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WORLD RELIGIONS

Welcome
to
the Complex World
Of

** Buddhism**

The Religion of
Enlightenment

** Key
Concepts**
Of
Buddhism

1.

LAMA
2.BUDDHA, ENLIGHTENMENT, SATORI
3. BUDDHA NATURE
(Buddhahood)
4. ARHAT
5. BODDHISATTVA
6. AMITABHA/AMIDA BUDDHA
7. Bodh Gaya

8. KARUNA
9. MAITRI
10. PRAJNA

11.

SANGHA
12.
VIHARA
monastery)
13. BHIKKHUNI
14. SHRAMANA

(a

Buddhist

15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

DHARMA
NIRVANA
DUKKHA
KARMA (law of retribution)
PUNYA (merit, good karma)
SAMSARA

21.

SUNYATA
22. ANATMAN
23. ANICCA
24. ANATTA

25.

YOGA
26. SAMADHI
27. KOAN
28.MANDALA
29. MANTRA
30. MUDRAS
31. LOTUS SUTRA

29.

STUPA
30.SKANDHA
31. TRIRATNA
32. TRIPITAKA
33. ZEN
34. MADHYAMAKA
35. VAJRAYANA
36. MAHAYANA
37. THERAVADA

38.

PURE LAND
39. FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS
40. EIGHTFOLD PATH

DHARMA
This term has three basic meanings:
SELF: individual realities, including the self, as they truly are;
TRUTH: the eternal truth about reality (Divine Truth)
TEACHING or PATH TO ULTIMATE TRUTH: Doctrine of
Buddhism or teachings of the Buddha (Buddha dharma)
about the realization and practice of Truth
In Hinduism:
DHARMA = the universal cosmic law, duty
KARMA = the cosmic moral law of consequences for ethical
actions and their effects on social and personal well-being or
suffering that are seen as rewards and punishments for prior
incarnations; the goal of religion (in Hinduism) is liberation
from karmic cycles.

LAMA =

Supreme being,

A Priest in Tibetan Buddhism.

LAMA =

The equivalent of GURU in


Indian Buddhism

Tenzin Gyatso is the real name of the


actual
14th Dalai Lama (of Tibet)

BUDDHA and Boddhisattva


(Buddha Nature, Buddhahood)
Literally, Buddha means one who has awakened,
ending karmic bondage, and will no longer be reborn;
one who will enter Nirvana.
Buddha= the enlightened one, the one who woke up.
SATORI: Japanese term for the Zen Buddhist experience
of enlightenment.
ARHAT: an enlightened disciple of Buddha, a Buddhist
saint.

BUDDHA

Buddha is a sanskrit word derived from


the root "Budh" (= to wake up, to kn
which produced two words
"Buddha" and "Bodhi".
Buddha

means "the enlightened one"


or the awakened one".
Bodhi
means wisdom.

There

are two important figures of Buddha in


Buddhism.
- 1) The exoteric Buddhism is based upon the
teaching of the historical Nirmakaya Sakyamuni
Buddha.
- 2) The esoteric Buddhism claims that there is a
superior buddhist teaching from the absolute and
timeless Dharmakaya Mahavairocana Buddha.

The name Buddha came to be applied to all humans believed


to have experienced and rediscovered the eternal truth
(Dharma).

Every human being has to become a Buddha.


That is the life's goal.

* Buddha nature : the inherently pure nature of all beings. It


lies in every one but in an obscured and tainted state.

A famous Mahayana text states powerfully that

"ThereisaBuddhaineverygrainofsand.

Enlightenment lies in removing the taints, often through


meditation and other ascetic techniques, to allow this
buddha nature to shine forth.

Boddhisattva is the enlightened person who


cares about the salvation of other people.
In the Theravada Buddhism, the monk and the nun
stand out of the society and care about their own
liberation.
The Mahayana Buddhism conceives the buddhist
ideal of perfection in a different way.
The Mahayana's ideal of the perfect person is the
"Boddhisattva" (one whose essence - sattva - is
perfected wisdom-bodhi).

But the Mahayana's conception of perfection is based


upon the virtue of compassion.
The Boddhisattva is a being who, having reached the brink
of nirvana, voluntarily renounces that prize and returns to
the world to make nirvana available to others.
The Boddhisattva deliberately sentences himself or herself
to age-long servitude in order that others, drawing
vicariously on the merit thus accumulated, may enter
nirvana first.

The best loved of all boddhisattvas is

the Goddess of Mercy called

Avaloketasvara (in India) and


Kwan Yin ( in China).

SOME FAMOUS BUDDHAS:


BODDHISATTVA
VAIROCANA BUDDHA
AMITABHA BUDDHA

VAIROCANA BUDDHA

also known as
DAINICHI or GREAT SUN.
= Supreme Buddha in Japan
Kukai (9th-century C.E founder of Shingon
Buddhism) identified Vairocana with
AMATERASU,the Japanese Shinto
goddess of the Sun.
Kukai taught that all Buddhas are
emanations of the great sun, VAIROCANA
(or DAINICHI)

Matter and other Buddhas emanate from


Vairocana.
Human beings and gods and goddesses are all
only aspects of one central reality, Vairocana
In Ryobo Shinto (double aspect), Buddhism and
Shinto are only two different sides of the
same reality.

AMIDA or AMITABHA BUDDHA=


A legendary Japanese Monk ( named
HOZO BOSATSU) who attained
enlightenment and became a famous
Buddha: Buddha Amitabha.
Amida is the Buddha that presides over
Western paradise

HOZO

BOSATSU took a vow to


become a Buddha if his merits could be
used to help others.
After fulfilling 48 vows, he became
Amitabha Buddha.

Stupa:
Buddhist shrine containing
the relics of the Buddha:
bodily

relics,
clothing items worn,
words in textual form.

SUNYATA :
emptiness, nothingness, "No self
It is formless formlessness,
Formless Emptiness or Boundless Openness is regarded
as the ultimate ground of all reality.

ANICCA :
Impermanence
All reality is fleeting, impermanent

ANATTA:.

KARUNA (COMPASSION)
It

is central in Mahayana
Buddhism.
Karuna is the basis of social
ethic in Buddhism because
compassion aids wisdom's
undercutting of selfcentredness, by motivating a
life of self-sacrifice and
active service for others.

DUKKHA
Gautama Buddha said :

One thing I teach, suffering and the end of suffering.


It is just ill and the ceasing of ill that I proclaim.
Buddhism begins with the experience of Dukkha
(suffering and dissatisfaction),
as Christianity starts with the experience of "original
sin."

Dukkha is a kind of intrinsic human malady.


All human beings, rich or poor, average or gifted, experience:
- the trauma of birth
- the pathology of sickness
- the morbidity of decrepitude
- the phobia of death
- to be tied to what one dislikes
- to be separated from what one loves.

It is the discovery of this transitoriness of human

life,
this terrible reality of human existence,
with its cycle of sickness, aging and death
that pushed Gautama to look for remedy through
asceticism and finally his own experience of
meditation.
That is why DUKKHA is the key to understand why
Gautama created a very original view of religion
which does not include God and Worship.

According to Gautama, religion was a cure.


The raison d'tre of its existence, its most primary function, was to
bring healing to persons suffering from a particular type of internal
ailment.
For Gautama, the problem of internal human suffering was too
concrete and too urgent to permit him to luxuriate on purely
speculative questions on the nature of God, the origin of the world, or
the nature of the soul. Gautama considered these questions as
irrelevant to the basic issue.
We must understand the context in which Gautama lived. By that time,
the worship of God had so greatly deteriorated that it distorted what
Gautama considered to be the basic element in any religion - namely,
liberation (his primarily preoccupation).

NIRVANA:

=>Etymologically :

to blow out,
to extinguish,
to cool off
the fire of passions

=>In

Buddhism,

Nirvana

is

life's

goal;
it is not annihilation
(Buddhism is not life-denying and
pessimistic !)

NIRVANA
Nirvana is the state of profound joy and peace.
It stands for an authentic, integrated, and dynamic form of life.
Gautama himself described Nirvana with the following words :

1)

Asokam (sorrowlessness)
2) Khemam (security)
3) Suddhi (Purity)
4) Panitam (Sublimity)
5) Santi (peace)
6)Vimutti (release)

NIRVANA means
a state of Enlightenment.
the state of a life without greed,

without crazy and superficial passions,


without emotional disorder.

Nirvana means a "cooling off" of a passionate life.


It

puts an end to emotional and superficial


existence.
It is a "cooling off" of behavior that is inspired by
greed.
Nirvana is the state of a life "without greed and
evil desires.

Buddhism is not a religion of pessimism and passivity


In contrast with Samsara, Nirvana is a renovation of life, a
revitalization that brings about a new dynamism.
Nirvanic personalities are endowed with
great courage,
boldness, and
inner strength.
Their vitality comes from the very power of Dharma,
the power of truth and goodness to which they adhere.

Nirvana is the state gained by Gautama and by any


being who is able to extinguish all attachments and
defilements.
Though gained in and through meditation, it affects
all of one's life.
At death, one who has gained nirvana does not
become reborn.

- Nirvana is not reached only after death. It begins in this


world!
- In Gautama's teaching, the transition from samsara to
nirvana is not, as the ordinary believer visualizes,
a transition from life to afterlife through death,
but a transition that takes place during life within the minds
of individuals themselves.
It is a transition from one level of awareness to another,
from a purely emotional awareness to a completely
intellectual awareness

SAMADHI

Etymologically, "sam-a-dha" means

"keeping oneself or one's thoughts in the


right place".

Samadhi

refers to the state of


mental harmony
mental rest
peacefulness.

To

attain this state of Samadhi,


Gautama recommended a way called
"Bhavana" or Meditation.

Meditation

is a practice of mental
concentration that brings calm and
realism to a perturbed, blind mind.
An individual who meditates is able
to face squarely all life situations
with a full grasp of reality and
with a spirit of benevolence.