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WCDMA Radio Planning Fundamentals

Deepak Yadav
Jan2008

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Contents
Scope of 3G Network Planning
WCDMA Planning Process Overview
Input Parameters
Link Budget Overview
Site Selection Criteria
Co Sitting and Interference Issues
Nominal Planning Fundamentals
NetAct Simulations Process Overview

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Simplified Network Planning Flowchart


Initial network dimensioning
CW
Measurement
Create nominal plan
Define search areas
Identify site options
Site selection
Site acquisition
Detailed site design
Site construction
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Scope of 3G network planning

Packet Switched Core


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Network planning process & relation to business


planning
Network
dimensioning

transmission
plan

marketing

business
plan
coverage
plan
traffic
assumptions

Code & freq. &


interference plan
final NW
topology/
architecture

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Network
optimization

NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

parameter
planning

New issues in WCDMA planning process wrt GSM

DEFINITION

Coverage and capacity


coupling
PLEMENTATION

Network
Configuration
and
Dimensioning

Coverage
Planning and
Site Selection

Requirements
and strategy
for coverage,
quality and
capacity,

Propagation
measurements
Coverage
prediction

per service Site


acquisition
Coverage
optimisation

Capacity
Requirements
Traffic distribution

Service distribution

Allowed blocking/queuing
System features

Multiple services

External Interference
Analysis
Identification
Adaptation

Multiple services

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O&M
Parameter
Planning

Network
Optimisation

Area / Cell
specific

Survey
measurements

Handover
strategies

Statistical
performance
analysis

Maximum
network
loading
Other RRM

Quality
Efficiency
Availability

Radio networks Dimensioning


Overview

COVERAGE
COVERAGE

CAPACITY
CAPACITY

COMPROMISE
COMPROMISEBETWEEN
BETWEENCOVERAGE
COVERAGEAND
ANDCAPACITY
CAPACITY

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Infrastr.
Parameters
Traffic
#Demand
of sectors
antennas
per
bearer
req
cov
area
# of
subs
etc.
GoS
etc.

Customer
Requirements

Rel99, CPICH,
HSDPA, HSUPA

System
Parameters
Eb/No
TX power
etc.

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per Phase

Number of NodeBs

RF Planning
DIM
TOOL
Parameters
Air Interface
NodeB
interf marg
Dimensioning
Dimensioning
HO gain
(Capacity: Rel99 environment
CHC, DRIC, FSM)
+ HSPA )
etc.
DIM TOOL

LINK BUDGET

Per area and

NodeB Type
NodeB
configuration:
- Amount
- BB dim
- NDR annex
- etc.
And NodeB
Upgrade:

System
Parameters
spectral
efficiency
etc.

NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

- #CHC / #FSM
- #Carrier
- Sectorisation
-

-Output toward Access planning

UTRAN Radio Dimensioning

Coverage VS Capacity Dimensioning:


Cell Breathing
This diagram shows when some
cells are loaded

This diagram shows cells


are unload

CellA
CellA

CellB
CellB

CellC

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Cell
breathing

CellC

Results =>
Coverage Holes!

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Coverage VS Capacity Dimensioning:


Fixed Uplink Load - To avoid Coverage holes
This diagram shows a Fixed
Uplink Load design

"actual" Loading, (ie from


the traffic inputs
defined in
dimensioning)

No (or minimum)
coverage holes problems
More cells required

CellB
CellA

CellA

CellC
CellD

CellB

CellH

account. (Note:
dimensioning assumes
uniform traffic

CellF

distribution)

CellE

CellC

CellG

eg. Actual UL
load = 8%
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Traffic mobility taken into

eg. Fixed UL
load = 30%

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Results => No or Min


Coverage Holes!

Input parameters overview


Input Categories
CAPACITY RELATED
CAPACITY RELATED

Spectrum Available
Spectrum Available
User Profile and Traffic Growth
User Profile and Traffic Growth
Forecast
Forecast
Traffic Density Map
Traffic Density Map

COVERAGE RELATED
COVERAGE RELATED
Coverage Regions
Coverage Regions
Area Type Information
Area Type Information

QUALITY RELATED
QUALITY RELATED
MS Class
MS Class
Indoor Coverage
Indoor Coverage
Location Probability
Location Probability
Blocking Probability
Blocking Probability

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Gives an Estimation of the


Equipment
Gives an Estimation
Necessaryof
tothe
Equipment
Necessary to
Meet
the Network
Meet the Network
Requirements
Requirements
Network Dimensioning
Activities
Network Dimensioning
Activities
Radio Link Budget
Calculation
Radio Link Budget
Calculation
Cell Size Calculation
Cell Size Calculation
Capacity Calculation
Capacity Calculation
Transmission Network
Estimate
Transmission Network
Estimate

Summary of Dimensioning Inputs


Dense Urban

Urban

Suburban

Rural

Voice

# of subs & mErl per


sub

# of subs & mErl per


sub

# of subs & mErl per


sub

# of subs & mErl per


sub

CS data

# of subs & mErl per


sub

# of subs & mErl per


sub

# of subs & mErl per


sub

# of subs & mErl per


sub

PS data

# of subs & kbps per


sub

# of subs & kbps per


sub

# of subs & kbps per


sub

# of subs & kbps per


sub

Coverage area

km2

km2

km2

km2

Location
probability

Standard
deviation

dB

dB

dB

dB

Fade margin

dB

dB

dB

dB

Penetration loss

dB

dB

dB

dB

Area correction
factor

dB

dB

dB

dB

MS / Node B
antenna height

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Link Budget Overview

Noise
figure

Soft handover
gain,
M
antenna gain s ar
gi
n
PA
TH
L
(L OS
)
S

Body loss

Cable
losses
Building
Penetration loss

Max
= Tx Signal + All Gains Other Losses Rx
Allowed
Sensitivity
Path Loss
(L)

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Path loss = Tx signal + all gains - losses - ( SNR + Noise)

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Bit rate

bit/s

64000

Total TX power available

dBm

21

TX antenna gain

dBi

Body loss

dB

TX EIRP per traffic channel

dBm

23

RX antenna gain

dBi

18

RX cable and connector losses

dB

Receiver noise figure

dB

Thermal noise density

dBm/Hz

Cell loading

Noise rise due to interference

dB

5.23

Total effect of noise

dBm/Hz

-171

Information rate

dBHz

Effective required Eb/No

dB

RX sensitivity

dBm

Soft Handoff Gain

dB

4.5

Fast fading Margin

dB

2.5

Log normal fade margin

dB

11.6

In-building penetration loss (urban)

dB

20

Maximum path loss urban

dB

123.80

NetAct Simulation Procedure/Jan2008

-174
70

48.06
2.54
-115.40

a
b
c
d
e=b+c-d
f
g
h
j
k
l=10*log10(1/(1-(k/100)))
m=h+j
n=db(a)
o
p=l+m+n+o+correction factor
q
r
s
t
pl=e+f+q-g-p-r-s-t

Site Selection Criteria

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Site Selection Criteria


Proper site location determines usefulness of its cells
Sites are expensive
Sites are long-term investments
Site acquisition is a slow process
Hundreds/thousands of sites needed per network

Base station sites are valuable


long-term assets for the operator

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How do I asses a site option?


Each site needs to be assessed on several grounds.
Radio
Transmission
Access
Power
Planning

Ideally every site option reported by the surveyor would


pass in each of the areas listed above.

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Bad GSM Sites


In GSM, there were two types of bad sites.
Donkeys - Low sites which provide very little coverage.
Donkeys carry so little traffic that they often never pay for themselves.

Boomers - High sites which propagate much further than is needed.


A boomer will cause localised interference and prevent capacity being added to
some other sites in the area.

Small Donkey site

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Large Boomer site

Bad UMTS Sites


Good radio engineering practice doesnt change much for UMTS.
It just becomes more important.

In UMTS
A Donkey will never pay for itself.
A Boomer will reduce the range and capacity of surrounding sites.

Two major factors determine whether a site is considered good, a

Donkey or a Boomer, They are:


Site location.
Antenna height.
Other parameters can be used in an attempt to control booming sites but
it is far better to avoid building them in the first place.

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Importance of Controlling 'Little i'


WCDMA is an interference-limited network. I.e. capacity of the network is

directly linked to how interference is maintained/controlled.


From the Radio Network Planning point of view, the "little i" - other-to-own cell
interference- is the only thing that can really be influenced by the Planner during
the site selection and planning stage. WCDMA RF planning is all about having
good dominance in the desired coverage area.
Unlike in GSM, that there is no frequency plan to "play" with in order to
minimise the effects of bad sites.

Uplink
Uplink Load
Load Equation
Equation
11
UL (1(1pw
_
rise

i
)

pw_ rise i )k1


UL
W
W
k1
1
1 E
EbbN RRkk v
vkk
Noo kk
K
K

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Downlink
Downlink Load
Load Equation
Equation

(E
)k)
bb//No
(
E
No
k 1 i v
DL
1 kk i vkk
DL k1 (W / R)
k1 (W / Rk)
K
K

Importance of Controlling 'Little i'


43 dBm

MS TX power

21 dBm

Ec/Io

-16.5 dB

BTS Eb/No

1.5

MS Eb/No

5.5

128 kbps

170

i=
i=
i=
i=
i=
i=
i=
i=

165

Maximum propagation loss (dB)

BTS TX power

160

Other to own cell 0.2, 0.4, 0.6,


interference ratio i
0.8
Orthogonality

0.6

Channel profile
MS speed

ITU Vehicular
A, 3 km/h
3 km/h

MS/BTS NF

8 dB / 4 dB

Antenna gain

16 dBi

0.2
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.6
0.6
0.8
0.8

155

150

145

140

500

1000

DL throughput in kbps

1500

RESULT: Doubling of the "little i" will cause throughput


to decrease to 70% of the original value

Planners have to select the sites diligently so that the otherto-own cell interference ratio is MINIMIZED by planning
clear dominance areas during site selection / planning
phase.

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i = Coverage Overlap
Some overlap is required to allow soft handover to occur
Need to control amount of interference since the network
capacity is directly related to it.
Soft handover helps to reduce interference. (Soft HO
Gain)
Too much overlap:
Increases interference to other cells --> reduce capacity
Increases Soft Handover overhead --> reduce capacity

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Bad Site Location


Avoid hill-top locations for BS sites (same for GSM)
uncontrolled interference
interleaved coverage
no sharp dominance areas
awkward Soft/Hard HO behaviours
BUT: good location for microwave links ! (TNP jurisdiction)
wanted cell
boundary

interleaved coverage areas:


weak own signal, strong foreign signal
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uncontrolled, strong
interferences

Good Site Location


Prefer sites off the hill-tops
use hills/high rise buildings to separate cells
contiguous coverage area
well defined dominance areas
needs only low antenna heights if sites are slightly elevated above valley bottom

wanted cell
boundary

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Characteristics of a good site


It has good clearance,
no obstacles around, and it
overlooks the surrounding rooftops.
This site will give good macro coverage.
Bad site; blocked by neighbour building

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Characteristics of a good sit


Uplink
UplinkLoad
LoadEquation
Equation
K

11
K
UL (1(1pw
_
rise

i
)

pw_ rise i )k
WW
UL
1
k1
1
1 E
b
E
b R
k v
k
R
k vk
o k
NN
o k

Downlink
DownlinkLoad
Load
Equation
Equation

K (E / No)
b / No
k)
K (E
DL
b
k 1 k i vk
1 k i vk
DL k1 (W / R)
k
k1 (W / R)k

BAD: In a urban/dense urban are


too high a site is a bad site since
will introduce too much interfere
to other sites in the network
(remember the little i)

while for a rural area it's a goo

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Examples of Bad Sites

Typical mess! =>


GSM1800 antennas with
space div.
between CDMA (IS-95)
antennas and
pointing directly at the high
building
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GSM1800 and GSM900 antennas are


too close
=> Not enough isolation =>
Intermodulation and spurious
emission.

These situations can easily


be avoided!!

Time consuming and costly to


fix.

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Examples of Bad Sites


Little i, Little i, Little i !!!

Arghhh note how far you can see Well shit happens who could have
roughly 10km = TOO FAR. There is a river
known
as well, so interference is enormous. Site
that they were going to build this high
distance is about 700meters in this
building one year after installation ?!
phase!! Site was good in phase 1
Planners should
when distance between sites was 4km!
have anticipated this during initial
site surveys!
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Examples of Bad Sites

Is this installation OK? The satellite dish


near field of the GSM900 antennas -> s
effects for sure. Definite interference to
The TX/RX and Rx div antennas are notsystem.
pointingBut could not be tested becaus
satellite system was not in use!
in the same direction! Installation problem.
Avoid installing antennas in close proxim
other objects since its radiation pattern
be altered.
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Examples of GOOD Sites

Enough space between the two Tx/Rx and Rx Div., AND pointing in the sa
Site survey point of view: Provides clear dominance to the desired covera

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Summary of Site Selection Guidelines


The objective is to select a site location which covers the desired area but
keeps emissions to a minimum.
The site should be located as close to the traffic source as possible.
The closer the site is to the traffic, the less output power will be required by

the user equipment and node B. This will minimise the noise affecting other
users on both the serving cell as well as other nearby cells.

The antenna height selected will depend largely on the type of

environment in which the site is to be located. Eg Dense Urban, Urban,


Suburban, Rural.
The key factor to be considered is how well can the emissions be
controlled.

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Summary of Site Selection Guidelines


You can "feel" the site only if you are there!
If one or more of these characteristics are not fulfilled by the

examined site, the Field Planner should REJECT the site and
choose another site
Be flexible, even creative! Try to think of all the possible
implementation solutions that the site could support: different pole
heights, split poles for different sectors, etc.
Always check neighbouring sites, to be sure your chosen
candidate is "fitting" well into the surrounding, e.g. for coverage,
SHO zones,etc.

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Using Existing Cellular Sites


Most UMTS networks will be built around an existing GSM network.
Many GSM networks were built around existing analogue sites.
In the early days of analogue cellular sites were often located to give

maximum coverage. No thought was given to capacity issues.


Despite causing problems in high capacity networks, many of these high
sites are still in operation today.
Most cellular networks contain these nightmare sites.
When rolling out UMTS around an existing network it is vital to avoid
these sites.

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UMTS Configurations
Most vendors support the same basic configurations.
Omni
3 sector
6 sector
Each vendor supports their own variations on these configurations.
Some solutions eliminate the need for RF plumbing.
Some require similar amounts of equipment to a GSM BTS.
Some increase the number of antennas on a site.
The configuration can be affected by the wide variety of UMTS antennas.

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Co-locating a Node B at a GSM site


Isolation requirements between UMTS and GSM systems can be derived from

UMTS and GSM specifications.


In many cases equipment performance will exceed the requirements in the
specifications.
Each vendor should be able to provide information which can be used to
improve the isolation requirements.
The isolation requirements will affect
Choice of antenna configuration
Filtering at both the GSM and UMTS sites.
Isolation is the attenuation from the output port of a transmitter to the input port of
the receiver.

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Interference Issues
Wideband Noise - unwanted emissions from modulation process and

non-linearity of transmitter
Spurious Emissions - Harmonic, Parasitic, Inter-modulation products
Blocking - Transmitter carriers from another system
Inter-modulation Products - Spurious emission, specifications consider
this in particular
Active: non-linearities of active components - can be filtered out by BTS
Passive: non-linearities of passive components - cannot be filtered out by
BTS

Other EMC problems - feeders, antennas, transceivers and receivers

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Interference Issues
Nonlinear system transfer function can be expressed as a series expansion

System

y = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + a3x3 + ...

In the case of one input frequency, vin = cos 1t, output will consist of harmonics,
m1

Fundamental (m = 1) frequency is the desired one.


If m > 1, there are higher order harmonics in output => harmonic distortion.
Can be generated both inside an offender or a victim system.
In the case of two input frequencies, vin = cos 1t + cos 2t , output will consist
of harmonics m1 + n2, where n and m are positive or negative integers.
Intermodulation is the process of generating an output signal containing frequency
components not present in the input signal. Called intermodulation distortion
(IMD).
Most harmful are 3rd order (|m| + |n| = 3) products.
Can be generated both inside an offender or a victim system.

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Interference from Other System


GSM spurious emissions and intermodulation results of GSM 1800
interfere WCDMA receiver sensitivity

WCDMA spurious emissions interfere GSM receiver sensitivity


GSM transmitter blocks WCDMA receiver
WCDMA transmitter blocks GSM receiver

GSM
1800
UL
1710-1785
MHz

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GSM
1800
DL
1805-1880
MHz

40
MHz

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UMTS
UL

UMTS

1920-1980
MHz

2110-2170
MHz

DL

M Distortion

from GSM1800 DL to WCDMA UL


GSM1800 IM3 (3rd order
intermodulation) products hits
into the WCDMA FDD UL RX
band if:
1862.6 f2 1879.8 MHz
1805.2 f1 1839.6 MHz

f1

fIM3 = 2f2 - f1

f2

For active elements IM


products levels are higher
than IM products produced
by passive components
Typical IM3 suppression
values for power amplifiers
are -30 -50 dBc
depending on frequency
spacing and offset
Typical values for passive
elements are -100 -160 d

X dBc fIM3

GSM1800
UL

GSM1800
DL

WCDMA
UL

WCDMA
DL

1710 - 1785 MHz1805 - 1880 MHz


40 MHz1920 - 1980 MHz2110 - 2170 MHz
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Harmonic distortion
Harmonic distortion can be a problem in the case of co-siting of GSM900 and WCDMA.
GSM900 DL frequencies are 935 - 960 MHz and second harmonics may fall into the WCDMA
TDD band and into the lower end of the FDD band.

2nd harmonics
fGSM = 950 - 960 MHz
GSM900
935 - 960 MHz

2nd harmonics can be


filtered out at the
output of GSM900
BTS.

...
WCDMA
WCDMA FDD
TDD 1920 - 1980
f

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1900 -1920
MHz

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Isolation Requirements
GSM 900

GSM 1800

UMTS

Receiving band 890 915 MHz 1710 1785 MHz


(UL)
Transmitting band 935 960 MHz 1805 1880 MHz
(DL)

1920 1980 MHz


2110 2170 MHz

For example - To prevent UMTS BTS blocking: with transmit power = 43 dBm
Max level of interfering signal for blocking = -15 dBm in UMTS

Isolation required = 58 dBm

1805 MHz
1710 MHz

1785 MHz

GSM 1800 Rx

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1880 MHz
1920 MHz

GSM 1800 Tx

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2110 MHz
1980 MHz

UMTS Rx

2170 MHz

UMTS Rx

Achieving Isolation Requirements


GSM

Isolation can be provided in a variety of


different ways.
By antenna selection and positioning.
By filtering out the interfering signal.
By using diplexers and triplexers with

UMTS
GSM

shared feeder and multiband antennas.

Filter

UMTS
GSM
Diplexer

UMTS

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Co-siting - Antenna Installations


Difficult to calculate isolation between two antennas and measurements are

required.
Best configurations - antennas pointing in different directions or where there is
vertical separation between antennas
The following configurations will should all give 30dB isolation.

d
90

d
120

d = 0.3 - 0.5 m

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180

d=1-3m

d = 0.5 - 2 m

Site sharing with third party systems


Some UMTS sites might be co-located

with other non GSM operators.


PMR
Broadcast
Minimum separation
Navigation
Some of these systems use older
equipment which might be more
vulnerable to EMC issues.
Need to define minimum antenna
separations between systems
Better to avoid sites used for safety
critical applications.

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UMTS antennas

Other systems

Antenna installation issues: Clearance angle

h (meters)
Clearance angle
d (meters)

Side view
Rules of thumb:
h d/2, d < 10 m
h d/3, 10 < d < 20 m
h d/4, d > 30 m

Antenna
d (meters)

Top view
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Antenna installation
Safety margin of 15 between the reflecting surface and the 3 dB lobe

d has to be >
3.2 m

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Antenna installation: Other RF-systems

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1 (1)

Nominal Planning for UMTS

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What is a nominal plan?


A nominal plan is initially a hypothetical

wireless network.
The nominal plan is the starting point for the
cell rollout process and will evolve into the final
network design.
As physical sites are identified and acquired,
the nominal plan is amended.

Nominal Plan
Rollout
process

Final
Network
Design

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Initial Network Dimensioning


Spreadsheet based analysis.
Used in the license application.
Identifies the approximate number

of sites required.
Identifies the approximate site radii
required for:
Urban/Suburban/Rural areas
Voice/Data services
Used as a major input to the
nominal plan.

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Typical cell radii estimates


Voice
64 kb/s
384 kb/s

Urban
1.8 km
1.6 km
1.1 km

Suburban
3.1 km
2.7 km
2.4 km

Rural
4.4 km
3.5 km
3.2 km

Service supported
Maximum range to support all services
Service not supported in this environment

Create Nominal Plan


Position a hexagonal grid of sites

over the desired coverage area.


The radius of each hexagon can be
determined from the previous slide.
The capacity of the network can
then be analyzed to detect:
Hot spots that require cell splits.
Under used cells that could be
removed from the plan.

Example nominal plan for Jersey

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Define Search Areas


The sites in a nominal plan are only imaginary.
To become a real network, physical sites are required.
A suitable physical site must be found for each nominal site.
A suitable physical site must amongst other things:
Give adequate radio coverage.
Have connectivity into the transmission network.
Be aesthetically and politically acceptable to the local community.
Have power nearby, good access and a co-operative owner.

A survey of each nominal site is normally carried out to identify possible


site options which meet the above criteria.

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Define Search Areas


Guidelines have to be given to the surveyor so the options give
appropriate radio coverage.
The guideline is given in the form of a search area. Could be:
Radius from the nominal site.
One or more polygons following height contours.

Or

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Identify Site Options


Surveyor visits each search area and identifies potential site options.
The first sites to be considered should be
Existing radio sites.
Sites offered from major site owners (MSO) E.g. Utilities & Railways.
All options should meet certain criteria to ensure that they are
Technically acceptable.
Build able
A good idea to consult with the planning/zoning authority during the
survey.
Good training of surveyors will save time later in the build process.

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Identify Site Options


The surveyor will prepare a report
listing the options.
Report will include:
Accurate grid reference.
Accurate height of structures or

available antenna windows.


Photographs of the site.
360 panoramic photos from site
or if obstructed from nearby
location/structure.

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A
D
C

Site Selection
Normally a desk study.
Evaluate radio coverage and

transmission.
Quickly eliminate unsuitable

options.
Rank the remaining sites in order
of preference.

Nominate a preferred option and


possibly a backup option.

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A3rd
D1st
C2nd

B - Unsuitable

Detailed Site Design


Prior to commencement of

construction work, a detailed site


design is required.
Includes
Antenna and feeder requirements.
Antenna azimuths and tilts.
Equipment capacity requirements

Cant be completed in isolation.

Must take into account other sites.

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300
Ant 6
300

60
Ant 1
60

Ant 5

Ant 2
Ant 4
180

Ant 3
180

Evaluate Nominal Network Coverage


Run a coverage array for the nominal

network.
Check that the coverage is in line with
your expectations.
Adjust site locations and add additional
sites if improvements to coverage is
necessary.
Check for excessively high sites.

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Thank You

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WCDMA Planning Fundamentals/Jan2008