAVES

74

MARGIN OF LEAF

75

MARGIN OF LEAF

76

MARGIN OF LEAF

77

CLASSIFICATION OF
LEAVES

SIMPLE LEAF
COMPOUND LEAF

1. Pinnately compound leaf


a. Paripinnate
b. imparipinnate
2. Palmately compound leaf
a. Trifoliate
b. Quadrifoliate
c. Multifoliate
78

SIMPLE LEAF
A leaf with
single lamina
E.g. Papaya,
Hibiscus
79

COMPOUND LEAF
A leaf with many lamina
Leaflet or Pinna- Each lamina of
compound leaf.
Rachis- stalk of compound leaf
E.g. Tamarind, Moringa
80

PINNATELY COMPOUND LEAF


Leaflets

are arranged
along 2 sides of
rachis.
E.g. Neem, Moringa
2 types
Paripinnate.
E.g. Tamarind
Imparipinnate.
E.g. Rose
81

Paripinnate and
imparipinnate
Paripinnate leafs have even number of
leaflets .They have a pair of leaflets at
the tip of the rachis
Imapripinnate leafs have odd number of
leaflets ,They have a single leaflet at the
end of the rachis

82

PALMATELY COMPOUND
LEAF

Leaflets are arranged at


tip of the rachis like the
fingers of the palm.
Types:
Trifoliate. E.g. Menthi
Quadrifoliate. E.g.
Fern
Multifoliate. E.g.
Bombax

83

VENATION
Mode of
arrangement of
veins in the lamina
Types:
Reticulate venation
Parallel venation
84

RETICULATE
VENATION
Veins are repeatedly
branched to form a
network. E.g.
Hibiscus

85

PARALLEL VENATION
Veins run parallel
to one another from
Base to apex
or
Midrib to margin
E.g. Banana,
Bamboo
86

PARALLEL VENATION

87

PHYLLOTAXY
Mode of arrangement of leaves on
stem or branch.
Types:
Alternate
Opposite
Whorled
88

ALTERNATE
Single leaf is
produced at a node
Leaves are spirally
arranged
E.g. Hibiscus,
Mango tree
89

OPPOSITE
2 leaves are
produced at each
node just
opposite to each
other
E.g. Ixora,
Calotropis
90

WHORLED
More than 2
leaves are
produced at each
node
Leaves are seen
to be a circle
E.g. Nerium (arali)
91

LEAF MODIFICATION
Leaves

are modified to perform special


functions like
Climbing
Defense
Heterotrophic nutrition
Types:

1. Bladder
4. Leaf tendril
2. Leaf scale 5. Pitcher
3. Leaf spine
92

LEAF SPINE

Modified for defensive purpose.


Character of Xerophytes.
E.g. Opuntia
Here, leaf modification helps
to reduce the rate of
transpiration (loss of water in
the form of vapour through
the stomata)

xc
93

PITCHER
In Insectivorous plant
leaves are modified
to capture insects.
E.g. Nepenthus
Lamina becomes
modified into
coloured flask-like
structure- Pitcher
PhotosynthesisPetiole
94

LEAF BLADDER

UTRICULARIA

95

FLOW
ER
96

FLOWER
Reproductive structure
Pedicel
Stalk of the flower
Thalamus Swollen tip of the pedicel
Floral parts Calyx, Corolla, Androecium
and Gynoecium
Essential parts Androecium and
Gynoecium
Non-essential parts Calyx, Corolla
97

Dichlamydeous Flower with calyx


and corolla. E.g. Ixora

Monochlamydoeus Either calyx or


corolla. E.g. Cocos nucifera

Perianth Undifferentiated calyx and


corolla. E.g. Cocos nucifera
98

Plant having both male and female


unisexual flowers Diecious plant
Plant having either male or female
unisexual flowers-Moneciuos Plant
Plant having unisexual male and female
flowers along with bisexual flowersPolygamous plant
99

Bisexual or intersexual flowerAndroecium + Gynoecium


E.g. Hibiscus
Unisexual flower- Either androecium or
gynoecium.
E.g. Cocos nucifera
Complete flower- Have 4 floral parts
E.g. Hibiscus
Incomplete flower- Any of the floral
part is absent.
E.g. Cocos nucifera
100

Bract- Leaf-like developed from the axil


of the pedicel.
Spathe- Coloured bract

101

PARTS OF FLOWER

102

PARTS OF FLOWER

103

ACTINOMORPHIC
FLOWER

A flower which
can be divided
into 2 equal
halves through
any plane.
E.g. Hibiscus,
Chilli.

104

ZYGOMORPHIC FLOWER
A flower which is
divisible into 2
equal halves
through a single
plane.
E.g. Pea, Beans,
Leucas.
105

ZYGOMORPHIC FLOWER

106

107

CALYX

Outermost whorl
Green in colour
Composed of sepals
Polysepalous- Sepals
are free.
GamosepalousSepals are fused
Petaloid- Coloured
sepal. E.g. Salvia

108

COROLLA
Composed

of petals.
Brightly coloured.
Polypetalous- petals are
free.
E.g. Hibiscus
Gamopetalous- Petals are
fused.
E.g.
Leucas

109

AESTIVATION
Mode

of arrangement of
sepals and petals in a flower.
TYPES:
Valvate
Twisted
Imbricate
Vexillary
110

Without

overlapping
Edges of sepals
or petals just
meet one
another
E.g. Calyx of
Hibiscus
11
1

Overlap

regularly
E.g. Corolla of
Hibiscus

11
2

IMBRICATE
Irregularly

overlap

TYPES:

Quincuncial (2+2+1).
E.g. Calyx of Sweet
potato (Ipomoea)
Ascendingly
imbricate- Overlap
starts from anterior
to posterior.
E.g.
Corolla of
Caesalpinia
113

Vexillary
Its

a type of imbricate aestivation


But here the petals or sepals are
unequal in size

114

ANDROECIUM
Male
reproductive part.
Composed of
stamen.
Each stamen
consists of
filament, anther
and connective.
115

STAMEN

Epipetalous:
Stamen attached
to the petal. E.g.
Brinjal
Episepalous:
Stamen fused
with sepal. E.g.
Quisqualis
(aakaashathetty)
116

Staemen
attached to the
perianth
:Epiphyllus

117

S1: MONADELPHOUS

All the
filament of the
stamen fused
to form a
single bundle.
E.g.
Hibiscus.
118

DIADELPHOUS

When the filament


of the stamen are
fused to form 2
bundles.
E.g. Clitoria
(shanku pushpam)
119

POLYADELPHOUS
When the
filament of
stamen fused to
form many
bundle.
E.g. Bombax

120

STAMEN

121

GYNOECIUM
Innermost whorl

Innermost whorl
Female
reproductive
part
Composed of
carpels.
Carpel consists
of ovary, style
and stigma.

122

CARPEL
Monocarpellary- One carpel.
E.g. Leguminaceae
Apocarpous- Carpels free.
E.g. Rose.
Syncarpous- Carpels fused
to form a single ovary.
E.g. Hibiscus
123

CARPELS

124

Unilocular ovaryOne chambered.


E.g. Pisum,
grasses
Multilocular
ovary- Many
chambered.
E.g. Hibiscus
125

PLACENTATTION
Placenta: is the
special tissue
on which ovules
are developed.
Placentation:
Mode of
arrangement of
ovules on the
placenta within
the ovary.

TYPES:
Marginal
Axile
Parietal
Free-central
Basal

126

MARGINAL PLACENTATION
Ovary is
unilocular
Placenta forms a
Ridge along
ventral suture
And ovules are
borne on this
ridge
E.g. Pea

127

Multilocular ovary
Ovules are
developed on the
placenta at the
central axis of
the septa.
E.g. Lemon,
tomato

128

PARIETAL
PLACENTATION
Ovules

are
developed on
the inner wall
of the ovary or
peripheral
part.
E.g. Cucumber
129

130

FREE-CENTRAL PLACENTATION
Unilocular

ovary
Ovules on the
palcenta are
developed on
the central axis
E.g. Dianthus
131

132

133

BASAL PLACENTATION
Unilocular
ovary
Arranged on
the basal part
of the ovary
E.g. Sunflower

134

135

CLASSIFICATION OF
FLOWERS
Based on the mode of arrangement
of floral parts on the thalamus
flowers may be classified into
Hypogynous flower
Perigynous flower
Epigynous flower
136

HYPOGYNOUS
FLOWER
Gynoecium is at the
top of the thalamus
Other floral parts
are below the
gynoecium
Ovary is superior
E.g. Tomato, Lemon
137

PERIGYNOUS
FLOWER

Thalamus cup-like
All the floral parts
are arranged
around the
thalamus
Ovary is half
inferior or half
superior
E.g. Pea, Rose

138

139

EPIGYNOUS
FLOWER

All the floral


parts are
arranged above
the gynoecium
Inferior ovary
E.g. Sun flower,
Carrot

140

141

INFLORESCENCE
Solitary flowerflower arises singly.
E.g. Hibiscus
InflorescenceBranch bearing
cluster of flower.
E.g. Caesalpinia
Peduncle- Stalk of
the inflorescence.

142

TYPES OF
INFLORESCENCE

Based on the nature of


peduncle + mode of
arrangement of flower
1.Racemose
2.Cymose
143

RACEMOSE
INFLORESCENCE
Peduncle does not terminate
Acropetal succession- Younger
flowers are at the tip while older
flowers are at base
Centripetal arrangement- Younger
flowers are at the centre while older
flowers are at the periphery.
144

R 1: RACEME
Acropetal
E.g. Crotolaria

145

CROTOLARIA

146

R 2: SPIKE
Acropetal
Sessile
E.g. Amaranthus

147

148

R 3: CATKIN
Acropetal
Sessile
Unisexual
E.g. Mulberry
149

MULBERRY

150

R 4: SPADIX
Peduncle- Thick
and fleshy
FlowersUnisexual, sessile
Spathe is present
E.g. Colocasia,
Musa
151

COLOCASIA

152

R 5: CORYMB

Peduncle short
Acropetal
Younger flowerShorter pedicel
Older flowerElongated pedicel
(so same level)
E.g. Cassia (Konna),
Caesalpinia

153

CAESALPINIA

154

R 6: UMBEL
Peduncle short
Flowers
pedicellate
Flowers are at the
tip of the
peduncle
E.g. Carrot,
Coriander (Malli)
155

Coriander and Carrot

156

R 7: HEAD
Peduncle modified
into receptacle
Sessile flowers
Centripetal
Flowers in the head
are called Floret.
E.g. Sunflower,
Marigold (Jamanthi)
157

158

RECEPTACLE

159

CYMOSE
INFLORESCENCE
Peduncle terminate in a flower
Further growth is possible through the
formation of lateral branch.
Lateral branch also ends in with flower.
Basipetal succession- Younger flower
at base, older flower at tip
Centrifugal arrangement- older flower
at centre, younger flower at periphery.
160

C 1: SIMPLE CYME
Peduncle terminate in
a flower
2 lateral younger
flowers are also
developed.
Consists of 3 flowers.
E.g. Jasmine
161

C 2: DICHASIAL
CYME

Peduncle develops
2 lateral branches.
Each lateral
branch consists of
simple cyme.
E.g. Clerodendron
(Peringalam)

162

163

C 3: MONOCHASIAL CYME
Solitary lateral
branch is
developed.
Helicoid- Lateral
branch develops
only on one side of
the peduncle.
E.g. Hamelia

164

Scorpioid

cymeSuccessive
lateral
branches are
developed
alternatively
on both side of
the peduncle.
E.g. Solanum
165

166

C 4: POLYCHASIAL
CYME
More than 2 lateral
branches are
developed
E.g. Calotropis

167

SPECIAL TYPES OF
INFLORESCENCE
Hypanthodium.
E.g. Ficus

168

SPECIAL TYPES OF
INFLORESCENCE

Cyathium.
E.g. Euphorbia

169

SPECIAL TYPES OF
INFLORESCENCE

Verticillaster
E.g. Leucas

170

THE FRUIT

171

THE FRUIT
It is a ripened ovary, developed after
fertilization.
Pericarp- Fruit wall
Pericarp consists of epicarp,
mesocarp and endocarp.
Parthenocarpic fruit- Fruit is formed
without fertilization. Seed is absent.
E.g. Grapes.
172

173

174

THE SEED
It is the ripened ovule
It is made of seed coat and embryo
Seed coat consists of outer testa and
inner tegmen.
Embryo- Multicellular structure developed
from zygote.
Plumule- Apical part of embryo- Shoot
Radicle- Basal part of embryo- Root
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Funicle- Stalk of ovule


Hilum- Point at which funicle attached with the
placenta.
Fertilization- Male gamete + Female gamete
zygote embryo
Male gamete + Female gamete endosperm
Endosperm- nutritive tissue formed as a result
of double fertilization.
Endosperm provides nutrients to the
developing embryo.
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Albuminous seed(endospermous seeds)Seed with endosperm.


E.g. Rice, Coconut
Exalbuminous seed (non-endospermous
seed)- Seed without endosperm. E.g. Bean,
Cashewnut.
In exalbuminous seed nutrients provided by
the cotyledon.
Hypocotyl- Below the cotyledon
Epicotyl- Above the cotyledon
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STRUCTURE OF
DICOTYLEDON SEED

178

STRUCTURE OF
MONOCOTYLEDON SEED

179

Aleurone layer- Endosperm is protected by a


protein layer
Scutellum- Plate-like structure in the ndosperm
Coleoptile- Sheath covered by the plumule.
Coleorhiza- Sheath covered by the radicle.

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