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Days 1+2 - Learning Objectives

At the end of the 2 days the trainee shall be able to :


determine for gas mixtures,
using the appropriate gas laws

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gas density
mixture molecular weight
convert from mass fraction to volume fraction
and vice versa

read a psychrometric chart


perform manual process measurements
related to gases (T, p, F, v, gas composition)
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Day 1 : Gas Fundamentals and Basics


Morning Session

Exercises
Ideal gas
Gas density
Mass fraction
Size of a dust collector
Water vapor

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The Ideal Gas Law

pV=nRT
p V / T = constant
po = 1013,25 [mbar]
To = 273,15 [K]
R = 8,31441 [J/(mole.K)]
Hereinafter Nm refers to po and To

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Exercise - Ideal Gas Law


Question

The flow rate of gas in a kiln stack is 127 300 [m/h] at


a temperature of 325 [C] and a relative negative
pressure of 50 [mbar].
Calculate that flow rate at normal conditions.

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Influence of the Altitude


If absolute pressure available = OK
If not OK call the weather service for the absolute pressure
related to sea level or use a barometer
in plant
to correct with altitude

p po

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0,0065h
1
273,15 t

5,255

Exercise - Gas Density - Question

Calculate the density of air at 100C and a relative


negative pressure of 27 mbar.

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Gas Density
Warning!
For minor components use values from standard tables, because
they are not ideal gas.
This mainly concerns SO2:
SO2 = M = 64,06 g/mole
o = 2,858 kg/Nm
In tables

o = 2,92 kg/Nm

=> Use standard tables for environmental calculations!

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Exercise - Mass Fraction - Question


The following gas composition, on volume basis, was
measured at the back of a kiln. Calculate it on mass
basis.
O2 : 2,99%

Ar : 0,74%

CO2 : 30,11%

SO2 :

N2 : 62,18%

H2O : 3,82%

Please remember!
%volume %mole

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1600 ppm

(1 kmole = 22,414 Nm)

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Exercise - Size of a Dust Collector Question

The vent air system of a clinker cooler is designed to handle


200 000 [m/h] at 250 [C] and relative negative pressure 20 [mbar]
(system A).
What would be the size of a dust collector, in term of filtering area,
for that vent system, assuming a 5% (by mass) air inleakage
with a air-to-cloth ratio of 1,2 [m/(m.min)] (system B)?
Assume a dust collector inlet temperature of 220 [C]
and inlet pressure of 7 [mbar].

Cooler

Bag Filter

+5% 220 C; -7 mbar


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200000 m/h @ 250 C, 20 mbar


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Day 1 : Gas Fundamentals and Basics


Morning Session

Exercises
Water vapor
Vapor pressure & Humidity
Dew point temperature
Wet-Bulb & Dry-Bulb temperatures
Psychrometric chart
Exercise 2 : Calculation of the dew point
temperature after the water spray

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Vapor Pressure and Humidity (1)

Vapor Pressure

Gas

pgas = Vapor Pressure = f(T)

Liquid

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Vapor Pressure & Humidity (2)

Partial pressure in a gas mixture


In a gas mixture
Total gas pressure = Sum of partial gas pressure
Partial gas pressure for gas i
pi = xi . pgas
where
xi = % (volume=mole) of gas i in gas mixture
pgas = total gas pressure

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Vapor Pressure & Humidity (3)

Condensation
Gas (T, p)
pi > pv (T)

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Condensation, when

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Vapor Pressure & Humidity (4)

Relative humidity:

Ratio of the mole fraction of water vapor to mole fraction of


vapor in a saturated water/gas mixture at this temperature and
pressure
Ratio of partial pressure of water in mixture to the saturation
vapor pressure
n
p

H 2O

nH 2O saturated

H 2O

pv T , p

Humidity ratio (absolute humidity):

Ratio of the mass of water vapor to the mass of dry gas


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mH 2 O
mdry gas

kg H 2 O
kg dry gas
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Dew Point Temperature

The temperature at which vapor condenses if a gas is


cooled at constant pressure

The saturation temperature corresponding to the actual


vapor pressure

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Wet-Bulb & Dry-Bulb Temperatures

To measure humidity in air


Dry-bulb thermometer: air temperature
Wet-bulb thermometer: bulb covered with cotton wick
saturated with water
Air flowing on the bulb evaporates water
Temperature drops from heat transfer from bulb to water
Evaporation depends on air moisture content

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Psychrometric Chart
55C WB

0.10
0.09
0.08

50%

0.07

25%

45C WB

0.06

10%
5% relative
humidity

40C WB

0.05
0.04
0.03

30C WB

0.02

20C WB

20

30

Moisture content (kg/kg dry air)

100% relative
humidity
50C WB

0.01
40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

0.00
120

Dry bulb Temperature (C)

64C dry bulb


45C wet bulb
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0.057 kg water/kg dry air


29.7% relative humidity
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Exercise 1 - Psychrometric Chart


Question

Dew point temperature: temperature where humidity in


a gas starts to condense.
Wet-bulb temperature: temperature resulting from
evaporative cooling of the bulb
Dry-bulb temperature (C)

80

120

Wet-bulb temperature (C)

45

45

Humidity (kg/kg dry air)


Dew point temperature (C)

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Exercise 2 - Calculation of the Dew Point T


The Process Engineer was able to determine the
gas conditions at the back of a long dry kiln:
1) Flowrate: 80500 Nm/h
2) Temperature: 520C (before water spray)

5) Composition (before water


spray) : % volume

3) Water is injected at the back of the kiln to reduce the gas


temperature to 359C.
4) Water spray: 6823 kg/h

Calculate the dew point temperature of the gas


after the water spray.
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O2

1,66

CO2

32,43

SO2

0,24

N2

59,50

Ar

0,71

H2O

5,46
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