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SITUATIONAL AWARENESS

Keeping in mind what is going on around us at all times

Aviation- Captain los t of s ituation awarenes s during approach.mp4

ACTIVITY
1. GAME 1
FORM PAIRS
TURN BACK TO BACK
DESCRIBE YOUR COLLEAGUES CLOTHING /MAKE UP/EYE COLOUR

SITUATIONAL AWARENESS
The ability to
identify, process,
and comprehend the
critical elements of
information about
what is happening at
a given point in time.
Knowing what is
going on around
you!

Vigilance = S.A.
Being vigilant - being alert to the situation, not only
what is happening, but what may happen:
Anticipate problems
Gives you the ability to think about options without being
under the stress of an emergency
Cannot be expected to be 100% vigilant during low
workloads ( ie long haul flights -take turns monitoring)
Particular attention must be devoted to altitude and
course changes

SITUATION AWARENESS
3-level taxonomy (Endersley 1995)
Level 1: Failure to correctly perceive the situation
Level 2: Failure to comprehend the situation
Level 3: Failure to comprehend the situation into the
future;
Achieving in maintaining a high level of SA is a
product of:
Good operating philosophy
Good training
Good SOPs
Good communication

ELEMENTS OF S.A.
System SA
system status, functioning and settings
radio
altimeter
transponders
flight modes and automation
deviations from correct settings
ATC communications present
Fuel & time and distance available on fuel
Environmental SA
weather formations and movement
temperature
icing
ceilings
Fog, turbulence, winds
sun
visibility
IFR/VFR conditions
CAI Huvos Camelia
areas to avoid

Geographical SA
own aircraft & other aircraft
terrain features
airports
cities
waypoints
position relative to designated features
path to desired location
runway and taxiway assignments
path to desired location
climb/descent points
Spatial/Temporal SA
Attitude & altitude
heading
velocity
flight path
projected landing time
CAI Huvos Camelia

SITUATIONAL AWARENESS MENTAL MODEL

CREATED BY:
Experience, Expectations & Briefing
SHARED BY:
Effective Communications
MAINTAINED BY MONITORING:
Instruments, Senses, ATC & Crew

SHARED SITUATIONAL AWARENESS

ALL TEAM MEMBERS CONTINUOUS PERCEPTION OF THEMSELVES ,


PEERS AND AIRCRAFT IN RELATION TO THE DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENT
OF FLIGHT, THREATS AND MISSSION, AND THE ABILITY TO FORECAST.

DEVELOPED THROUGH:
COMMUNICATION
LEADERSHIP
COLLABORATIVE ATTITUDE
ACTIVE LEARNING
SIMULATION
APPLICATION

CONDITIONS LEADING TO LOSS OF


AWARENESS

High workload
Distractions
Lack of communication
Improper procedure
Lack of experience
Weather
Fatigue
Perception
Experience

PLAY TIME THE UNDERSTANDING

THOSE OF YOU WHO ARE FAMILIAR WITH


THE ACTIVITIES, PLEASE STEP OUTSIDE!

CAI Huvos Camelia

CUES LEADING TO LOSS OF SA IN


FLIGHT

Ambiguity - information from two or more sources that doesn't agree


Fixation - focusing on any one thing to the exclusion of everything
else
Confusion - uncertainty or bafflement about a situation
Failure to fly the plane, everyone is focused on non-flying activities
Failure to look outside-everyone heads down
Failure to meet expected targets
Failure to adhere to sops
Failure to comply with limitations, minimums, etc.
Failure to resolve discrepancies- contradictory data or personal
conflicts
Failure to communicate fully and effectively- vague or incomplete
statements

HOW TO MAINTAIN SITUATION


AWARENESS
BE ALERT FOR DEVIATIONS FROM STANDARD PROCEDURES.
WATCH FOR CHANGES IN THE PERFORMANCE OF OTHER TEAM
MEMBERS.
BE PROACTIVE, PROVIDE INFORMATION IN ADVANCE.
IDENTIFY PROBLEMS IN A TIMELY MANNER.
SHOW YOU ARE AWARE OF WHATS GOING ON AROUND YOU.
COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY.
KEEP ABREAST OF THE MISSION STATUS.
CONTINUALLY ASSESS AND REASSESS THE SITUATION.
ENSURE THAT ALL EXPECTATIONS ARE SHARED FOR COMPLETE
AWARENESS BY THE WHOLE TEAM
FOCUS ON THE DETAILS AND SCAN THE BIG PICTURE

A WAY TO MAINTAIN SA

Prepare through a comprehensive briefing


Acknowledge potential problems
Communicate
Use all information sources
Update and revise your flight image