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Chapter 7 : Trials

Ch7. Sea trials / Manoeuvring characteristics of ships


IMO Recommendations MSC 137(76)
The manoeuvrability of ships can be evaluated from
the characteristics of conventional trial manoeuvres.
Two methods can be used:
Scale model tests or computer predictions using
mathematical models at the design stage / full scale trials
must be conducted to validate these results
Full scale trials

Test speed = at least 90% of full speed = 85% of full


engine power

Ch7. Sea trials / Manoeuvring characteristics of ships


Imo Manoeuvring Standards
By resolution A.751(18) in 1993 IMO adopted
Manoeuvring Standards
The standards apply to:
All ships of 100m in lenght and over
All chemical tankers and gas carriers
They consist of:
Turning circles to Port and starboard
Stopping Test
Zig-Zag Test

Ch7. Sea trials / Manoeuvring characteristics of ships


Conditions at which the standards apply
In order to evaluate the performance of a ship,
manoeuvring trials should be conducted to both port
and starboard and at conditions specified below:
.1

deep, unrestricted water (> 4xmean draft)

.2 calm environment (Wind< 5Bft / Sea< 4)


.3 full load (summer load line draught), even keel
condition
.4 steady approach at the test speed(min90% full).
full)

Ch7. Sea trials / Manoeuvring characteristics of ships


Manoeuvring performance has traditionally received little
attention during the design stages of a commercial ship.
Consequently some ships have been built with very poor
manoeuvring qualities, resulting in marine casualties /
pollution.
Designers have relied on shiphandling abilities of human
operators to compensate for deficiencies in inherent
manoeuvring qualities of the hull.
The implementation of manoeuvring standards will ensure
that ships are designed to a uniform standard, so that an
undue burden is not imposed on shiphandlers in trying to
compensate for deficiencies in inherent ship
manoeuvrability.
(Extract of IMO MSC/Circ1053)

Ch7. Sea trials / Preliminary


Forces and motions in manoeuvrability
Definition of the Pivot Point:
the point around which the ship rotates
The centre of the hydrodynamic forces acting on the
ships hull
Position of the Pivot Point:
Depends on the shape of the hull
With no forward speed: pivot point at midship
At speed: pivot point shifts forward

Ch7. Sea trials /Preliminary

The Pivot Point at forward speed

Ch7. Sea trials / Manoeuvring characteristics of ships


1. Course keeping ability and dynamic stability
Dynamically stable ship moves along a new straight
course without using rudder after a small disturbance
Dynamically unstable ship performs turning circle
with rudder amidship

More difficult to handle dynamically unstable ships

Infos on course keeping and dynamic stability:


obtained from Initial turning test

Ch7. Sea trials / Manoeuvring characteristics of ships


Dynamic stability: dynamically stable ships maintain
A straight course with zero rudder

Dynamically unstable ships can only


maintain a straight course by repeated
use of rudder control

Ch7. Sea trials / Manoeuvring characteristics of ships


Factors determining the Directional stability of vessels
Increase with the depth of the water
Increase with the lenght of the ship
Increase with Trim by the stern
Decrease with big blockage factor
Decrease for large vessel (ratio L/B)
Decrease when cross sectional area fwd larger than
cross sectional area after (pivot point moves
forward)

Ro-Ro ships are directionally unstable

They need more rudder to stop a swing than to start a swing

Ch7. Sea trials / Manoeuvring characteristics of ships


Change of trim
Ship by the stern has a better course keeping ability
Ship by the head:
Slow to start a swing
Difficult to stop a swing
In shallow water, a ship gets trim by the head and
looses directional stability

3 STANDARD MANOEUVRES

TURNING CIRCLE

Turning circle: measure of turning ability of vessel

TURNING CIRCLE
To determine the turning ability
- The measure of the ability of a ship using hard-over rudder
- The result is a minimum advance at 90 change of heading
and tactical diameter defined by the transfer at 180
change of heading
- Tactical diameter is usually given as multiplacity of ship lenght

The advance should not exceed 4.5 ship lengths (L)


the tactical diameter should not exceed 5 lengths
Turning circle to be performed with 35Rudder angle

Statendam

Lenght:196m / beam:25m / 24300DWT / Steamship/ 2 propellers/ 19Knots

Advance: 426m
Transfer: 99m
Diameter: 263m
Tact.Dia: 290m

Advance: 426m
Transfer: 94m
Diameter: 258m
Tact.Dia: 292m

Advance: the distance traveled in the direction


of the original course by the midship point of a
ship from the position at which the rudder order
is given to the position at which the heading
has changed 900 from the original course.

Tactical diameter :
the distance
traveled by the
midship point of a
ship from the
position at which
the rudder order is
given to the
position at which
the heading has
changed 1800 from
the original course.

It is measured in a
direction
perpendicular to
the original
heading of the
ship.

TURNING CIRCLE
Comments
Advance of the ship smaller than the distance ahead
with an emergency stop manuvre
Request sufficient searoom on the beam (tactical
diameter)
Test are carried out at sea and not in shallow waters:
parameters are bigger in shallow water because
rudder effect decreases in shallow water due to the
reduced waterflow
Parameters of the turning circle do not change for
different speeds of the ship

TURNING CIRCLE
Drift angle and Pivot point

The pivot point (D) is at the intersection of the longitudinal


axis of the vessel with the radius of the turning circle
The drift angle at the pivot point is zero
The drift angle at the centre of gravity (G)

TURNING CIRCLE

In shallow waters, the drift angle is smaller : the water


resistance decreases and the turning circle is larger

Crablike motion of the ship:


Water resistance reduces the speed
and the diameter of turning circle

TURNING CIRCLE
Forces acting on a ship when
turning

TURNING CIRCLE

TURNING CIRCLE
The turning circle is affected by the effects of wind and
current

Turning characteristics of full


and slender ships

TURNING CIRCLE
Comparison of turning characteristics of full and
slender ships:
Two ships of the same lenght have nearly the same
transfer
Tactical diameters almost the same
Radius of turning circle smaller for tanker
Drift angle much larger for tanker
Pivot point closer to the bow in tanker

TURNING CIRCLE
Water resistance on starboard
Beam during turning circle

ZIG-ZAG TEST

ZIG-ZAG TEST (Kempf)


Yaw checking ability a measure of :
the response to counter-rudder (Overshoot angle and
overshoot time)
Measure of the ability to initiate and check course
changes
Two tests are included: the 10/10 and 20/20 tests
10/10 zig-zag test: rudder is turned alternately by 10 to
either side following a heading deviation of 10 from
original heading

ZIG-ZAG TEST (Kempf)

10/10 Zig-Zag Test

ZIG-ZAG TEST/ Procedure


after a steady approach, rudder is put over to 10 to starboard
(port) (first execute)
when heading has changed to 10 off original heading, rudder
reversed to 10 to port (starboard) (second execute)
after the rudder has been turned to port/starboard, the ship
continues turning in original direction with decreasing turning rate.
In response to rudder, ship should then turn to port/starboard.
When ship has reached a heading of 10 to port/starboard of the
original course the rudder is again reversed to 10 to
starboard/port (third execute).
The first overshoot angle is the additional heading deviation
experienced in the zig-zag test following second execute

Recommendations of IMO
The value of the first overshoot angle in the 10/10 zig-zag
test should not exceed:
. 10 if L/V is less than 10 s;
. 20 if L/V is 30 s or more; and
. (5 + 1/2(L/V)) degrees if L/V is 10 s or more, but less than 30s
where L and V are expressed in m and m/s, respectively.
The value of the second overshoot angle in the 10/10 zigzag test should not exceed:
. 25, if L/V is less than 10 s;
. 40, if L/V is 30 s or more; and
. (17.5 + 0.75(L/V)), if L/V is 10 s or more, but less than 30 s.

ZIG-ZAG TEST

ZIG-ZAG TEST
The 20/20 zig-zag test is performed using the same
procedure using 20 rudder angles and 20 change
of heading, instead of 10 rudder angles and 10
change of heading, respectively.
The value of the first overshoot angle in the 20/20
Zig-Zag test should not exceed 25
Recommendation of IMO MSC 137(76)

20/20 Zig-Zag Test

STOPPING TEST

STOPPING TEST
The "crash-stop" or "crash-astern" manoeuvre is
mainly a test of engine functioning and propeller
reversal. The stopping distance is a function of the
ratio of astern power to ship displacement.

Procedure
1. ship brought to a steady course and speed
2. The recording of data starts.
3. The manoeuvre is started by giving a stop order. The
full astern engine order is applied with rudder amidship.
4. Data recording stops and the manoeuvre is
terminated when the ship is stopped dead

STOPPING TEST
Parameters:
track reach
head reach
lateral deviation
time to dead in water

STOPPING TEST
Measure of the ability to stop while maintaining control
Full astern stopping test determines the track reach
of a ship from the time an order for full astern is given
until the ship stops in the water.
Track reach is the distance along the path described
by the midship point of a ship measured from the
position at which an order for full astern is given to the
position at which the ship stops in the water
Track reach must not exceed 15 ships lenghts
excepted for very large vessels: maximum 20 Ships L.

Comparison between
different manuvres
for stopping a ship

ADDITIONAL TESTS FOR UNSTABLE SHIPS


Where standard manoeuvres indicate dynamic
instability, alternative tests may be conducted to
define the degree of instability : Initial turning
test
Guidelines for alternative tests such as a spiral
test or pull-out manuvre are included in the
Explanatory notes to the Standards for ship
manoeuvrability, referred to in paragraph 6.1 above.
Refer to MSC/Circ.1053 on Explanatory notes to the
Standards for ship manoeuvrability

INITIAL TURNING TEST

INITIAL TURNING TEST

Initial Turning ability


Measure of change of the heading in response to a
moderate helm
Expressed in :
distance covered before course change of 10 when 10
of rudder is applied (also with 20 rudder angle)
Assessed by the Initial Turning Test : Test to be
performed for unstable ships (IMO Recommandations)

Initial Turning Test


Measure of nonlinear

directional stability
Ability to control yaw
motion with small rudder
angles
With 10 rudder angle
to port/starboard, the
ship should not have
travelled more than 2.5
lengths by the time the
heading has changed
10 from original
heading

PULL-OUT TEST
Additional test for
ships with
unsatisfactory
manoeuvring
standards
Measure of course
keeping ability and
dynamic stability of
a ship

PULL-OUT TEST

1.

The ship is first made to turn with a certain rate of


turn

2.

The rudder is returned to midship position

3.

With a stable ship: rate of turn decays to zero

4.

Unstable ship: rate of turn reduces but residual


rate of turn will remain

SPIRAL TEST

SPIRAL TEST
The Standard Manoeuvres are used to evaluate
course-keeping ability based on the overshoot
angles resulting from the 10/10 zig-zag manoeuvre.
The zig-zag manoeuvre was chosen for reasons of
simplicity and expediency in conducting trials.
However, where more detailed analysis of dynamic
stability is required some form of spiral manuvre
(direct or reverse) should be conducted as an
additional measure.

SPIRAL TEST

DIRECT SPIRAL TEST


The direct spiral is a turning circle manoeuvre in
which various steady state yaw rate/rudder angle
values are measured by making incremental rudder
changes throughout a circling manoeuvre.
In the case where dynamic instability is detected
with other trials or is expected, a direct spiral test
can provide more detailed information about the
degree of instability.
In cases where the ship is dynamically unstable it
will appear that it is still turning steadily in the
original direction although the rudder is now slightly
deflected to the opposite side.

DIRECT SPIRAL TEST


steady course and speed
recording of data starts
rudder turned 15 degrees and held until yaw rate
remains constant for one minute
rudder angle is then decreased in 5 degree
increments. At each increment the rudder is held
fixed until a steady yaw rate is obtained, measured
and then decreased again
this is repeated for different rudder angles starting
from large angles to both port and starboard
when a sufficient number of points is defined, data
recording stops.

REVERSE SPIRAL MANOEUVRE


In the reverse spiral test the ship is steered to obtain
a constant yaw rate, the mean rudder angle required
to produce this yaw rate is measured.
the yaw rate versus rudder angle plot is created.

RESULT OF SPIRAL TEST FOR STABLE SHIP

RESULT OF SPIRAL TEST FOR UNSTABLE SHIP

DIEUDONNE SPIRAL MANOEUVRE


the vessel path follows a growing spiral, and then a
contracting spiral in the opposite direction.
Suppose that:
a) the first 15 rudder deflection (Sb) causes the vessel
to turn right
b) At zero rudder, the yaw rate is still to the right: the
vessel has gotten stuck here, and will require a
negative rudder action to pull out of the turn.
the rudder in this case has to be used excessively
driving the vessel back and forth.
We say that the vessel is unstable, and clearly a poor
design.

Comments to IMO Standards


For deep water and service/design speed only
Give no indication of the handling characteristics in
wind, waves and current
Do not look at manoeuvres normally carried out by
most merchant ships
Full astern stopping test results in extreme termal
loads on the engine
Criteria derived from databases heavily biased
towards (old) tankers and bulk carriers

Comments to IMO Standards


From operational aspects additional requirements
should be developed:
Manoeuvrability in shallow water
Low speed manoeuvring capabilities
Maximum tolerable wind forces in harbour
manoeuvres
Limited heel angles
Steering in waves
Steering with special devices