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ABORTION

Baltazar, Claudine Alexxis J.


Deanon, Rikka Aida R.
Kauting, Bai Snaira
Villamil, Meriel Louise Anne J.

5W+1H
Villamil, Meriel Louise Anne J.

What?

Abortionis the ending of pregnancyby removing a


fetusorembryobeforeitcansurviveoutsidetheuterus.
Abortioniswhenapregnancyisendedsothatitdoesn't
result in the birth of a child. Sometimes it is called
'terminationofpregnancy'.
The term abortion usually designates termination of
gestationbeforetheendofthe28thweekofpregnancy.

Types of
Abortion

Threatened Abortion
Bleedingmaybeonlyslightspotting,oritcanbeheavy.
Painandcrampingareinthelowerabdomen.
Anybleedingotherthanspottingduringearlypregnancyis
consideredathreatenedmiscarriage.
Vaginal examination at this stage usually reveals a closed
cervix.
25% to 50% of threatened abortion eventually results in
lossofthepregnancy.

Types of
Abortion

Inevitable Abortion
Abortioncharacterizedbyruptureofthemembranesor
the cervical dilation in a pre-viable pregnancy in the
presenceofvaginalbleedinganduterinecontractions.
A clinical pregnancy is complicated by both vaginal
bleedingandcramp-likelowerabdominalpain.
Thecervixisfrequentlypartiallydilated,attestingtothe
inevitabilityoftheprocess.

Types of
Abortion

Incomplete Abortion
Partsoftheproductsofconceptionareretainedinthe
uterus.
It involves vaginal bleeding, cramp-like pain, and
cervicaldilatation.
Also,itinvolvesthepassageofproductsofconception,
oftendescribedbythewomenaslookinglikepiecesof
skinorliver.

Complete Abortion
Completeexpulsionofalltheproductsofconception.

Types of
Abortion

After passage of all the products of conception, the


uterine contractions and bleeding subside, then cervix
closes
Thesymptomsofpregnancyarenolongerpresent,and
thepregnancytestbecomesnegative.

Missed Abortion

Types of
Abortion

Occurs when a fetus dies, but the body does not


recognize the pregnancy loss or expel the pregnancy
tissue.
As a result, the placenta may still continue to release
hormones, so the woman may continue to experience
signsofpregnancy.

Recurrent Abortion

Types of
Abortion

It refers to any case in which there have been three


consecutivespontaneousabortions.
Possiblecausesareknowntobegeneticerror,anatomic
abnormalities of the genital tract, hormonal
abnormalities, infection, immunologic factors, or
systemicdisease.

Septic Abortion

Types of
Abortion

Orseptic miscarriageis a form ofmiscarriagethat is


associatedwithaseriousuterineinfection.
Theinfectioncarriesriskofspreadinginfectiontoother
parts of the body and causesepsis, a grave risk to the
lifeofthewoman.
Highfever, chills, severe abdominal pain, prolonged or
heavyvaginalbleeding,foul-smellingvaginaldischarge,
backacheorheavybackpressure

Where?

83%developingcountries
17%developedcountries

Who?

Worldwide
Numberofabortionsperyear:approximately42million
Numberofabortionsperday:approximately115,000

National
Metro Manila has the highest rate at 52 per 1,000
women.
TherestofLuzonhasarateof27per1,000women
MindanaoandVisayashaveasimilarrateof18and17
per1,000womenrespectively.

Who?

Age
50%youngerthan25
33%aged20to24
17%teenagers
1.2%sgirlsunder15

Race
Whitewomenobtain60%ofallabortions,theirabortionrate
iswellbelowthatofminoritywomen
Blackwomenaremorethan3timesaslikelyaswhitewomen
tohaveanabortion
Hispanicwomenareroughly2timesaslikely

Who?

Marital Status
66%ofallabortionsareperformedonnever-marriedwomen
Marriedwomenaccountfor18%ofallabortions
Divorcedwomenobtain9.4%

Religion
Women identifying themselves as Protestants obtain 43% of
allabortionsintheU.S.
Catholicwomenaccountfor27%
Jewishwomenaccountfor1.3%
Women with no religious affiliation obtain 24% of all
abortions
18% of all abortions are performed on women who identify
themselvesasborn-againorEvangelical.

Why?

1%ofallabortionsoccurbecauseofrapeorincest
6% of abortions occur because of potential health
problemswitheitherthemotherorthechild
93%ofallabortionsoccurforsocialreasons(thatis,the
childisunwantedorinconvenient)

How?

Abortion Procedures During First,


Second And Third Trimester
The type of abortion procedure used in elective
pregnancy termination is primarily determined by how
farawomanisintopregnancy.
During the first trimester, you will usually have the
option of having amedical abortion procedureor
asurgicalabortionprocedure.
Before considering the options, it is recommended that
youobtainasonogramtodetermineifthepregnancyis
viable(uterine,non-ectopicpregnancy)andforaccurate
pregnancydating.

How?

What abortion procedures are used


during the first trimester?
Inmostcases,youwillhaveachoicebetweenmedical
orsurgicalabortionproceduresduringthefirsttrimester.
Medical abortions are only available up through nine
weeksgestation.
Thetypesof abortionprocedures performedduringthe
firsttrimesterare:
Methotrexate&Misoprostol(MTX)
MifepristoneandMisoprostol
ManualVacuumAspiration(MVA)
Aspiration

How?

What abortion procedures are used


during the second trimester?
Medication-basedabortionproceduresarenotanoption
duringthesecondtrimester.
Thetypesof abortionprocedures performedduringthe
secondtrimesterare:
Dilation&Curettage(D&C)
Dilation&Evacuation(D&E)
InductionAbortion

How?

What abortion procedures are used during


the third trimester?
Thirdtrimesterorlatetermabortionsarenotlegalinanumber
ofstatesexceptincertainmedicalsituations.
Thetimeframereferredtoaslatetermisoftenbasedonwhena
babyisconsideredviable(abletosurviveoutsidethewomb).
However,thepointofviabilityisagreyareainmanymedical
communities.
Most medical communities establish 24 weeks gestation, the
laterpartofthesecondtrimester,astheearliesttimeofviability.
Therefore, the availability of any procedure used in the third
trimesterisbasedonthelawsofthatstate.
Theproceduresthatcanbedoneinthethirdtrimesterinclude:
InductionAbortion
DilationandExtraction

References

http://americanpregnancy.org/unplanned-pregnancy/abortionprocedures/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion
https://www.bpas.org/abortion-care/consideringabortion/what-is-abortion/
http://www.slideshare.net/crisbertc/types-of-abortion
http://www.abortionno.org/abortion-facts/
http://www.healthline.com/health/miscarriagethreatened#Symptoms2
http://www.medilexicon.com/medicaldictionary.php?t=152
http://medicaldictionary.thefreedictionary.com/incomplete+abortion
https://www.fertilityauthority.com/fertilityissues/miscarriage/missed-miscarriage
http://obgyn.ucla.edu/body.cfm?id=200

PROS OF
ABORTION

PRO-CHOICE ARGUMENTS

Baltazar, Claudine Alexxis J.

Womens
rights

Gives women the full autonomy to decide


what happens or what goes on in their body
Sense of freedom right to have someones
will not imposed upon your own
Right to decide what for your own body

Personhood

A fetus cannot survive on its own and is fully


dependent to its mother and its mothers
body.
The fetus lives because of the woman or the
mother, it exists inside the woman.
The woman has the full autonomy to decide for
her own body.

An abortion is the
pregnancy, not a baby

termination

of

Personhood begins when the fetus is viable or


can survive outside of the womb.
Abortions are usually done on the first trimester
of the pregnancy.

Responsibility

Women practice more responsibility by


choosing to consider what the life of their
future child may be, to prevent putting the
child into suffering.

Selective
abortion

Abortions with cases of rape or abuse are


accepted, but cases in which women choose
to abort the baby on their own are
condemned.
This suggests that the lives of children that
were conceived by rape or abuse have lesser
weight or value than those conceived with
consent.
If the life of the child and the responsibility
raising a child entails is the main concern,
then it should not matter how the child was
conceived.

Safety
issues

If abortion were to be legalized and


performed by well-trained and educated
members of the healthcare team, abortion is
actually one of the safest medical
procedures available.
Death rate of legally performed abortion: 0.01%
A study conducted by Raymond and Grimes in
2012 suggests that risk of death associated with
childbirth is approximately 14 times higher than
that with abortion
Results:

Pregnancy-associated mortality rate among women


who delivered live neonates: 8.8 deaths/100,000 live
births.

Mortality rate related to induced abortion was 0.6


deaths per 100,000 abortions.

CONS OF
ABORTION
PRO-LIFE ARGUMENTS

Banac, Christine Marie M.

What is
abortion in
each of these
four cases?

The fetus is a person, and we know that;


The fetus is a person, but we don't know
that;
The fetus isn't a person, but we don't know
that;

The fetus isn't a person, and we know that.

Abortion is
killing a
life.
All humans are human,
whether embryonic, fetal,
infantile, young, mature, old,
or dying.

Abortion
violates
human
rights.

We have whatever human rights we have


because we are whatever it is that makes us
human.

Abortion for
defects turns
genetic
screening into a
search-anddestroy
mission.

Many individuals in our nation were


defective before birth. Yet they live and
prosper in society despite their impairments.

Abortion shouldn't be a form of birth control.

Contraceptives are readily available prior


conception.

Abortion
exposes
women to
health risks
and the
danger of
losing
fertility.

Ectopic pregnancy
Breast Cancer
Recurrent Miscarriage
Infertility
Infection
Mental distress

Abortion
sidesteps
oppression
of women

Rape

incest

CHURCH
TEACHINGS

EV:58

The Second Vatican Council defines abortion,


together
with
infanticide,
as
an
"unspeakable crime.
The moral gravity of procured abortion is
apparent in all its truth if we recognize that
we are dealing with murder.
The one eliminated is a human being at the
very beginning of life.

EV:59

Direct pressure on the woman to have


an abortion
Indirect pressure: leaving the woman
alone to deal with the pregnancy

Strong pressure that she feels


psychologically forced to have an
abortion
Doctors
and
nurses
are
also
responsible, when they place at the
service of death skills which were
acquired for promoting life.
legislators who have promoted and
approved abortion laws,

EV:60

From the time that the ovum is fertilized, a


life is begun which is neither that of the
father nor the mother; it is rather the life of
a new human being with his own growth.
Abortion should not be justified by claiming
that the result of conception is not yet a
personal human life.
The Church has always taught that the result
of human procreation, must be guaranteed
that unconditional respect which is morally
due to the human being in his or her totality
and unity as body and spirit.

EV:61

Show such great respect for the human


being in the mother's womb
God's commandment "You shall not kill" be
extended to the unborn child as well.
Human life is sacred and inviolable at every
moment of existence, including the initial
phase which precedes birth.