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Original Title: Heat Transfer (Intro)

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TRANSFER

(INTRODUCTION)

For Chemical Engineers

State 1

State 2

causes heat transfer

Conduction

(Stationary

Medium)

radiates EM Radiation

above 0 K/zero kelvin)

CONDUCTION

It can occur in any media viz. solid,

liquid

Conduction

is &

thegas

transfer of heat in a continuous

substance without any observable motion of the matter.

Thus, heat conduction is essentially the transmission of

energy by molecular or atomic motion

VIBRATIONAL ROTATIONALTRANSLATIONAL

and energy is transferred to

other atoms/molecules of low

energy state.

CONDUCTION

SOLIDS

Vibrational Energy

Free Electrons Can Also Transfer Heat By

Creating Electron Cloud

CONDUCTION

depends on:

Material

Geometry/Shape/Size

Temperature

Area of

Direction surface

T1

of heat

flow

Rate

T2

(T1 >T2)

Thickne

CONDUCTION

Rate

: dQ/dt -A x (T2 T1)/

: dQ/dt -A x dT/dx

: dQ/dt -KA dT/dx

K : Thermal

Conductivity of

heat conducting

medium

Area of

Directionsurface

T1

of heat

flow

T2

(T1 >T2)

Thickne

ss

CONDUCTION

Gases:

Thermal Conductivity will be function of temperature

Liquids:

Thermal Conductivity 1/Temperature

As on increasing Temperature molecular interaction decreases

Solids:

Thermal Conductivity = Vibrational Energy + Free Electrons

Free Electrons

Therefore,

Good Conductors of Electricity = Good Conductors of Heat

Good Insulators of Electricity = Good Insulators of Heat

CONVE

CTION

Heat energy transferred between a surface

and a moving fluid at different temperatures

is known as convection.

The convective heat transfer may be Forced Convection: in which the motion in the fluid medium

is generated by the application of an external force, e.g. by a

pump, blower, agitator etc.

generated due to a result of density difference caused by the

temperature difference.

CONVE

CTION

Newton's law states

that the rate of heat

loss of a body is proportional to the

difference in temperatures between the body

and its surroundings while under the effects

basic relationship for heat transfer by

of The

a breeze.

is:proportionality is the

The

constant of

convection

heat transfer coefficient

where q is the heat transferred per unit

time, A is the area of the object, h is the

heat transfer coefficient, Tw is the

object's surface temperature and Tis the

RADIATION

Radiation is the emission or transmission of energy

in the form of waves or particles through space or

through a material medium.

K (Zero Kelvin)

RADIATION

There are many theories available in literature which

explains the transport of energy by radiation. However, a

dual theory is generally accepted which enables to explain

the radiant energy in the characterisation of a wave motion

(electromagnetic wave motion) and discontinuous emission

(discrete packets or quanta of energy).

An electromagnetic wave propagates at the speed of light

(3108 m/s). It is characterised by its wavelength or its

c = v

frequency related by

Emission of radiation is not continuous, but occurs only in the

form of discrete quanta. Each quantum has energy

E = hv

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