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Writing the

Introduction

INTRODUCTION

Typically begins research

space by dwelling on the


general subject of interest.
Describes the current
situation, features and
characteristics of that area
of study.
Presents significant studies
done in the past (literature
review)

N
What the present

study adds to what is


already known
Objectives /problems
/hypotheses: in
paragraph form.
Should not be very
lengthy, at most two
pages.

INTRODUCTION
The Introduction

answers the questions:


What is the research
topic? (AREA OF
INTEREST)
What were the findings of
previous authors who
worked on it? (DEVELOP
THE BACKGROUND)

INTRODUCTION

The Introduction answers the

questions:
What gap or need have you
identified from previous
researches? (INTRODUCE THE
PROBLEM)
What do I expect to accomplish
(objectives) or prove
(hypothesis)? (STATE THE
PURPOSE AND THE RATIONALE)

One of the most effective ways of thinking

about a research paper introduction is the


Creating a Research Space (CARS) model,
which was created by linguist John Swales as a
way to help researchers
write effective introductions.
The model lays out a simple plan with three
steps (sometimes called "moves") that, when
followed correctly, guarantee a concise,
informative beginning to your paper.

I. The CARS Model


The Introduction section of research papers

typically follows a specific pattern


This rhetorical pattern is referred to as the
create-a-research-space (CARS) Model
In this model, the work of others and/or what
is known about the topic is primary and your
own work is secondary
This is also called a background/foreground
relationship
Source: Swales and Feak (2009) Academic Writing For Graduate
Students. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press

3 Moves
The CARS model has 3 rhetorical moves:
Move 1: Establishing a research territory
Move 2: Establishing a niche
Move 3: Occupying the niche

Source: Swales and Feak (2009) Academic Writing For Graduate


Students. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press

Move 1: Establishing a
research
a. show that theterritory
general area is
important, problematic, or relevant in
some way (optional)
Language examples:

Recently, there has been a growing interest in


The development of is a classic problem in
A central issue is
The relationship betweenandhas been

investigated by many researchers

Source: Swales and Feak (2009) Academic


Writing For Graduate Students. Ann Arbor:

Move 1: Establishing a
research territory
Start by simply explaining the general background

necessary to understand your work. Explain what


territory you're going to be working in. Give the
reader a brief history of your topic, and briefly
explain how your topic fits within the larger
framework of your field. It's likely that your readers
will have some level of familiarity with your topic,
so don't go overboard and try to explain too much.
Think of this as a way to remind your reader about
what is going on in your field and to get them
geared up to tackle the rest of your paper.

Move 1: Establishing a
research territory

b. introduce and review items of


previous research in the area
(obligatory)
The literature review can be organized:
1)Beginning with established major theories
then moving to theories associated with
individual authors
2)In chronological order
3)According to the theories topics or findings
Source: Swales and Feak (2009) Academic Writing For Graduate
Students. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press

Move 2: Establishing a
niche

Indicate a gap in the previous research, or extend

previous knowledge in some way (obligatory)


Language examples
However, little information(attention, work, data,
research, few studies, investigations, researchers,
attempts)
The research tended to focus on
These studies have emphasized,as opposed to

Source: Swales and Feak (2009) Academic Writing For Graduate


Students. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press

Move 2: Establishing a
niche
Define a niche for yourself within your topic. The
world of research is big and complex-now's the
time to tell the reader how you fit into that
framework.
You can point out a gap in the current research or
raise a new question that no one has addressed
yet.
You can point out contradictions and unresolved
issues in the current research or demonstrate
that your work is the next logical step in the
research process.

Move 2: Establishing a
niche
It's also important when establishing

your
niche that you stress why it's important that
this particular gap in the research be filled. It's
not enough to simply point out that the
research could be done; you also have to
explain

why

it should be done.

Move 3: Occupying the


niche
a. outline purposes or state the nature of

present research (obligatory)


b. list research questions or hypothesis
c. announce principal findings
d. state the value of the present research
e. indicate the structure of the research paper

Source: Swales and Feak (2009) Academic Writing For Graduate


Students. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press

Move 3: Occupying the


niche
Tell the reader how you're going to fill the niche
you identified in Step #2.
Basically, you need to outline how exactly your
work will address the opening in the research that
you outlined in the earlier sections of your
introduction. Depending on the structure of your
paper you might provide an outline of how your
paper will proceed from that point, or you might
simply state your research question and give a
brief synopsis of your research plan. Remember,
the key here is that you want to reader to clearly
see that your research is going to meet a specific
need.

Practice!
With a partner, please review the introduction

(from the handouts) and identify the 3 Moves


(and sub-moves).
Write your answers on a separate sheet of
paper.
Write the introduction of your research paper.
Underline and label the 3 Moves.

Source: Swales and Feak (2009) Academic


Writing For Graduate Students. Ann Arbor: