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SESSION-02

HINDU ISLAMIC STYLES


MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE

BY
CHRISTOPHER ABHILASH
HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE LECTURE, SEM-IV
KMEA-COA- JANUARY 25TH ,2016

HISTORIC BACKGROUND

THE EXTENT OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE


(13TH-16TH CENTURIES)
3

THE EMPERORS AND THEIR


ARCHITECTURAL STYLES

01- AKBAR ARCHITECTURAL


INCLINATION
Austerity and moderation were the
underlying theme for royal buildings.
This was achieved through the use
of locally available building materials.
Never commanded his artisans to
adhere to a style consciously
representing a single religion.
Never promoted a Regional Style in
architecture.
Exercised
strict
control
over
expenditure.
This criterion spurred artists to even
more sophisticated heights.

PUBLIC AN EXAMPLE OF
CHEHEL SOTUN PLANNING

HUMAYUNS TOMB - DELHI*


The Persian Chehel Sotun style of
site planning

Humayuns tomb complex, Delhi iplannrx


according to the by the Chehel Sotun style

Tomb
Garden
Pavillion
Long
pool
Char- Bagh
(garden)

Long
water
body

MUGHAL GARDENS FEATURES *


Mughal gardens were conceived as
being part of a grand symmetrical
arrangement.
Organized natural elements within a
refined man-made framework of
geometrical patterns.
Trees planted at strategic points
(intersections etc.)
Rigid channels of water laid along
cardinal points.
Water channels punctuated by
Fountains at regular intervals.
Rows of flowers bordering the lawns
within square quadrangles.

TOMB- ONE OF THE FIRST EXAMPLES OF HASHT BEHISHT


PLANNING TECHNIQUE IN ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE

HUMAYUN'S TOMB - DELHI*

The plan of Humayuns Tomb,Delhi

CHARACTER OF THE PERSIAN INSPIRED


ELEVATION

HUMAYUN'S TOMB - DELHI*


1.Boldly displayed vast flat surfaces.
2.Deep arcades which are shaded.
3.Chamfered edges of the cubes at
the corners.
4.Plain bulbous domes
5.Arched stylobate supporting the
edifice (inspired by Sher Shahs tomb
at Sasaram).
6.Whole building dressed in local red
sandstone with recessed marble
inlay.
7. Kiosks with chajjas brackets and
balconies.
8.Was a huge influence o the
architecture of the taj Mahal.

The Elevation of the tomb.

AKBAR MOVES HIS CAPITAL TO FATEHPUR


SIKRI, AGRA

SHEIKH SALIM CHISHTI AND AKBAR


1.Akbar in his desire for an heir
visited the cave of Sheikh Salim
Chishti.
2.He predicted the birth of his three
sons.
3.At the same time he was riding a
crest of triumphs in the wars in
Gujarat and Rajasthan.
4.Akbar was convinced by these
combined incidences that Sikhri Hill
would be an auspicious site for a new
capital.
5.Akbar set about planning and
building the city and within a decade
transformed
the
hill
into
a
resplendent new capital.

The Construction of Fatehpur-Sikri Design by Tulsi


the Elder

CITIES- MUGHAL URBAN DESIGN


FATEHPUR SIKRI- AGRA*
a) Delhi Gate
(b to h) gates in town walls
i and inset ) Hathi pol
j) Caravan serai
k) Hiran Minsar
l) Palace
m) Badshahi Masjid

Fatehpur sikri- site plan

SITE PLANNING CONCEPTS


FATEHPUR SIKRI- AGRA*
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

The complex stands on a ridge and the city is


enclosed by an embattlement on three sides and
on the fourth side by a vast artificial lake.
The ridge is somewhat in the middle of the
walled area and runs from southwest to north
east.
All the major buildings of the complex are located
on the top of this ridge utilising a comparatively
flat terrain.
At the periphery where slopes are difficult lower
structures are built as props to enable movement
on top.
Lower structures are mostly service
facilitiesapproachable from lower roads and
interconnected with upper level by steps.
An elaborate water channel system existed
activating the linear channels and tanks at upper
courtyard levels.
Orientation of the mosque and the palace is
towards mecca whereas other civic
buildingsobserve the landform as a major
determinant

Fatehpur sikri- site plan

SPATIAL ORGANIZATION PRINCIPLES


FATEHPUR SIKRI- AGRA*
1.

2.

3.

Larger enclosed Spaces- there are larger


enclosed public and semi- public spaces which, at
times have buildings juxtaposed within the
enclosed space.
External Spaces of Buildings there are
those spaces which are externa to buildings , yet
give a sense of being enclosed owing to the
manner in which structures are disposed around
them. These buildings are focal points for some
important functions in each.
Internal Open Spaces- there are internal open
spaces with a higher degree of privacy attached
to them.

Spatial Sequencing- one interesting aspect of


spatial sequencing at fatehpur sikri is transition.
At times there are very definite and sharp transitions
from one space to another. There are also examples of
soft and subtle changes.

Perspective view of the palace


complex at Fatehpur Sikri

CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES
FATEHPUR SIKRI- AGRA*
1.

2.

3.
4.

Assembled structures- Since the methods of


construction were familiar to the builders,
specialised items could be produced from outside
and assembled on site. Therefore the
superstructure is a combination of the traditional
post and lintel ,arched and ribbed vault systems.
Variety in roofing- wide range of roof types has
been employed at Fatehpur Sikri . The roofs of
the lower structures are often used as terraces
from the upper levels . The varying skyline
created by a change in height and form is an
important design element.
The Chajjas- Provides a shade and floating
effect to the roofs of the structures.
The Brackets- Elaborate use of brackets as an
element of construction and aesthetics.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER
FATEHPUR SIKRI- AGRA*

PUBLIC BUILDINGS- REVIVAL OF INDIGENOUS


FORMS

DIWAN-I- KHAS/ AAM - FATEHPUR SIKRI*


1.Simple
treatment
of
exterior
surfaces
2.Modestly planned cubic volume
3.Carved pillar at the center of the
room which mushrooms into a capital
made of jaina vaulted brackets to
support a circular tone platform .
4.From this platform four areal
bridges radiate to the four corners of
the room to connect the hanging
balconies.
5.The structure is inspired from
familiar Buddhist and Hindu imagery
Divine Figure Seated On A Lotus
Column.

Diwan-i Aam Exterior

Diwan-ikhas Interior

ROYAL VILLAS DOWN-TO-EARTH, UTILITARIAN


MODEST ROYAL ABODES
JODHA BAI MAHAL, PANCH MAHAL, BIRBALS HOUSE, MARIAM'S
HOUSE , KHWAB GAH - FATEHPUR SIKRI
1.Conventional arrangement of a
series of palaces and rooms in two
floors .
2.Attached porticos on the ground
floor.
3.Upper floor roofs become open, airy
terraces.
4.Upper storeys diminish from the
Northern and western sides.
5.Eastern and Southern facades rise
verticaly up to culminate in a canopy
supported by a colonnade.
6.Cooling Systems on the floor for
water to flow were provided.

Mariam's house

Birbals House

Panch Mahal

Khwab Gah

Jodha Bai Mahal

MOSQUES THE ONLY BUILDINGS TO FOLLOW


CONVENTIONAL BUILDING STYLE.

JAMI - MASJID - FATEHPUR SIKRI*


1.The largest mosque in India.
2. central arched frontispiece which
hides the dome behind it (Tughlaq
Tradition).
3.Central framed arch is completely
out of proportion with the low slung
ide wings.
4.Tomb of Salim Chisti was later built
by jehangir.
5.After
seizing
the
virtually
impregnable
Ranathambor
fort,
Akbar decided to commemorate his
conquests by adding a massive
gateway
the
famous
Buland
Darwaza.

Jami - masjid - Fatehpur Sikri.


Legend
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Buland darwaja
Prayer room of Friday Mosque
Tomb of Salim Chisti
lsam Khan Mausoleam
Badshahi Darwaja

VICTORY ARCH TRANSITION FROM AWESOME


MONUMENTALITY TO A HUMBLE AND
SHELTERED PASSAGEWAY.
JAMI - MASJID - FATEHPUR SIKRI*
1.The problem at hand was to
meaningfully install an opening of
modest size within a frame of
intentionally immense proportions
and
yet
maintaining
a
fluid
relationship between the big dome
above and the tiny man below.
2.Took a cue from the South Indian
Gopurams.
3.High arch of the faade is backed
by a scalloped semi domed portal.
4.Two storeyed rows of arches and
balconies set in pentagonal fashion
at the base.
5.The sides of the frontispiece are
chamfered.
6.Soaring thin minarets.
7.Mrloned parapets.
8.Rear part scvaled down to merge
with the Liwan cloisters.

Bulund Darwaza - Front Elevation

Bulund Darwaza Rearside And

02- JEHANGIR ARCHITECTURAL


INCLINATION
Was no great patron of building arts.
Quarter century of Indolent and
meagre
architectural
production
prevailed under his rule.
He had a keener inclination towards
a scientific study of nature.
The closest he came to creating any
three dimensional environment was
in the laying out of Formal Mughal
Gardens.
Other more eminent architectural
productions were the result of the
perseverance and devotion of his
wife -Nurjahan

TOMB THE REFINEMENT OF THE FORMAL


MUGHAL GARDENS
DAL, ACHABAL, VERINAG, SHALIMAR KASHMIR **
1.Pools
of
water
replaced
by
cascades and flowing channels.
2.Flagged walkways dividing flat
rectangular garden areas.
3.Spaces were hewn with in linear
fashion chinar trees.
4.Flower beds planted in linear
pattern along the channelled paths of
flowing water.
5.At strategic points of level changestone pavilions of blacxk stone were
erected.

Shalimar Bagh ,

GARDENS THE EXTRAVAGANZA OF MARBLE


TOMB OF GHIYAZ BEG (ITMAD-UD-DAULA)AGRA *
1.Nurjahans attempt at building a
memorial for her father.
2.Extravaganza
of
marble
with
permanent precious coloured stores
used for decoration.
3.Plan is a 21mx21m
square
structure.
4.Octagonal minarets at the four
corners.
5.Roof of the central structure is a
rectangular marble kioskwith jaalis all
around.
6.Uncertainity and out of proportion
elements seem to be the hallmark of
this building
7.Disorganized applied decoration by
clothing the monument in the finest
and most Makrana Marble.
8.The marble has been richly treated
with Pietra-Dura work

Itmad-ud-daula- in elevation

Itmad-ud-daula- in plan

03- SHAHJAHAN
ARCHITECTURAL INCLINATION
Shahjahan was a Prolific builder.
Set up high standards of design,
workmanship and detail.
Shahjahans builders realized that
the lustrous white marble from
Makrana provides its own decorative
appearance owing to its delicate
graining and ornamentation needs to
be judiciously applied
Virtually every building plan was
reduced to a grid of columns planted
at such distance that each square
could be spanned by columns
springing from column to column.
His famous Reign of marble was a
fitting climax to Mughal building
Activity in india.

PUBLIC BUILDINGS- THE DEVELOPMENT OF A


VOCABULARY IN MARBLE
DIWAN-I-AM- AGRA FORT *
1.
.

2.

The two restraints dictated by ShahjahanEvery square inch of marble need not be fussed
and fretted with. Wherever a plastic quality has
been imparted to the marble by carving the
area had to be left as it is.
Whatever ornamentation was applied to the
building( even as pietra-dura) was to be in
consonance not only with the architectural
intentof the building but also to highlight the
structural quality of the building.
A balance between applied art and
architecture was thus achieved by making
decoration subservient to the architectural
intent

3.

Decoratively enriching architecture through


the adoption of hindu techniques -Repeating
miniature versions of the main structural element
.

4.

Achieving volumetric sensuousness- Adopted


the typical Bangaldar roof into the Marble idiom.

Diwan-i-am- Agra Fort

Bangaldar Diwan-i-am- Agra Fort

TOMBS - THE COMPLETE ARCHITECTURAL


EXPERIENCE
TAJ MAHAL- AGRA **

04- AURANGAZEB
ARCHITECTURAL INCLINATION
Aurangazeb was a diehard religious
fanatic.
No music was heard in his orthodox
theocratic court, no poetry was
recited and no paintings made.
Rapid decline in the standards of
architecture are a hallmark of
Aurangazebs rule.

TOMBS - THE DECLINE AND DEATH OF


MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE
TOMB OF RABIA DURRANI- AURANGABAD**
No original production could be
expected
under
the
conditions
created by Aurangazeb.
Builders intention was merely to
reproduce a smaller replica of the Taj.
Each and every design element of
the taj was was adopted in toto.
.

Fin.
Chris16