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5.

2 Liquid

LEARNING OUTCOMES
Explain the properties of liquids : shape, volume, surface
tension, viscosity, compressibility and difussion.
Explain :
- vaporisation process
- condensation process

Based
on
Kinetic
Molecular Theory &
Intermolecular Forces

Define vapour pressure and boiling point


Relate :
- intermolecular forces to vapour pressure
- vapour pressure to boiling point

5.2.1 The properties of Liquids


Volume and Shape

1.

has a definite volume but not a definite shape.

the particles are arranged closely but not


rigidly.

held together by a strong intermolecular forces


but not strong enough to hold the particles
firmly in place.

particles able to move freely.

thus, a liquid flows to fit the shape of its container


and is confined to a certain volume.

The properties of Liquids

gas

liquid

The properties of Liquids


Compressibility

2.

in liquid, the particles are packed


closely together.

thus, there is very little empty space.

liquids are much more difficult to


compress than gas.

The properties of Liquids


Diffusion

3.

diffusion rate of a liquid is much less than


gases.

due to :

molecules are closely packed compared to


gases.

lower kinetic energy than gases.

stronger intermolecular attractive forces


between the molecules compared to gases.

The properties of Liquids


Surface tension

4.

is the amount of energy required to stretch


the surface of a liquid by a unit area.

Liquid molecules experienced


intermolecular attractive forces in all
directions by their neighbouring molecules.

however, molecules at the surface are


pulled downward and sideways from the
neighbouring molecules.

but not upward away from the surface.

SURFACE TENSION

Particles at the
surface
Particles within
the liquid

SURFACE TENSION

these intermolecular attractive forces


will pull the molecules into the liquid.

cause the surface to stretch and


tighten.

the stronger the intermolecular


attractive forces, the higher the surface
tension.

The properties of Liquids


Viscosity

5.

is resistance of liquid to flow.

the greater a liquids viscosity, the more


slowly it flows.

viscosity decreases as temperature


increases.

Example of substance that have high


viscosity : molten lava and honey.

Viscosity

depends on :
the size of the molecules:

the higher the molar mass,


mass the more
resistance their flow,
flow more viscous the
liquid.
the strength of intermolecular attractive

forces between the molecules:

the stronger the attractive forces,


forces the
higher the viscosity.

5.2.2 Vaporisation Process

a process in which molecules escape from


liquid into gaseous state through a surface
@ a process in which liquid is transformed
into gas.

molecules in a liquid move quite freely.

each molecule possesses a different


magnitude of kinetic energy.

some molecules have a relatively high


kinetic energies.

Vaporisation Process

when the kinetic energy is sufficient enough


to overcome the attractive forces that bind
them, the molecules will loosen themselves
and be evaporated off.

Vaporisation Process

vaporisation rate depends on :


Surface area

the larger the surface area, the

higher the chances for the molecules


to escape from the surface.
~ surface area increases, evaporation
rate increases.

Vaporisation Process
Temperature

~ as temperature is increased,
increased the
total number of molecules with high
kinetic energy is increased.
~ more molecules have enough
energy to escape from the surface of
the liquid.
~ thus evaporation rate increases.

Vaporisation Process
Intermolecular attraction forces

the weaker the intermolecular

attraction

forces,
forces

evaporation rate.

the

faster

the

Vaporisation Process

molecules escape from the surface of a


liquid : referred as vapour molecules.

in an open system :

vapour molecules which evaporate off


will diffuse away.

in a closed system :

vapour molecules which leaves the


surface cannot escape from the system.

Vapourisation (in a closed container)

they remain in the container.

in contact with the surface of the liquid.

these vapour molecules are in constant random


motion.

continually strike with:

the wall of the container.

other vapour molecules.

the surface of the liquid


molecules.

Vaporisation Process

everytime the vapour molecules hit


the wall of the container, pressure is
exerted.

pressure exerted by the vapour


molecules above the surface of the
liquid is called the VAPOUR PRESSURE.

Vaporisation process

Vapourisation process

however, some of the vapour molecules may


lose their kinetic energy during the collision.

they do not have enough energy to remain as


vapour molecules.

they reached the surface of the liquid.

trapped by the attractive forces.

if they cannot overcome the attractive forces,


these

vapour

molecules

return

as

molecules.

the process is known as CONDENSATION.

liquid

VAPORISATION
The change of
state of a liquid into
a vapour occuring at
the surface of a
liquid at any
temperatures and
pressures.

BOILING
The change of state of a
liquid into a vapour
occuring on the inner
surface of the liquid at a
certain temperature of
which the vapour pressure
is equal to the atmospheric
pressure.
The temperature is called
the boiling point.

Boiling Point

the temperature at which the vapour


pressure of liquid is equal to the external
atmospheric pressure.

Normal Boiling Point

the temperature at which the vapour


pressure of liquid is equal to the standard
atmospheric pressure (1 atm).