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CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONVERTERS
UNCONTROLLED RECTIFIERS
CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS
APPLICATIONS
CHOPPER
APPLICATIONS
Ô 
 

sensors
Input
Source Power Electronics Load
- AC Converters
- DC Output
- unregulated - AC
- DC
Ô   
 
 ô the heart of
power a power electronics
Reference Controller system
Ô 
 

 Ô

sensors
Input
Source Power Electronics   
Load
- AC Converters
- DC Output
- unregulated - AC
- DC

Reference Controller
Different types of Power Converters

 Diode rectifiers (uncontrolled rectifiers).


 Line commutated converters or AC to DC
converters (controlled rectifiers).
 AC voltage (RMS voltage) controllers (AC to AC
converters).

Ô 
     
 Cyclo converters (AC to AC converters at low
output frequency).
 DC choppers (DC to DC converters).
 Inverters (DC to AC converters).
AC to DC Converter


 ð 
  
 
 

Type of input: AC supply (fixed voltage & frequency)


Type of output: DC voltage (variable)

Ô 
     
Diode rectifiers (uncontrolled rectifiers).

] the term 2  2 describes a


 that is being used to
convert AC to DC

Almost all rectifiers


comprise a number of
diodes in a specific
arrangement for more
efficiently converting AC
to DC than is possible
with just a single diode
m 



 Full-wave rectification converts both


polarities of the input waveform to DC, and
is more efficient
A full wave rectifier converts the whole of the input
waveform to one of constant polarity (positive or negative)
at its output by reversing the negative (or positive) portions
of the alternating current waveform. The positive
(negative) portions thus combine with the reversed
negative (positive) portions to produce an entirely positive
(negative) voltage/current waveform.
„  
    

       


           
 


   
     

    
 
    
  
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Disassembled automobile alternator,
showing the six diodes that comprise a
full-wave three phase bridge rectifier.

A rectifier diode and associated


mounting hardware. The heavy
threaded stud helps remove heat.
 Rectifiers also find a use in detection of
amplitude modulated radio signals.
- The signal may or may not be
amplified before detection but if
unamplified a very low voltage drop
diode must be used.
Controlled
recitifiers
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AC-DC
 
„

v  ,
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5 Hz Vo a o 18 o

1-phase Average voltage over


{ 1 ms
 
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„

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„
5 Hz
v
3-phase
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Vo a   ›
a o 18 o

{ Average voltage over


3.33 ms  &  & !

Three Phase Dual Converters

 For four quadrant operation in many industrial


variable speed dc drives , 3 phase dual
converters are used.
 Used for applications up to 2 mega watt
output power level.
 Dual converter consists of two 3 phase full
converters which are connected in parallel & in
opposite directions across a common load.

Ô 
     
Four Quadrant Operation

Conv. 2  


›-
Inverting
›2 > a

 


  

›-
›.

Ô 
     
There are two different modes of operation.
Circulating current free
(non circulating) mode of operation
Circulating current mode of operation
Non Circulating
Current Mode Of Operation
 In this mode of operation only one converter is
switched on at a time
 When the converter 1 is switched on,
For ›1 < a the converter 1 operates in the
Rectification mode
Vdc is positive, Idc is positive and hence the
average load power Pdc is positive.
 Power flows from ac source to the load
 When the converter 1 is on,
For ›1 > a the converter 1 operates in the
Inversion mode
Vdc is negative, Idc is positive and the average
load power Pdc is negative.
 Power flows from load circuit to ac source.

Ô 
     
 When the converter 2 is switched on,
For ›2 < a the converter 2 operates in the
Rectification mode
Vdc is negative, Idc is negative and the average
load power Pdc is positive.
 The output load voltage & load current reverse
when converter 2 is on.
 Power flows from ac source to the load

Ô 
     
 When the converter 2 is switched on,
For ›2 > a the converter 2 operates in the
Inversion mode
Vdc is positive, Idc is negative and the average
load power Pdc is negative.
 Power flows from load to the ac source.
 Energy is supplied from the load circuit to the
ac supply.

Ô 
     
Circulating Current
Mode Of Operation
 •oth the converters are switched on at the
same time.
 One converter operates in the rectification
mode while the other operates in the
inversion mode.
 Trigger angles ›1 & ›2 are adjusted such that
(›1 v ›2) = 18

Ô 
     
 When ›1 < a , converter 1 operates as a
controlled rectifier. ›2 is made greater than
a and converter 2 operates as an Inverter.
 Vdc is positive & Idc is positive and Pdc is
positive.
 When ›2 < a , converter 2 operates as a
controlled rectifier. ›1 is made greater than
a and converter 1 operates as an Inverter.
 Vdc is negative & Idc is negative and Pdc is
positive.

Ô 
     
Output voltage of a full-wave rectifier
with controlled thyristors

 Rectifiers are also used to supply polarised voltage


for welding.
- In such circuits control of the output
current is required and this is sometimes
achieved by replacing some of the diode in bridge
rectifier with thyristors, whose voltage ouput can be
regulated by means of phase fired controllers.
Applications
 Speed control of DC motor in DC drives.
 UPS.
 HVDC transmission.
 •attery Chargers.

Ô 
     
•ATTERY CHARGERS
wÔ  
!"#  $ %$  &

 The chargers are configured


with main transformer, fully
controlled secondary thyristor
rectifier, output load resistor
and DC filter choke.
 Thyristor control is via the
industry standard P45
analogue card, which allows for
the firing of of thyristors in
inverse parallel or DC bridge
configuration with voltage and
current feedback.
WONDERSTONE
'! ' #
The control system on this rectifier was
developed by Microelettrica Power Devices and is
the first of its kind in South Africa.
MEGAWATT POWER
High Power Heavy Industrial Equipment

Æ (Æ
' ##!!

Installed at Palaborwa Mining Company


DC Choppers
 

 

   

 
 m
    
    
   


AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Two-quadrant Converter



T1 D1
v
ia
Vdc Q2 Q1

v 
{ T2 D2


T1 conducts   )



AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Two-quadrant Converter



T1 D1
v
ia
Vdc Q2 Q1

v 
{ T2 D2


D2 conducts   )* T1 conducts   )





 $

+%Æ The average voltage is made larger than the back emf


AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Two-quadrant Converter



T1 D1
v
ia
Vdc Q2 Q1

v 
{ T2 D2


D1 conducts   )



AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Two-quadrant Converter



T1 D1
v
ia
Vdc Q2 Q1

v 
{ T2 D2


T2 conducts   )* D1 conducts   )





 $

+%, The average voltage is made smallerr than the back emf, thus forcing
the current to flow in the reverse direction


AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Four-quadrant Converter
leg A leg •

v D1 D3
Q1 Q3
v {
Vdc

{ D4 D2
Q4 Q2

Ô%

    




AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Four-quadrant Converter
leg A leg •

v D1 D3
Q1 Q3
v {
Vdc

{ D4 D2
Q4 Q2

Ô%

    


    
    !  " 


AC-DC-DC DC-DC: Four-quadrant Converter
leg A leg •

v D1 D3
Q1 Q3
v {
Vdc

{ D4 D2
Q4 Q2

Ô%  %

         


         
    !  "      !  " 
References
www.scribd.com
http://science.howstuffworks.com/maglev-
train.htm
http://future.wikia.com/wiki/converters

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