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# Topic cover

## Introduction to stress and strain, stress strain diagram

Elasticity and plasticity and Hookes law
Shear Stress and Shear strain
Axial force and deflection of body

Topic cover
Shear Force and bending moment
Introduction, types of beam and load
Shear force and bending moment
Relation between load, shear force and bending
moment

Topic cover
Shear Stress in beam
Introduction, Stream of shear force
Shear stress and shear strain in edge beam

DIRECT STRESS

## When a force is applied to an elastic body, the body

deforms. The way in which the body deforms depends upon
the type of force applied to it.

## Tensile and compressive forces are called DIRECT FORCES

Stress is the force per unit area upon which it acts.

Force F
Stress

Area
A

2
.. Unit is Pascal (Pa) or N / m

( Simbol Sigma)

DIRECT STRAIN ,

## In each case, a force F produces a deformation x. In engineering, we

usually change this force into stress and the deformation into strain
and we define these as follows:
Strain is the deformation per unit of the original length.

x
Strain
L

The
symbol

called EPSILON

## Strain has no units since it is a ratio of length to length. Most

engineering materials do not stretch very mush before they become
damages, so strain values are very small figures. It is quite normal to
change small numbers in to the exponent for 10-6( micro strain).

## MODULUS OF ELASTICITY (E)

Elastic materials always spring back into shape when released.
They also obey HOOKEs LAW.
This is the law of spring which states that deformation is directly
proportional to the force. F/x = stiffness = kN/m

The stiffness is different for the different material and different sizes of the
material. We may eliminate the size by using stress and strain instead of
force and deformation:
If F and x is refer to the direct stress and strain , then

F A

x L

hence

F A

x L

and

FL

Ax

The stiffness is now in terms of stress and strain only and this
constant is called the MODULUS of ELASTICITY (E)

FL

Ax

## A graph of stress against strain will be straight line with

gradient of E. The units of E are the same as the unit of
stress.
ULTIMATE TENSILE STRESS
If a material is stretched until it breaks, the tensile stress has
reached the absolute limit and this stress level is called the
ultimate tensile stress.

## STRESS STRAIN DIAGRAM

Elastic behaviour
The curve is straight line trough out most of the region
Stress is proportional with strain
Material to be linearly elastic
Proportional limit
The upper limit to linear line
The material still respond elastically
The curve tend to bend and flatten out
Elastic limit
Upon reaching this point, if load is remove, the

## STRESS STRAIN DIAGRAM

Yielding
A Slight increase in stress above the elastic limit will
result in breakdown of the material and cause it to
deform permanently.
This behaviour is called yielding
The stress that cause = YIELD STRESS@YIELD
POINT
Plastic deformation
Once yield point is reached, the specimen will
elongate (Strain) without any increase in load
Material in this state = perfectly plastic

## STRESS STRAIN DIAGRAM

STRAIN HARDENING
When yielding has ended, further load applied, resulting in a

## curve that rises continuously

Become flat when reached ULTIMATE STRESS
The rise in the curve = STRAIN HARDENING
While specimen is elongating, its cross sectional will decrease
The decrease is fairly uniform

NECKING

## localised region of specimen

it is caused by slip planes formed within material
Actual strain produced by shear strain
As a result, neck tend to form
Smaller area can only carry lesser load, hence curve donward
Specimen break at FRACTURE STRESS

SHEAR STRESS

## When a beam has a transverse load

Shear stress is the force per unit area carrying the load. This
means the cross sectional area of the material being cut, the
beam and pin.

F
Shear stress,
A

## and symbol is called Tau

The sign convention for shear force and stress is based on how it
shears the materials as shown below.

SHEAR STRAIN

The force causes the material to deform as shown. The shear strain
is defined as the ratio of the distance deformed to the height

x
L
.

Shear strain

x

L
( symbol called
Gamma)

## If we conduct an experiment and measure x for various values of F,

we would find that if the material is elastic, it behave like spring and
so long as we do not damage the material by using too big force,
the graph of F and x is straight line as shown.

F
cons tan t
x

## and this is the spring stiffness of the block in N/m.

If we divide F by area A and x by the height L, the relationship is
still a constant and we get

## If we divide F by area A and x by the height L, the relationship is

still a constant and we get

F
A F x L FL con tan t
x
A x Ax
L
Where

x

L

then

F L FL
x
con tan t
A x Ax

This constant will have a special value for each elastic material
and is called the Modulus of Rigidity (G).

## ULTIMATE SHEAR STRESS

If a material is sheared beyond a certain limit and it becomes
permanently distorted and does not spring all the way back to its
original shape, the elastic limit has been exceeded.
If the material stressed to the limit so that it parts into two, the
ultimate limit has been reached.

## The ultimate shear stress has symbol

and this value is used
to calculate the force needed by shears and punches.

DOUBLE SHEAR
Consider a pin joint with a support on both ends as shown. This
is called CLEVIS and CLEVIS PIN
By balance of force, the force in the two supports is F/2 each
The area sheared is twice the cross section of the pin
So it takes twice as much force to break the pin as for a case
of single shear
Double shear arrangements doubles the maximum force
allowed in the pin

DESIGN CONSIDERATION
Will help engineers with their important task in Designing
structural/machine that is SAFE and ECONOMICALLY perform
for a specified function
DETERMINATION OF ULTIMATE STRENGTH
An important element to be considered by a designer is how the
material that has been selected will behave under a load
This is determined by performing specific test (e.g. Tensile test)
ULTIMATE FORCE (PU)= The largest force that may be applied
to the specimen is reached, and the specimen either breaks or
ULTIMATE NORMAL STRESS
(U) = ULTIMATE FORCE(PU) /AREA

## ALLOWABLE LOAD / ALLOWABLE STRESS

Max load that a structural member/machine component will be allowed
to carry under normal conditions of utilisation is considerably smaller
Only a fraction of ultimate load capacity of the member is utilised when
The remaining portion of the load-carrying capacity of the member is
kept in reserve to assure its safe performance
The ratio of the ultimate load/allowable load is used to define FACTOR
OF SAFETY
@
FACTOR OF SAFETY = ULTIMATE STRESS/ALLOWABLE STRESS

SELECTION OF F.S.
1. Variations that may occur in the properties of the member under
considerations
2. The number of loading that may be expected during the life of the
structural/machine
3. The type of loading that are planned for in the design, or that may
occur in the future
4. The type of failure that may occur
5. Uncertainty due to the methods of analysis
6. Deterioration that may occur in the future because of poor
maintenance / because of unpreventable natural causes
7. The importance of a given member to the integrity of the whole
structure

WORKED EXAMPLE 8

0.6 m

SOLUTION

SOLUTION

## AXIAL FORCE & DEFLECTION OF BODY

If the resulting axial stress does not exceed the proportional limit of
the material, Hookes Law may be applied E
Then deformation (x / ) can be written as

FL

AE

WORKED EXAMPLE 9

0.4 m

WORKED EXAMPLE 9

WORKED EXAMPLE 9