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Vinegar Production


Vinegar is a liquid obtained by alcoholic and acetic

fermentation of suitable materials containing sugar and
starch (at least 10 per cent fermentable sugar).
It contains about 5 per cent acetic acid and has
germicidal and antiseptic properties,
In the trade, vinegar is labelled according to the material
used in its manufacture, e.g., malt vinegar (from malt) and
cider vinegar (from apple juice),
The amount of acid in vinegar is expressed as 'grain
strength' which is ten times the percentage of the acetic
acid present in it, e,g., vinegar having 5 per cent acetic
acid is termed as vinegar of '50 grain strength.

Can be made from almost any fruits, grains,

mash (alcohol-containing), beer and wine

Contains at least 4 g of acetic acid per 100 ml

pH 2-3.5

Types of vinegar
Vinegars are of two types
(A) Brewed vinegars, and (B) Artificial vinegars
(A) Brewed vinegars :
Brewed vinegars are made from various
fruits, starchy materials (potato) and sugar
containing substances (molasses, honey) by al
coholic and subsequent acetic fermentation.

Example of Brewed vinegars:

1.Fruit vinegar : Generally apple, grape, orange, pear,
pineapple, apricot and banana are used. Vinegar made from
apple juice is known as cider or apple cider vinegar, while that
from grapes as wine or grape vinegar.
2.Potato vinegar : In this case starch is extracted from potato
and hydrolyzed by the enzyme diastase before fermentation.
3.Malt vinegar : Malt vinegar is derived wholly from malted
barley, with or without the addition of the cereal grain. It is
colourless and is generally used in the manufacture of pickled

4. Molasses vinegar : In this case molasses is diluted to

16 per cent total soluble solids, neutralized with citric
acid and then fermented.
5. Honey vinegar : It is prepared from low grade honey.
6. Spirit vinegar : Spirit vinegar is the product prepared
by acetous fermentation of a distilled alcoholic fluid which
in turn is produced by fermentation. It is also called as
grain vinegar, distilled vinegar- white vinegar or alcohol
7. Spiced vinegar : Spiced vinegars are prepared by
steeping the leaves or spices an ordinary vinegar.


Artificial vinegars :
Artificial vinegars are prepared by diluting
synthetic acetic acid or glacial acetic acid
to a legal standard of 4 per cent and are
coloured with caramel.





synthetic vinegar or non-brewed vinegar.



Acetic acid

Lactic acid

Lactic acid bacteria, yeasts

Acetic acid

Acidic acid bacteria:


Outline scheme of vinegar


Preparation of vinegar
Vinegar is prepared by the following methods:
1.Slow process
2.Orleans slow process
3.Quick process (Generator or German process)

(A)Slow process:

The fruit juice or sugar solution in earthen pots or

wooden barrels,

kept for at least 5-6 months in a warm damp room to

No special care is taken, but the mouth of the
container is covered with cloth to keep out insects,
dirt, etc.

The main defects of this method are:

Incomplete alcoholic fermentation;

Slow acetic fermentation;

Low yield; and

Inferior quality of vinegar.

(B) Orleans slow process

The vinegar prepared by this process is clear

and of superior quality. The steps of the
apple, grape, orange, pear, pineapple,
are: of
apricot and banana are used
Extraction of
Adjustment of
Maintaining 10% of sugar

1. Alcoholic fermentation
2. Vinegar (acetic acid

Kept it 4 to 8 month for

developing taste, flavour,
aroma etc


77C for 15 to 20 minutes

Problems in vinegar production

1.Wine flower :
When unfermented juice is exposed to air a film of
yeast called wine flower forms on the surface of
the liquid.

The film causes cloudiness and also destroys alcohol.

The growth of wine flower can be prevented by

(i) filling the carboys or barrels up to the brim,

(ii) addition of 20-25 per cent unpasteurized vinegar, and
(iii) spreading liquid paraffin
fermented liquid.


the surface of the

2. Lactic acid bacteria :

Presence of lactic acid bacteria is very common in
fermented juice. These bacteria interfere with
acetification, cause cloudiness, produce lactic and
other acids which have disagreeable mostly flavours
and thus spoil the quality of vinegar.
This can be avoided by using 20-25 per cent
unpasteurized mother vinegar or a pure culture of

3. Insects and worms :

Among insects, vinegar flies


cellaris), vinegar louse and vinegar mites are

These can only be avoided by maintaining
proper sanitary conditions

Manufacturing of pickles and chutney

Manufacturing of pickles and chutney

What are pickles and chutneys?
Pickle general term for fruits or vegetables
preserved in vinegar or brine, usually with spices
or sugar or both.
Chutneys are mixtures of chopped vegetables
and fruits cooked in vinegar. Chutneys are more
sweeter than pickels

Difference between a pickle and a chutney?

Basic difference between a pickle and a chutney is the shelf life:

Pickles are made from Raw Vegetables with Hot Chilli Power, Salt,
Enough of Oil and other spices.
It is kept fermented and pickles can be stored at room temperature for
almost a year. Salt and oil for preservation purposes. Green Mango,
Lime, Mixed vegetables are famous.
While chutneys can be more "figure friendly". , chutneys can be eaten
right away and chutneys are generally consumed within a day or two of
making. The shelf life is only one or two days. Chatnies made of
Coriander, garlic, Pudina, Onion etc. are popular.
There is a difference between pickles and chutneys. Pickles are pieces
of vegetables or fruit stored in vinegar. Chutneys are mixtures of
chopped vegetables and fruits cooked in vinegar. In both cases it is the
acid conditions produced by the vinegar which inhibit the actions of
spoiling micro-organisms.

Manufacturing of pickles

Preservation with salt

Salt improves the taste and flavour and hardness the

tissues of vegetables arid controls fermentation.
Salt content of 15 per cent or above prevents microbial
This method of preservation is generally used only for
vegetables which contain very little sugar and hence
sufficient lactic acid cannot be formes by fermentation to
act as preservative.
However, some fruits like lime, mango, etc.. are also
preserved with salt.

2. Preservation with vinegar

A number of fruits and vegetables are preserved in
vinegar whose final concentration, in terms of acetic acid,
in the finished pickle should not be lees than 2 per cent.
To prevent dilution of vinegar below this strength by
the water liberate from the tissues, the vegetables or
fruits are generally placed in strong vinegar about 10%
strength for several days before, pickling.
This treatment helps to expel the gases present in the
intercellular spaces of vegetable tissue.
Vinegar pickles are the most important pickles
consumed in other countries-: Mango, garlic, chillies, etc.,