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Management Information SystemUnit 1

Introduction to MIS
M Health care information system
v=fJYFpwbvuDc Information Systems

The most precious resource in a

computer system is no longer its
processor, memory, disk or network, but
rather human attention a research group
at Carnegie Mellon University notes.

Globalization challenges and

In 1492, Columbus reaffirmed what astronomers were long
saying ; the world was round and the seas could be safely
sailed. As it turned out the world was populated with people
and languages living in isolation from one another with
great disparities in economic and scientific development.
In 2005, journalist Thomas Friedman wrote an influential
book declaring that world was now flat, by which he
meant that internet and global communications had greatly
reduced the economic and cultural advantages of developed
countries. Friedman argued that the US and European
countries were in a fight for their economic lives , competing
for jobs , markets, resources. This globalization presents
both challenges and opportunities for business firms.

v=T1HRvuqngv8#! SBI In-touch
digital centers

IT in Health care
v=oASpDTS6sto Telemedicine
v=jnEdaslPtEg wearable intelligence

The telemedicine service was started in the hospital in the
year 2002 to cater mainly to the rural populace in the
country. The telemedicine network of the hospital connects
to countries like Malaysia, Mauritius and Pakistan; with most
of the cases referred through telemedicine being cardiac
ones. ECG reports, Audio/Visual data, CT scans, X-rays, MRIs
and their analysis are exchanged via the telephone line,
broadband connection or satellite.
The telemedicine services provided by the hospital are free
and more than 21000 cases have been referred using this
Narayana Health is also a part of "The Karnataka
Telemedicine Project" which was inaugurated on April 8,
2002 and links two rural hospitals in Saragur, Karnataka

A management information system (MIS)
provides information that organizations require to
manage themselves efficiently and effectively.
Management information systems are typically
computer systems used for managing.
The five primary components:
1.) Hardware,
2.) Software,
3.) Data (information for decision making),
4.) Procedures and
5.) People (individuals, groups, or organizations)

MIS Evolution
Kenneth C. Laudon and Jane Laudon identify five eras
of MIS evolution


mainframe and minicomputer computing,

personal computers,
client/server networks,
enterprise computing, and
cloud computing.

Mainframe Computers

Mainframe Computers
Mainframe computers referred to as "big iron are
computers used primarily by corporate and governmental
organizations for critical applications, bulk data processing
such as census, industry and consumer statistics. Several
manufacturers produced mainframe computers from the
late 1950s through the 1970s.
The first era was ruled by IBM and their mainframe
computers; these computers would often take up whole
rooms and require teams to run them - IBM supplied the
hardware and the software. As technology advanced, these
computers were able to handle greater capacities and
therefore reduce their cost.

Second Era
The second era (personal computer) began in 1965
as microprocessors started to compete with mainframes
and accelerated the process of decentralizing computing
power from large data centers to smaller offices.
In the late 1970s minicomputer technology gave way to
personal computers and relatively low cost computers
were becoming mass market commodities, allowing
businesses to provide their employees access to
computing power that ten years before would have cost
tens of thousands of dollars.
This proliferation of computers created a ready market
for interconnecting networks and the popularization of
the Internet.

Third Era
Third Era , as technological complexity increased and
costs decreased, the need to share information within
an enterprise also grewgiving rise to (client/server),
in which computers on a common network access
shared information on a server. This lets thousands and
even millions of people access data simultaneously.
Client/server describes the relationship between two
computer programs in which one program, the client,
makes a service request from another program, the
server, which fulfills the request.
For example, to check your bank account from your
computer, a client program in your computer forwards
your request to a server program at the bank.

Clients are applications, applications that run on

It relies on servers for files.
Example E mail client an application that enables you
to send and receive e-mail.
Aserveris a system (softwareand suitablecomputer
hardware) that responds to requests across acomputer
networkto provide, or help to provide, anetwork service.
Servers can be run on a dedicated computer, which is
also often referred to as "theserver", Servers are
computer programs running to serve the requests of
other programs, the clients.

The fourth era (enterprise) enabled by high

speed networks, tied all aspects of the business
enterprise together offering rich information access
encompassing the complete management
. Enterprise computing encompasses all the
various types of enterprise software, including
database management, relationship management
and so on. Enterprise computing is usually seen
as a collection of big business software solutions
to common problems such as resource
management and streamlining processes.

The fifth era (cloud computing) is the latest .

Cloud computing is a phrase used to describe a variety of
computing concepts that involve a large number of
computers connected through a real-time communication
network such as the Internet.
In science, cloud computing is a synonym for distributed
computing over a network, and means the ability to run a
program or application on many connected computers at
the same time.

IPL teams strike gold with Information


Cricket is a fast paced and high energy sport, but it is also a

big business. Professional teams that belong to Indian
Premier League pay each of their players, the estimated
value that could range from 20 lacs to 2 crores and so on..
For that amount of money member teams expect a great
deal and are constantly on the watch for ways of improving
their performance.
Every nuance a coach can pick about a weakness in an
opponents offense or the shots of one of his own players will
translate into more runs on the scoreboard, more wins and
ultimately more money for the team.
Traditional games statistics failed to capture all details, as a
result decision about change in tactics/ strategy rested on
gut feeling,

The software available with the Indian Cricket was very

generic and did not produce any analytical information.
A company called Sports mechanics has found a way to
collect and organize fine grained statistical data and
relate the data to associated video clips.
For example if Kolkatta Knight riders just lost to
Rajasthan Royals and gave up too many runs, Knight
riders coach can use Sports Mechanics service to see
video clips of every Rajasthan Royals batting
performance in the game.
Sports Science

v=fJYFpwbvuDc Information Systems

Functions of MIS
Data Capturing- is the process of gathering data from
various sources.
Data Storage- is the process of storing the gathered
data in a database or a data file.
Data Processing-is the task of gathering, storing,
transmitting and processing data into meaningful
Data and Information Distribution- is the process of
delivering timely data and information to the right
person within the organization.
Prediction- with the help of modern arithmetic ,
statistics. MIS can predict business trends using
historical data as a base.

Planning Reports are generated based in

enterprises need for planning to enable each
functional department to work efficiently.
Control- MIS helps in monitoring and tracking
operations against organizational plans. The
deviation between operation and plan, in terms of
the data pertaining to different functional
departments is analyzed for exercising control.

The Systems Approach

System approach stresses on a systematic process of
problem solving. Problems and opportunities are viewed in a
systems context. The following becomes an organized
system of inter-related activities such as:
1. Define a problem/opportunity in a systems
2.Gather data describing the problem or opportunity.
3.Identify alternative solutions.
4.Evaluate each alternative solutions.
5.Select the best solution
6.Implement the selected solution
7. Evaluate the success of the selected solution.

Electronic data interchange(EDI) is an electronic

communication system that provides standards for
exchanging data via any electronic means. By adhering to
the same standard, two different companies, even in two
different countries, can electronically exchange documents
(such as purchase orders, invoices, shipping notices, and
many others). EDI has existed for more than 30 years.
E-commerce- refers to the use of internet and the web to
transact business deals. It involves transactions between
two organizations or individuals over the internet. E
commerce not only involves the buying and selling of goods
and services but also the entire online process of
developing, marketing, selling, delivering, servicing and
paying online.

The e- commerce that was restricted to jobs and

ticketing till 2007 has exploded since then. Starting
from apparels, fashion accessories, shoes, electronics,
pharmaceuticals, insurance.
Today India ranks third in the world, behind only China
and USA in the number of users. With mobile
penetration increasing, drop in prices of smart phones
and tablets.
Payment options-increase in payment options has
been another big enabler. Besides debit and credit card
payments, like electronic transfers, multiple online
payment gateways, mobile wallets, cash on delivery
have become a reality now.

Online Analytical Processing- is an approach to

swiftly answer multi dimensional analytical queries.
Analytical processing refers to the activities involved in
searching the wealth of data residing throughout and
enterprise for trends, opportunities and problem areas.
Typical applications of OLAP include business reporting
for sales, marketing, management reporting, budgeting
and forecasting, financial reporting etc.
OLAP involves several operations including data
consolidation, drill down, and slicing and dicing.
Consolidation- For example we can consolidate sales
data for various sales offices, regions, zones and

Drill Down- refers to the ability of the software to dig

into the database and excavate data up to the most
detailed level. For example the financial data may be
drilled down to monthly, weekly, ,daily or transaction
Slicing and Dicing- refers to the ability to look at the
database from different angles. For example one slice
of sales data of a garment retailing business may
show product styled based figures for a month, while
the other slice may show size or color based sales

Data Warehousing- large organizations are plagued with

the problem of ever increasing amounts of data that is
Data Warehousing refers to a single, centralized and unified
repository of data that works across the enterprise . Such
data is collected throughout the life of organization and is
scattered and stored in large but incompatible data
According to Laudon, a data warehouse is a database that
stores current and historical data that is of potential interest
to decision makers through out the company.
The data originates in core operational transaction systems
such as sales, accounts, manufacturing and payroll and may
include data from web transactions.

Data Mining- is the process of extracting data from

data warehouses. Data mining is a process that uses
statistical, mathematical, artificial intelligence and
machine learning techniques to extract and identify
useful information and subsequent knowledge from
large databases. Companies use Data Mining tools for
the following processes:
Discover product life cycle patterns
Find customer buying patterns over a long period of
Find sequence of events in customer buying process
Conduct predictive analysis.

Data Mining- Which one is Data Mining

or which one is not ?
_ Mining

_ Mining

Certain names like Mattoo, Dhar,

Pandit, Bhatt, Kaul, Sapru are
more prevalent in Kashmir
( trying to establish a relationship
between place and names)

Extracting a phone number which

is of use to you from a phone

Query a web search engine for

information about Infosys
Data Mining applications remote sensors on a satellite, telescope scanning
the skies

Psychology says the longer someone ignores an email

before finally responding the more relative social
power that person has.
Map these response times across an entire
organization and you get a remarkably accurate chart
of the social standing.
The boss leaves emails unanswered for hours or days;
those lower down respond within minutes.

Theres an algorithm for this , a Data Mining method

called Automated Social Hierarchy Detection
developed at coulmbia university.
When applied to the archive of e-mail traffic at Enron
corporation before it folded, the method correctly
indentified the roles of the top level managers and by
their subordinates just by how long it took them to
answer a given persons emails.
Intelligence agencies have been applying the same
metric to suspected terrorist gangs , piecing together
the chain of influence to spot the central figures.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lGMK1_tOisM NSA,
FBI Data Mining from Internet Companies.

CRM- Customer Relationship Management Systems- are

processes and technologies that are used for managing
relationships with customers across business functions.
CRM systems help capture and integrate customer data from
all over the organization , consolidate and analyze the data
and then disseminate the results to various systems and
contact points in the customer value chain. According to
Laudon Well designed CRM systems provide a single
enterprise view of customers that is useful for improving both
sales and customer service.
CRM systems involve the use of IT to create cross functional
enterprise systems to automate and integrate customer
centric business processes such as contact and accounts
management, sales force automation, marketing, customer
loyalty programmes, post sale services.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BMtv6sbmdLc CRM