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UTILIZING THE THREE-PHASE STRATEGY IN TEACHING

READING COMPREHENSION
(An Experimental Research at the Second Grade Students of SMA Gunung Sari Makassar )

PROPOSAL
By
EKA SAFITRI
Reg. Number: 10535 2984 08

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background

After the researcher did observation on the second year students of SMA Gunung Sari Makassar about their
learning English Language, it is found that the students did not focus and they less about information on material. This
is caused that they behaved passive in learning process. Furthermore, the students almost felt bored on class when they
read uninteresting materials. Besides the students was shy to reading because they were not confident with their selves.
The problem faced by teacher was how to make students focus during the learning and teaching process. In that school,
the students still lack of reading comprehension. It was proved their successful criteria (KKM) are 65 while the students
just got 62. It means very low.
From the result of the observation above, researcher decides to apply Three Phase Strategy because this strategy
can assist students and teacher on learning process and also it can make students be active and lead them to be
independent learners because it makes students be pleased. The aim of pre reading is to arouse interest in the topic by
drawing on the students knowledge of the world and on their opinions. It is carried out before the students see the text.
The aim of whilst reading is to help students understand the structure, the content of the text and the writers purpose.
The aim of post reading is intended to help the students consolidate and reflect upon what they have read (Williams,
1984).
Based on the information above, the researcher is intended to conduct a research under the title Utilizing The
Three-phase strategy in teaching Reading Comprehension of students at the second year students of SMA Gunung Sari
Makassar

B. Problem Statement
Is the use of the Three Phase
Strategy effective to improve the
students reading comprehension
at the second year of SMA
Gunung Sari Makassar?
C. The Objective of the Research
The research aims to find out
whether the use of the Three Phase
Strategy is effective to improve the
students reading comprehension at the
second year of SMA Gunung Sari
Makassar.

D. Significance of the Research


The result of this research is
expected to be useful contribution for
the readers especially for the teachers
of English to improve the students
comprehension by using the ThreePhase Strategy in presenting the
reading materials.
E. The Scope of the Research
To do this research, the researcher
restricts to the use of Three Phase
Strategy
in
students
reading
comprehension focuses on literal
comprehension are indentifying specific
information and sequencing events,
especially to the second years students
of SMA Gunung Sari Makassar.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. Three Phase Strategy


Definition of Three phase strategy
Avery and Graves (1997) state that three phase of reading are , pre-reading,
while reading, and post-reading. The reading should be planned as part of a
lesson, these three phase would be intergrated into your instructional sequence
and may include passages from the texbook, handouts of internet materials,
primary documents, charts, etc.

The Process of Three phase Strategy

Williams ( 1994:51) state that some common problems that teachers have in
dealing with reading material are : learners lack of motivation; teacher are
uncertain as to how they should carry out language preparation; teachers are
unsure about selecting and devising reading-related activities. Agood strategy of
approaching these problems is to look at reading section in term of three phase
technique :
1. Pre reading,
2. While reading,
3. Post-reading.

B. Concept of Reading Comprehension


Definition of Comprehension
Comprehension
is
the
action
of
comprehending, comprising, or including, the
fact of condition of being so comprehend or
comprised in a treatise, classification,
description,
proposition,
etc.
(Oxford
Dictionary).
Neil (1980: 60) defines comprehending as
the knowledge of understanding that is result
of such a process.
Thorndike in Neil (1980) defines
comprehension as a process of integrating new
sentence with antecedent in extra sentential
structure.
Newell and Simon in Wardiah (2007) defines
comprehension can be use to get meaning.

Definition of Reading Comprehension


Based on the definition from Goodman in
Ufrah (2009), Smith and Robinson (1980),
Rahmi (2007) , Good, (1981:24), Rivers,
(1987:674), Anderson and Pearson (1984) the
researcher conclusion of reading comprehension,
that reading comprehension is understand of the
text idea where in reading there are some
interaction between teacher and students in
classroom activity.

Level of Comprehension
Burns, (1984:177):
1. Literal Reading
2. Interpretative Reading
3. Critical Reading
4. Creative Reading

Smith (1980) and Carnine (1990):


1. Literal Reading (reading the line)
2. Interpretative Reading (reading between the line)
3. Critical Reading (reading beyond the line)
4. Creative Reading

C. Factors Affecting Reading Comprehension


There are four basic factors that influence the students
reading in comprehending written materials:
1. Background Experiences
2. Intellectual Abilities
3. Language Abilities
4. The purpose of reading

D. Theoritical Framework
TeachingReading

Aplication of Three Pase Strategy

Pre Reading

Whale Reading

Student Interest

Reading Comprehension
Achievement

Literal Level of Comprehension

Post - Reading

CHAPTER III
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. Research Design
Pre-test

Treatment

Post-test

X1

X2

Where:
X1 = Pre-test
O = Treatment
X2 = Post-test
(Gay, 1981:225)

B. Variable of the Research


The

variables

of

this

research

are

reading

comprehension as the dependent variable and Three phase


Strategy as the independent variable. Three Phase Strategy
is used in teaching reading with three stages ( pre reading,
while reading and post reading).

C. Population and Sample


Population

Sample

The population of this research


will be the second year students
of SMA Gunung Sari Makassar
academic year. The total number
of population is 27 in which it
consists of one class is the second
class.

The researcher uses the purposive


sampling technique, where the
researcher uses one class as the
sample, it consist of 27 students with
14 females and 13 males. The
researcher chooses this class because
the result of observation has showed
that it is still low in reading
comprehension it is usually the reading
comprehension

D. Instrument of the Research


The instrument of this research is reading
test, which is taken from English text
books. The researcher employs essay
tests and multiple choice questions.

E. Procedure of Collecting Data


1. The researcher consults to the head master SMA Gunung
Sari Makassar.
2. The researcher distributes the test
3. The researcher explains how to do the test
4. The researcher uses the treatment in class (at least 8
meeting) by using Three phase Strategy
5. The researcher gets the value from every student
6. The researcher explains the collected test from the
respondents.

F. Technique of Data Analysis


1. Scoring the students correct answer pre-test and post-test
SCORE =

Students correct answer

Total number of items

2. Calculating the mean score of the students


X=

x
n

X = the mean score


X = the students total score.
N = the number of the students
(Gay, 1981)

X100

Continued
3. After finding out the students scores and mean scores the data will be classified
into five classification categories as follows:
A

Score 91-100

Very Good

Score 76-90

Good

Score 61-75

Fair

Score 51-60

Poor

Score less than 50

Very Poor

(Depdikbud, 1985)
4. Computing the frequency and the rate percentage of the students score.

Where:
P = Percentage
F = Frequency
N = the total number of students
(Sujono, 1995:40)

Continued

5. Find out the students standard deviation by using the formula as


follows:

Where:
SD
X
(X)
N

= Standard deviation
= The sum of all score
= The square of the sum
= The number of the students
(Gay, 1981:331)

Continued
6. Finding out the significant different between the pre-test and post-test by calculating the
value of the t-test. It is measured by using formula as follow:
t=

Where:
t = test significance
= of the difference
D = the sum of all score
N = the total number of score
(Gay, 1981: 403)

THE END.