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1.

Juli Novianto Sunarno (AS 187818)


+628578638820
juli.novianto@yahoo.com
2. Yohanes Andika
(AS 187955)
+6285642133606
yohanes_andika@yahoo.com
SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY SOLO INDONESIA
Powerpoint title :

Benefits and Challenges - Natural Gas


for Transportation

Chemical Engineering
Sebelas Maret

university

Benefits and Challenges


Natural Gas for Transportation
Name
: Juli Novianto Sunarno
IC : AS 187818
Email
: juli.novianto@yahoo.com

Name
: Yohanes Andika
IC : AS 187955
2
Email
: yohanes_andika@yahoo.com

Table Of Content
Global Warming

Human Activities to Global Warming


Worlds Energy Demand Forecast
Availability of Natural Gas

Environmentally Friendly of Natural Gas


Economic Benefit
11
Challenge Implementation
13
Conclusion
15
Reference
17

Sea Level Change (mm)

Around 450.000
km3
ice in greenland
melted (19762002)

Sea Level
Rise

SOCIAL PROBLE

By the 2080s, the annual


number of people flooded is
estimated
to R.J.T.,
be 19
million
- Mimura,
34
Source: Klein,
R.J. Nicholls
and N.
19
million.

Source: climate.nasa.gov

http://climate.nasa.gov/keyIndicators/

Carbon dioxide emissions


( x1000 Ton CO2)

40000
30000
20000
10000
0

Year
http://climate.nasa.gov/keyIndicators/

HOW HUMAN ACTIVITIES MAKE IT WORSE

25%
Energy

64%

Transportation

9%

Industry

2%

Other
Sector

INDONESIA
6

Energy Information Administration (EIA) Projection

300
250
200

QudrillionOil
BTU

150

100
Coal
50

Natural gas

Renewable
Nuclear

1980 1990 2010 2020 2030

Environment

Avalability
Of Natural Gas

Economic Benefit

2010 production in billion cubic feet


Natural Gas Production

426

3000

1281

290

2170

SEA total

7500 BCF

103

417

2800

2000
Billion cubic feet
1000

Indonesia
Malaysia

0
1980
year
Fact lists :
1. Proven reserve = 157 TSCF
2. Source
= 594 TSCF (174
3. CBM
= 453 TSCF (133
4. Shale gas = 574 TSCF (168

Source of Natural Gas


9

(46 year
years)
years)
years)

kg CO2/km-passanger
24%
CO Reduction0,0226
0,0172
2

For Gasoline

25%

CO2 Reduction
For diesel

0,0383

0,0293

0,0130

0,0098

0,0087

0,0065

58
million
Vehicles
in
Source : Indonesia Statistic
Indonesia
10

Crude Oli to Gasoline and Diese


gasoline

Transportatio
n

9.5 kg

Refinary

Distribution

CO2/GJ

diesel

7,2 kg

Exploration

CO2/GJ

Extracton and
Processing

Natural Gas
Distribution

4.1 kg
CO2/GJ

57%

CO2 Reduction

11

safe for the atmosphere and human l

Fossil Fuel Emission Levels


- Pounds per Billion Btu of
Energy Input
Pollutant
Natural
Oil
Coal
Gas
Carbon
40
33
208
Monoxide
Nitrogen
92
448
457
Oxides
Sulfur
1
1,122 2,59
Dioxide
1
Particulate
7
84
2,74
s
4
Mercury
0.000 0.007 0.01
6
Source: EIA - Natural Gas Issues

Demand in Southeast Asia 1980 2010 (Billion cub


1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

Indonesi
a
Malaysia
Thailand
Others

Fuel

USD/MJ

USD/liter

bioethanol
CNG
pertamax (high octane
gasoline)
Gasoline
biodiesel
Diesel

0.075
0.040

1.58
0.38

0.034
0.031
0.032
0.025

1.10
1
1.05
0.90

13

Crude Oil Consumption vs


Production
Consumptio
n
1600
Production
1500
1400
1300
1200
Thousand Barrels/day 1100
1000
900
800

Average Consumption

20

million liter/day

Average Productio

16

million liter/day

4
million liter/day

Year

price of natural gas is 55 percent of the price of a liter


of petroleum. Thus to buy a liter of petroleum, the
country had lost 45 percent of foreign exchange. USD
193 billion annually. (esdm.go.id)
the economical price of petroleum is around USD 1
/liter fuel, while in Indonesia the price of 1 liter of
fuel is USD 0.47/liter. The government subsidizes
USD 0.53 for each liter. In 2012, the government
spent USD 3.7 billion on subsidies. (esdm.go.id)
14

Natural gas vehicles cost more because of


onboard fuel storage and engine modifications.

Need additional device at gas station.

Human
activities

CO2

A big Source
We have a large
number of Natural gas
reserve and can meet
local demand up to
years later.
Carbon 400 Emission
Reduction
24% CO2 for gasoline

25% CO2 for diesel


57% for a liter

Natural
gas
produced

conclusion

conclusion

Cheap compare to othe


alternatife energy.
Reduce government burden
for subsidy and import
17

hink for young generation

18

Reference
James Kanter (9 November 2007)."European politicians wrestle with high
gasoline prices". International Herald Tribune.
Klein, R.J.T., R.J. Nicholls and N. Mimura, 1999: Coastal adaptation to
climate change: can the IPCC Technical Guidelines be applied?
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 4(34), 51
64.
Meese, DA, AJ Gow, RB Alley, GA Zielinski, PM Grootes, M Ram, KC Taylor,
PA Mayewski, JF Bolzan (1997)The Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2
th
www.climate.nasa.gov/keyIndicators/,
on Oct 30of
8.00
pm
depth-age scale: Methods and accessed
results.Journal
Geophysical
www.eia.gov,
on102(C12):26,411-26,423.
Oct 28th 8.00 pm
Research. accessed
C. Oceans.
www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenland_ice_sheet.html , accessed on Nov 2nd
5.00 pm
www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/tar/wg2/index.php , accessed on Nov 15th 10.00
pm
www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/science_and_impacts/science/CO2-and-glo
bal-warming-faq.html
, accessed on Oct 30th 10.00 pm
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