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u Fermented juice of grapes or other fruit
± 10 ± 14 % alcohol
± Classified by Colour & by Type
v Light beverage ±  
± Named for grape type w ¯
± Named for growing region w  
v !"#$ ± contains CO2 gas ±
%&!$ (Growing region in
France)

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w
u '"()*+ Brandy or other wine
alcohol added
± Sherry¯ port¯ Madeira
± 20% alcohol
± Sweet & various flavours
‡ u 
P  
 
P     
P      
     
P 

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u Brewed fermented beverage
made from Barley & other starchy
grains flavoured with hops
u 2 - 10 % alcohol
u Types:
± O  ± Normally considered Beer
±  ± Fuller bodied¯ thicker
±   ± Dark ale¯ sweet strong malt flavour

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, 
u Malting

u Mashing

u Fermentation

u Distillation

u Maturation
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%-#./0
=

   

     
         
 
jroduction:
± fermented mash of grain
± Malted barley added to break starch into sugar
± Liquid distilled
± Aged 3 ± 5 years common¯ 12 ± 15 possible
± Blended
± Varying components will vary taste & name

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w
u "-% + produced from several grains¯ malt not
smokey
u '1"' + produced primarily from corn
± Aged in charred barrels¯ can use them only
once
± 70 ± 90% alcohol
u 2'(2% + malt dried over peat fire¯ smokey
flavour
± jopular during prohibition
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%( !"(-
Gin: Most popular single spirit
± Redistill grain spirits with flavouring agents¯
usually 
  
± Easily made
± In London¯ in early years caused problem with
addiction
± During prohibition made in bathtubs
v Tasted pretty bad so added other things
v Was the start of the cocktail

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1&
u Molasses / Bagasse

u Dark / White

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'*# 31

u Many sources u Type of cactus


including potatoes (Liliaceous)
u Lacks colour¯
odour¯ & flavour

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Distillation
u Water ± boils at 100 C (212 F)
u Ethanol ± boils at 78.5 C (173.3 F)
u Mixture is heated
u Ethanol gas is driven off at lower
temperature
u Gathered in condenser¯ various
devices added to minimize water
vapor from escaping

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u Water
u Ethyl Alcohol
u Congeners
± Acids
± Esters
± Aldehydes
± Fusel Oils
± Mineral Salts Extracts
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u   

u ,4 

± Also called -

v Continuous Stills

v jatent Stills

v Coffey Stills

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u The original distillation apparatus
u Batch processing method
u Consists of a receptacle into which the liquid can
be placed and heated
u Long¯ tapered neck attached at the top to collect
the vapours which are formed when the liquid is
heated
u A spiral copper tube is attached to this neck and
this passes through a cooling medium¯ usually
water
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  w 
u The decrease in temperature condenses the
vapour to a liquid again
u jot stills are thought by many to produce a better
and more flavourful product and are used for
most of the world's finest spirits
± Cognac¯ Armagnac & Calvados brandies¯ Malt
Scotch Whisky¯ most Irish Whiskey and some
Rums & Liqueurs

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  w 
u Generally distill at 65-70% alcohol (2nd
distillation¯ the first is much lower) and this is
close to the optimum for fusel oil extraction.
Continuous stills generally draw off the spirits at
higher proofs
u Fusel oil concentrations are likely to be higher
with pot distillation. Esters are concentrated at a
level slightly below fusel oils and are drawn off
quickly in the "heads" fraction

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  w 
u The challenge for the distiller is to include
enough of the esters in the middle distillate
without including undesirable odorous elements
from the heads fraction
u The least volatile elements¯ those in the "tails"
portion¯ are undesirable since they are low in
ethanol and contain heavy¯ unsuitable flavours &
odours. They can¯ however¯ be re-distilled to
recover whatever ethanol they do contain

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, 
 
The middle barrel (the alcoholic portion) from the second
distillation becomes the finished product. Cognac brandy &
Malt Scotch whisky are distilled in this manner

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,4
 

u jroduces a distilled spirit continuously so long


as they are supplied with a spirituous liquid

u The first one invented by Scotsman Robert Stein


in 1826 and the design was perfected and
patented by Aeneas Coffey¯ Inspector General
of Excise in Ireland¯ in 1830

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ww w 

u A very important innovation¯ relative to the pot


still¯ the ability of the continuous still is to
separate the many vapour fractions. The removal
of ethanol from what is basically a water alcohol
mixture is the basic objective of distillation¯ but
there are many other valuable fractions

u The main advantage is speed and increased


productivity

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u Amount of alcohol in final product (Liquor¶s
alcohol content)
u Usually 2 times the % alcohol
u Remainder water
u % alcohol controlled by stopping fermentation
% of initial sugar
u The specific gravity is 0.79¯ a quantity of
alcohol will weigh 79% as much as the same
volume of water
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u The moonshiner¶s test
u The proof system:
v jroof spirits
v Overproof liquor
v jroof numbers

u The US system:
± jercentage by volume
± 200° is pure alcohol
± jroof is twice the % of alcohol
v %1-67 8c9:
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p w    
u The British system: Ý  
u jercentage by weight
± 100° is proof
± 175° is pure alcohol i.e. 75° over proof
v %1-7 !"'')89;<:2'%'c<6:("
± Sells at potable strength of 70° (30° under proof)
v %1-;=c 8c:
;
±  4 ± measures strength at 20°C

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p w    

u The French system: Ý= =  O  


± O° is no alcohol
± 100° is pure alcohol
v %1-7 !"'')8:2'%'
± Measures strength at 15°C

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Beverage is food that is liquid¯ Consumption
varies by brand and type
± Non-alcoholic: Big growth area Flavoured teas¯
coffees¯ bottled water¯ sport drinks¯ and more «.
± Alcoholic Beverage Industry
v Major factor in the world¶s economy
v Respectable profession in most cultures
v Employs millions
v jroduction is a mixture of science and art

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u Dichotomy of feelings
± jromoted by religious groups and condemned by
religions groups
± Doctors recommend it and some condemn it
± jeople use it and abuse it
± Gives pleasure and heartbreak

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u The French system: Ý= =  O   Used
since beginning of time
u Discovery unknown ± probably berries left in sun
± Once process was understood¯ people began to
ferment many foods
u Grapes were cultivated before 6000 BC ± juice
left out to ferment
u During renaissance Catholic church was prime
producer of alcohol: Beer¯ Ale¯ Wine & Cordials
u Alcoholic beverages were sign of hospitality
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'1"2-
‡ "&(('
‡ Sugary mixture + yeast ! ethanol + CO2.

‡
-(('
‡ Capitalizes on the lower boiling point of alcohol (than
water).
‡ The product of fermentation is heated and the vapour
cooled.
‡ Brandy from wine¯ whiskey from ³beer´¯ Rhum from
³molasses´¯ Schnapps from ³potatoes´.
‡ Fortified wines like sherry and port are blends of wine
with extra alcohol to make it 20%.
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(%'1$%'(*)("1?1(&'"')$"$1*>

>*"#-*"#-*"#>

8 8
10 - 12 oz. of = 4 oz.table = 1 ounce of
Beer wine 80 proof liquor
This is just a general guideline. It depends on the amount
of alcohol in the beverage
The higher the proof¯ the higher the alcohol content
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