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HEAT

TRANSFER
(INTRODUCTION)
For Chemical Engineers

State 1

State 2

Temperature difference in a medium/media


causes heat transfer

Heat Transfer/Energy Transfer

Conduction
(Stationary
Medium)

Convection (Surface Flow)

Radiation (Any Body


radiates EM Radiation
above 0 K/zero kelvin)

Three Modes Of Heat Transfer

CONDUCTION
It can occur in any media viz. solid,
liquid
Conduction
is &
thegas
transfer of heat in a continuous
substance without any observable motion of the matter.
Thus, heat conduction is essentially the transmission of
energy by molecular or atomic motion

VIBRATIONAL ROTATIONALTRANSLATIONAL

Atomic/Molecular Collisions occur


and energy is transferred to
other atoms/molecules of low
energy state.

CONDUCTION
SOLIDS
Vibrational Energy
Free Electrons Can Also Transfer Heat By
Creating Electron Cloud

CONDUCTION

Rate of heat conduction


depends on:
Material
Geometry/Shape/Size
Temperature

Area of
Direction surface

T1

of heat
flow

Rate

T2
(T1 >T2)

Thickne

CONDUCTION

Rate
: dQ/dt -A x (T2 T1)/
: dQ/dt -A x dT/dx
: dQ/dt -KA dT/dx
K : Thermal
Conductivity of
heat conducting
medium

Area of
Directionsurface

T1

of heat
flow

T2

Fouriers Law Of Heat Conduction


(T1 >T2)
Thickne
ss

CONDUCTION

Gases:
Thermal Conductivity will be function of temperature

Liquids:
Thermal Conductivity 1/Temperature
As on increasing Temperature molecular interaction decreases
Solids:
Thermal Conductivity = Vibrational Energy + Free Electrons
Free Electrons
Therefore,
Good Conductors of Electricity = Good Conductors of Heat
Good Insulators of Electricity = Good Insulators of Heat

CONVE
CTION
Heat energy transferred between a surface
and a moving fluid at different temperatures
is known as convection.
The convective heat transfer may be Forced Convection: in which the motion in the fluid medium
is generated by the application of an external force, e.g. by a
pump, blower, agitator etc.

Natural Convection: in which the motion in the fluid is


generated due to a result of density difference caused by the
temperature difference.

CONVE
CTION
Newton's law states
that the rate of heat
loss of a body is proportional to the
difference in temperatures between the body
and its surroundings while under the effects
basic relationship for heat transfer by
of The
a breeze.
is:proportionality is the
The
constant of
convection
heat transfer coefficient
where q is the heat transferred per unit
time, A is the area of the object, h is the
heat transfer coefficient, Tw is the
object's surface temperature and Tis the

RADIATION
Radiation is the emission or transmission of energy
in the form of waves or particles through space or
through a material medium.

Any body will emit EM Radiation if it is above absolute 0


K (Zero Kelvin)

RADIATION
There are many theories available in literature which
explains the transport of energy by radiation. However, a
dual theory is generally accepted which enables to explain
the radiant energy in the characterisation of a wave motion
(electromagnetic wave motion) and discontinuous emission
(discrete packets or quanta of energy).
An electromagnetic wave propagates at the speed of light
(3108 m/s). It is characterised by its wavelength or its
c = v
frequency related by
Emission of radiation is not continuous, but occurs only in the
form of discrete quanta. Each quantum has energy
E = hv