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YK Electric Driven Centrifugal Chillers

Clients Company Name


Account Executive Name, Date

Agenda

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings

Vertical Markets for Centrifugal Chillers & Trends

System Overview of YK Centrifugal Chillers

Key Benefits of YK Centrifugal Chillers

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Water Cooled Solutions Product Offering

Model YK
Single
Compressor

Model YKEP
Centrifugal
Extended Capacity

Model YD
Dual Compressors

Model CYK
Compound
Compressors

Model YMC
Magnetic
Centrifugal

Model YIA
Single stage
3

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Model YST
Steam Turbine

Model OM
Custom Designed

Model YPC
Two stage

Model YS
Open Motor

Model YVWA
VSD Screw Unit

Model YCWL
Scroll Compressor

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings


Major Trends in the Centrifugal Chiller Marketplace
Energy and Operating Costs
Electricity costs rising at rates greater than inflation
Owners seeking a total cost of ownership solution

Environmental Regulations
Phase out of Ozone Depleting refrigerants nearly complete
Increased Energy Efficiency levels mandated by legislation and building codes
Increased focus on Global Warming Potential (direct and indirect)

Water Usage and Costs


Water restrictions increasing in many markets around the world
Owners adapting innovative heat rejection technologies

Technology
Enhanced control algorithms and communications
Improved remote connectivity

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings


Major Trends in the Centrifugal Chiller Marketplace
Energy and Operating Costs
Electricity costs rising at rates greater than inflation
Owners seeking a total cost of ownership solution

Energy Usage of Typical Commercial Building

Office
Equipment
8%

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Commercial Building Primary Energy Consumption Breakdown


(from BTS, 2001; ADL, 1999; ADL, 2001)

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings


Major Trends in the Centrifugal Chiller Marketplace
Energy and Operating Costs
Electricity costs rising at rates greater than inflation
Owners seeking a total cost of ownership solution

Total HVAC System

Airside
25%

Total Chiller Plant Energy Use

Chiller Plant
35%

Boilers
35%
Other
5%

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Pumps
22%

Chillers
64%

Towers 11%

Other
3%

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings


Major Trends in the Centrifugal Chiller Marketplace
Environmental Regulations
Phase out of Ozone Depleting refrigerants nearly complete
Increased Energy Efficiency levels mandated by legislation and building
codes
Increased focus on Global Warming Potential (direct and indirect)

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings


Major Trends in the Centrifugal Chiller Marketplace
Environmental Regulations
Phase out of Ozone Depleting refrigerants nearly complete
Increased Energy Efficiency levels mandated by legislation and building
codes
Increased focus on Global Warming Potential (direct and indirect)

CO2 from automotive and


power plant emissions is
the leading green house
gas

HFCs; 2%
Methane; 8%

HVAC Impact:
CO2; 85%

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

1.

Direct effect: refrigerant gas emitted


to the atmosphere

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings


Major Trends in the Centrifugal Chiller Marketplace
Environmental Regulations
Phase out of Ozone Depleting refrigerants nearly complete
Increased Energy Efficiency levels mandated by legislation and building
codes
Increased focus on Global Warming Potential (direct and indirect)

CO2 from automotive and


power plant emissions is
the leading green house
gas
HVAC Impact:

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

1.

Direct effect: refrigerant gas emitted


to the atmosphere

2.

Indirect effect: CO2 emissions from


power generation for equipment

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings


Major Trends in the Centrifugal Chiller Marketplace
Water Usage and Costs
Water restrictions increasing in many markets around the world
Owners adapting innovative heat rejection technologies

Between 1990 and 2000, public water


supply consumption increased 12%, to
43.3 billion gallons per day.*
Public water supply usage in the US:
1) 48% - Thermoelectric power
2) 34% - Irrigation
3) 11% - Buildings

* US Geological Survey

10

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings


Major Trends in the Centrifugal Chiller Marketplace
Water Usage and Costs
Water restrictions increasing in many markets around the world
Owners adapting innovative heat rejection technologies

July , 2011

11

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

July , 2012

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings


Major Trends in the Centrifugal Chiller Marketplace
Technology
Enhanced control algorithms and communications
Improved remote connectivity

Central Plant Automation (CPO)

Source: Optimum Energy


Note: kW/ton and C.O.P figures represent entire chiller plant including multiplier chillers, pumps, towers, etc.

12

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings


Major Trends in the Centrifugal Chiller Marketplace
Technology
Enhanced control algorithms and communications
Improved remote connectivity

Central Plant Automation (CPO)


Building Load vs. Chiller Efficiency (for 3 Chillers 1,000 ton each)

Sequencing
based on
ENERGY
(not just load)

13

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Agenda

14

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings


Key Vertical Markets for Centrifugal Chillers

Vertical Market for large equipment:

District Cooling
Central Utility Plant.
Large Data Center.
Process Cooling & Manufacturing.
Turbine Inlet Cooling - TIC.
High Rise Multi-Use Building
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Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings


Key Vertical Markets for Large Centrifugal Chillers - District Cooling*

Market Driver:

Energy efficiency.
Local service & parts availability.
Local expertise (Sales & support to consult. eng.).
Overall reliability (Uptime 24/7 operation).
Unit customization Sea water or air cooled (MidEast).
Design & build for new construction market.

Tenant Metering and Billing are a challenge for D.C. in Mid-East

* District Cooling => One producer providing/selling utilities to the several users

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Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings


Key Vertical Markets for Large Centrifugal Chillers

Central Utility Plant *

(Higher Education , Hospital & Government, Airport)

Market Driver:

Energy efficiency.
Local expertise (Sales & support to consult. eng.).
Overall reliability (Uptime 24/7 operation).
Cooling/Heating equipment to displace boilers.
Plan & spec. for new construction market or Design
& build for replacement market.

Ex.: ISU Vet Med Hospital with all variable speed plant provide extra tonnage in
lower lift conditions and lower energy costs.

*Central Utility Plant =>One central plant to attend several buildings in the same campus owner.

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Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings


Key Vertical Markets for Large Centrifugal Chillers
District Cooling Central Utility Plant

District Cooling

Central Utility Plant

Multiple customers pay a single


supplier for cooling

Cooling providers and consumers


are typically from the same
organization

Ex: City Chilled Water Distribution Company

18

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Ex: University Campus

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings


Key Vertical Markets for Large Centrifugal Chillers
District Cooling Central Utility Plant
Chilled Water Plant

Energy Transfer Station

Air
Handling
Units
Distribution Network

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Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings


Key Vertical Markets for Centrifugal Chillers - Large Data Center

Market Driver:

Energy efficiency. (Measure of power consumption


usage-PUE)
Local expertise (Support to end user & consult.
eng.).
Overall reliability (Uptime 24/7 operation).
Redundancy.
Uptime (Rough through or rapid re-start).
Plan & spec. new construction market.

For Datacenter the Uptime is critical

20

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings


Key Vertical Markets for Centrifugal Chillers

Process Cooling & Manufacturing

Market Driver:

Unit customization (Industrial options,


documentation & local codes).
Local service & parts availability.
Local expertise (Support to end user).
Overall reliability (Uptime 24/7 operation).
Energy efficiency but some times industrial energy
has a lower cost.
Design & build for replacement market.

Each Project requires several special accessories to comply


with the customer and local country codes.

21

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings


Key Vertical Markets for Large Centrifugal Chillers

Turbine Inlet Cooling - TIC

Market Driver:

Energy efficiency (Full load & constant speed).


Dimensions for shipping and install in modules
(height & width).
Local service & parts availability.
Local expertise (Support to packagers companies).
Overall reliability (Uptime 24/7 operation).
Design & build for upgrade of old power plant to
improve general plant efficiency.

TAS & Stellar have the leadership in this segment

22

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings


Key Vertical Markets for Large Centrifugal Chillers

Pharmaceutical , Process
Cooling/Manufacturing
Companies that manufacture,
fabricate or process drugs in large
pharmaceutical preparations plants.

Ex: Central plants in industrial applications.


23

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Turbine Inlet Cooling - TIC

TIC (Turbine Inlet Cooling)


Chillers can cool the inlet air to much
lower temperatures than those possible
with evaporative cooling and can maintain
any desired inlet air temperature,
independent of ambient wet-bulb
temperature and improve the output
energy capacity .
Ex: New constructions or power plants retrofit.

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings


Key Vertical Markets for Large Centrifugal Chillers

Turbine Inlet Cooling - TIC

Sales Guide - Turbine Inlet Cooling - PUBL-6941

Filter housing
with cooling-coil
module

Modular water chiller plant

YD/YK//YKEP

24

CYK

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Absorption

Heatrejection
equipment

Thermal energy
storage tank

Power Plant Retrofit


California - United States
Power plant:
Commercial operation in April 2006
GE 7FA Turbine -powered 2 1
combined cycle plant
Original capacity (2006): 565 MW, but
on a hot, humid day could only
produce 505 MW.
GE 7FA Turbine -powered 2 1
combined cycle plant
Retrofitted from evaporative coolers
to Chillers in 2009.
Site Turbine Inlet Cooling plant:
4 Centrifugal chillers, arranged in
two redundant pairs, are capable of
delivering the 9000 tons of
refrigeration needed to assure 50F air
to the Turbine on a 97F day with 30%
relative humidity
3.6 million gal of water in a
Thermal Energy Storage (TES) tank

25

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Turbine Inlet Cooling

Centrifugal Chillers in Todays Complex Buildings


Key Vertical Markets for Centrifugal Chillers High Rise Multi-Use Building

Market Driver:

Energy efficiency.
Local expertise (Sales & support to global consult.
eng.).
Sustainability Choice (LEED, refrigerant).
Plan & spec. for new construction market.

China is rising 44% of 50 Skyscrapers


to be completed worldwide in the next 6 years.

26

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Agenda

27

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

The YK Compressor Centrifugal Chiller


Overview

Capacity: 250 to 3,000 TR (880 10.550 kW)

Single stage, high efficiency, centrifugal compressor

Designed for real world energy performance

Variable speed drive technology

Refrigerant: HFC-134a

State of the art OptiviewTM Control Center

Excellent sound performance

Industrial construction for reliable, long life


operation

AHRI standard 550/590 certified and rated

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Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

YK Electric Driven Centrifugal Chillers


Overview Limits

YK Dual Centrifugal Chiller Limits:

Minimum leaving chilled water temp (without brine):

36oF ( 2.2C )

Minimum leaving chilled water temp (with brine):

20oF ( - 7.0C )

Maximum evaporator entering fluid temperature:

70oF ( 21.1C )

Minimum entering condenser water temperature:

55oF ( 12.7C )

Consult Engineering Guide for job specific minimum temperature

Have tested and seen stable operation down to:

Maximum leaving condenser water temperature:

50oF ( 10.0C )
155oF ( 68C )*

*by special application only upon review by Engineering

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Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

YK Electric Driven Centrifugal Chillers


Overview Lay-out

VSD

30

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

YK Electric Driven Centrifugal Chillers


Overview Comparison

YK

31

Single compressor
Single circuit
Gear driven
OptiView control panel on evaporator side
Single open drive motor
VSD or SSS or ACL Starter

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

vs.

YD

Dual compressor in parallel


Single circuit
Gear driven
OptiView control panel on evaporator side
Dual open drive motors
ACL or SSS Starter

YK Electric Driven Centrifugal Chillers


How it works
Pre-rotation
Vanes

Impeller

Mist
Eliminator

Diffuser Plate
Condenser

Flooded
Evaporator

Subcooler

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Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Orifice

YK Electric Driven Centrifugal Chillers


How it works

Pressure
Condenser

Lift
(or Head
Pressure)

Metering
Device

Evaporator

Enthalpy
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Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Refrigerant rejects
heat to atmosphere

Compressor

Refrigerant absorbs
heat from load

YK Electric Driven Centrifugal Chillers


How it works

Pressure
85 F
95 F

29 C

35 C

Lift
(or Head
Pressure)
54 F 12 C
44 F

Enthalpy
34

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

7 C

YK Electric Driven Centrifugal Chillers


How it designs

Piping Arrangement
series counter flow vs. parallel

35

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

YK Electric Driven Centrifugal Chillers


How it designs
Series Counter Flow (SCF) Piping Arrangement
Cut energy usage by up to 6%
When arranged in series counter flow the YK provides even greater energy
savings. Series-counter flow reduces compressor head on each chiller,
cutting system energy use by up to 6% compared to a parallel piping
arrangement.

36

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

YK Electric Driven Centrifugal Chillers


How it designs
Parallel Piping Arrangement

Installing chillers in parallel (single lift


operation) requires each to produce
the total system lift.

37

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

YK Electric Driven Centrifugal Chillers


How it designs
Series Counter Flow (SCF) Piping Arrangement

Installing chillers in series counter


flow reduces the lift requirement for
both units.

38

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

YK Electric Driven Centrifugal Chillers


How it designs
Series Counter Flow (SCF) Piping Arrangement
YK Centrifugal Chiller

Depending on the chiller selections


in each configuration, the energy
savings can typically be up to 6% at
full load and 5% at the partial
load( NPLV) .

3584
0.597

6.0%
0.444

0.422

5.0%

39

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

YK Electric Driven Centrifugal Chillers


How it designs
Series Counter Flow (SCF) Piping Arrangement

Examples of possible arrangements which are dependent on the physical floor space available,
piping layouts, and maintenance clearances for tube cleaning.
40

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Agenda

41

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Key Benefits of YK Centrifugal Chillers

1.

Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance - Delivering an optimum chiller design.

2.

Sustainability Improve your plant and the planet.

3.
4.
5.

42

Lower Sound Excellent at full load and the best at partial load.
Higher Reliability Design based on industrial requirements for critical installations.
Total Flexibility Various standard or optional features to ensure correct application.

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Key Benefits and Features at YK Centrifugal Chillers


Higher Efficiency at Real
World Performance

Chiller Design

Economics Analysis

Sustainability

Smart Refrigerant Decisions

Unit Design for Reduced


Total Climatic Impact

High Efficiency Unit for


Lower Carbon Footprint

High Reliability

OptiViewTM
TM Control Center

Unit Designed with Industrial


Components

43

Skip Fin Tubes Design

Data Trending and Tracking

Connectivity

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Lower Sound

Unit Arrangement (Full Load)

OptiSoundTM
TM Control (Partial
Load)

Total Flexibility
Material & Accessories options
Open motor
Starter and drive options

Key Benefits and Features at YK Centrifugal Chillers

Higher Efficiency at Real World


Performance

Chiller Design
Economics Analysis

44

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Key Benefits and Features at YK Centrifugal Chillers


Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance
Chiller Design:
The compressor aerodynamics
The drive design
The expansion orifice design
The oil-management system

45

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design

The compressor aerodynamics

Direct-drive compressor:
To adjust tip speed is by changing the size of
the impeller only.
Few impeller sizes to choose from,
Compressor tuning is limited .

46

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Gear-drive compressor:
Tip speed is a combined function of
impeller size and gear ratio.
Multiple combinations of impeller and
gear size.
Compressor
tuning
for
low-lift
applications requirements is easier.

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design

The drive design

Hermetic-drive motor:
Refrigerant fill motor cavity.
Head pressure must be high enough to ensure
that refrigerant flows adequately through the
motor.
Lack of refrigerant flow can overheat the motor
windings and It will shut down the chiller.
To maintain minimum pressure differential is
artificially limited the lift reduction.
It will increase the compressors energy
consumption
47

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Open-drive motor:

Refrigerant is located outside the refrigerant


circuit.
it can be air-cooled (or optionally water-cooled).

It does not depend on refrigerant flow for


cooling .
Unaffected by changes in refrigerant flow during
low-lift conditions.

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design

The expansion orifice design

Fixed Orifice Design:


The fixed orifice is optimized for full load, and
cannot compensate for non-design conditions.
Experience has shown fixed orifice designed units
dont have stable operation with anything lower than
70F ECWT.
Below 75F, they will usually suggest using head
pressure control to keep the compressor head high,
and thus they would not be saving energy from
slowing down the compressor.

48

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Variable Orifice Design:


Enhanced performance at Off-Design conditions.
Electronically modulating butterfly valve controlled
by the Optview Panel and positioned at the liquid
line.
Refrigerant level sensor maintains optimum liquid
level in condenser, controlling the pressure/ temp.
drop from the condenser to the evaporator.
Orifice opens up to allow enough refrigerant to flow
from condenser to evaporator to compensate for
the lower pressure drop between shells.
Refrigerant flow can be optimized to save energy
and prevent the chiller from surging.

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design

The oil-management system

Hermetic-drive chillers:
It does not have an effective oil seals to separate the
oil circuit from the refrigerant circuit at lower
differential pressures (low-lift conditions),
Oil will enter the refrigerant circuit and migrate to the
evaporator and Chiller efficiency suffer significantly.
Also the chiller may shut down on a low-oil-pressure
safety.
Potential burn-out motor.

49

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Open-drive centrifugal chillers:


It has an oil-management system that
can make oil loss a relatively minor issue
at low-lift conditions.
An oil-eduction system is employed to
separate oil from the refrigerant in the
evaporator and return it to the oil sump.
Chiller operate effectively at low-lift
conditions.

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system

Liquid-Vapor Mixture
Condensation

sio
Co
m

Sa
tu
Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Satur
ated
Vapo
r

Evaporation

Enthalpy (BTU/lb)
50

COND Saturated Temperature


97F
95F

pre
s

LIFT

rat
e

dL
iqu
id

Leaving EVAP Temperature

Superheated Vapor

Leaving COND Temperature

Expansion

Pressure (Abs)

Sub-Cooled Liquid

44F
42F
EVAP Saturated Temperature

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system
97F

Approach

95F

Condenser Saturated Temp


Condenser Leaving Water Temp

85F

Condenser Entering Water Temp


LIFT

55F

Evaporator Entering Water Temp

44F

Evaporator Leaving Water Temp

42F

51

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Approach

Evaporator Saturated Temp

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system

37 psig

Evaporation

Enthalpy (BTU/lb)
52

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

COND Saturated Temperature


97F
95F
sio
n

81 psig

Boils at -15.6F
@ 0 psig

Co
mp
re s

Leaving COND Temperature

Leaving EVAP Temperature

R-134a

AHRI Condenser EWT

Condensation

118 psig
Expansion

Pressure (Abs)

R-134a
R-134a Chiller
Chiller
Evaporator:
LCWT
44F
Evaporator: LCWT 44F // ECWT
ECWT 55F
55F
Condenser:
Condenser: LWT
LWT 95F
95F // EWT
EWT 85F
85F

44F
42F
EVAP Saturated Temperature

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system

Leaving EVAP Temperature

37 psig

Condensation

Boils at -15.6F
@ 0 psig

COND Saturated Temperature


87F
85F
n

Leaving COND Temperature

R-134a

Lower Condenser EWT

60 psig
Evaporation

Co
mp
re s
sio

97 psig
Expansion

Pressure (Abs)

R-134a
R-134a Chiller
Chiller
Evaporator:
LCWT
44F
Evaporator: LCWT 44F // ECWT
ECWT 55F
55F
Condenser:
Condenser: LWT
LWT 85F
85F // EWT
EWT 75F
75F

44F
42F
EVAP Saturated Temperature

28%

Enthalpy (BTU/lb)
53

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Reduction
Reduction
in
in Energy
Energy

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system

Leaving EVAP Temperature

37 psig

Condensation

Boils at -15.6F
@ 0 psig

COND Saturated Temperature


67F
65F
n

Leaving COND Temperature

R-134a

Lower Condenser EWT

30 psig
Evaporation

Co
mp
re s
sio

67 psig
Expansion

Pressure (Abs)

R-134a
R-134a Chiller
Chiller
Evaporator:
LCWT
44F
Evaporator: LCWT 44F // ECWT
ECWT 55F
55F
Condenser:
Condenser: LWT
LWT 75F
75F // EWT
EWT 65F
65F

44F
42F
EVAP Saturated Temperature

63%

Enthalpy (BTU/lb)
54

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Reduction
Reduction
in
in Energy
Energy

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system

-8.4 psig

Evaporation

Enthalpy (BTU/lb)
55

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

COND Saturated Temperature


97F
95F
sio
n

13.6 psig

Boils at 81.4F
@ 0 psig

Co
mp
re s

Leaving COND Temperature

Leaving EVAP Temperature

R-123

AHRI Condenser EWT

Condensation

5.2 psig
Expansion

Pressure (Abs)

R-123
R-123 Chiller
Chiller
Evaporator:
LCWT
Evaporator: LCWT 44F
44F // ECWT
ECWT 55F
55F
Condenser:
Condenser: LWT
LWT 95F
95F // EWT
EWT 85F
85F

44F
42F
EVAP Saturated Temperature

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system
Pressure

Hermetic
Motor
Widing

Entalpy
56

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system
Pressure

Refrigerant from
condenser

Hermetic
Motor
Widing

Entalpy
57

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system

Looking more
close....

Pressure

Refrigerant from
condenser

Hermetic
Motor
Widing
Refrigerant return to the economizer &
evaporator

Entalpy
58

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system

Hermetic Motor Widing

Seal
&
Bearing

59

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

ROTOR

Seal
&
Bearing

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system

Hermetic Motor Widing


Refrigerant from
Condenser

Seal
&
Bearing

60

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

ROTOR

Seal
&
Bearing

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system

Refrigerant cool the motor

Seal
&
Bearing

ROTOR

Seal
&
Bearing

Refrigerant cool the motor

61

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Refrigerant from
Condenser

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system
Refrigerant to
Economizer &
Evaporator
Refrigerant cool the motor

Seal
&
Bearing

ROTOR

Seal
&
Bearing

Refrigerant cool the motor

62

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Refrigerant from
Condenser

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system
Refrigerant to
Economizer &
Evaporator
Refrigerant cool the motor

Seal
&
Bearing

ROTOR

Seal
&
Bearing

Refrigerant cool the motor


Oil Sump
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Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Refrigerant from
Condenser

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system
Refrigerant to
Economizer &
Evaporator
Refrigerant cool the motor

Seal
&
Bearing

ROTOR

Seal
&
Bearing

Refrigerant cool the motor


Oil Sump
64

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Refrigerant from
Condenser

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system
Refrigerant to
Economizer &
Evaporator
Refrigerant cool the motor

Seal
&
Bearing

ROTOR

Seal
&
Bearing

Refrigerant cool the motor


Oil Sump
65

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Refrigerant from
Condenser

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system
Refrigerant to
Economizer &
Evaporator

Refrigerant from
Condenser

Refrigerant cool the motor

11.5
psia

ROTOR

11.5
psia

Refrigerant cool the motor


Oil Sump
66

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system
Refrigerant to
Economizer &
Evaporator

13.6
13.6
Refrigerant
cool
the
motor
psia
psia

11.5
psia

13.6
psia

ROTOR

Refrigerant cool the motor13.6


psia
Oil Sump

67

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

11.5
psia

Refrigerant from
Condenser
(Ent.Cond. Water +/- 85.oF)

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system
Refrigerant to
Economizer &
Evaporator

Low Entering Cond. Temp.


11.5
psia

11.5
psia

11.5
psia

11.5
Refrigerant cool the motor psia

ROTOR

11.5
Refrigerant cool the motor
psia
Oil Sump

68

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

11.5
psia

Refrigerant from
Condenser
(Ent.Cond. Water +/- 79.oF)

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system
At full load, the
R-123
chiller will start carry
oil from reservoir to Boils at 81.4F
@ 0 psig
evap. with 77 F

Leaving COND Temperature

Leaving EVAP Temperature

-8.4 psig

10.8
psig

Evaporation

Enthalpy (BTU/lb)
69

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

COND Saturated Temperature


89F
87F
n

Condensation

Co
mp
re s
sio

2.4 psig

Expansion

Pressure (Abs)

R-123
R-123 Chiller
Chiller
Evaporator:
LCWT
Evaporator: LCWT 44F
44F // ECWT
ECWT 55F
55F
Lower Condenser EWT
Condenser:
Condenser: LWT
LWT 87F
87F // EWT
EWT 77F
77F

44F
42F
EVAP Saturated Temperature

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system
Refrigerant to
Economizer &
Evaporator

Lower Entering Cond. Temp.


10.8
psia

11.5
psia

10.8
psia

10.8
Refrigerant cool the motor psia

ROTOR

10.8
Refrigerant cool the motor
psia
Oil Sump

70

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

11.5
psia

Refrigerant from
Condenser
(Ent.Cond. Water +/- 77.oF)

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system
Refrigerant to
Economizer &
Evaporator

Lower Entering Cond. Temp.


10.8
psia

11.5
psia

10.8
psia

10.8
Refrigerant cool the motor psia

ROTOR

10.8
Refrigerant cool the motor
psia
Oil Sump

71

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

11.5
psia

Refrigerant from
Condenser

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system
Refrigerant to
Economizer &
Evaporator

Lower Entering Cond. Temp.


10.8
psia

11.5
psia

10.8
psia

10.8
Refrigerant cool the motor psia

ROTOR

10.8
Refrigerant cool the motor
psia
Oil Sump

72

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

11.5
psia

Refrigerant from
Condenser

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system

Leaving EVAP Temperature

-8.4 psig

Condensation

4.6 psig
Evaporation

Enthalpy (BTU/lb)
73

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

R-123
Boils at 81.4F
@ 0 psig

COND Saturated Temperature


67F
65F
n

Leaving COND Temperature

How many minutes


until the unit stop
for lack of oil in the
reservoir?

Co
mp
re s
sio

-3.8 psig
Expansion

Pressure (Abs)

R-123
R-123 Chiller
Chiller
Evaporator:
LCWT
Evaporator: LCWT 44F
44F // ECWT
ECWT 55F
55F
Condenser:
Lower Condenser EWT
Condenser: LWT
LWT 65F
65F // EWT
EWT 55F
55F

44F
42F
EVAP Saturated Temperature

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


By Delivering an Optimum Chiller Design - The oil-management system

Hermetic-drive motor design:


Lose oil to the refrigerant circuit at
low lift conditions.

York Chiller designed


for off-design operation.

74

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Key Benefits and Features at YK Centrifugal Chillers


By Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance
Economics Analysis

75

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Key Benefits and Features at YK Centrifugal Chillers


By Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance
Total HVAC Energy Use for
Commercial Building
Utilizing Water Cooled
Systems
Airside
25%

Chiller Plant
35%

Boiler Plant
35%
Other
5%

76

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Total Chiller Plant Energy


Use

Pumps
22%
Chillers
64%

Towers
11%
Other
3%

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Understanding the Economics Analysis
Centrifugal chillers are the largest single energy consumer in the building
Energy Costs Vs. First Costs

Energy over the lifetime of the chiller

First Costs
Typical 2 x 500 TR
$300,000 Equipment only

Typical Chiller: 2 x 500 TR


Consumption:
1,400,000 KWH per year

A keen focus
on real world
energy
performance
delivers real
value

KWH Consumption:
1,400,000 KWH
Annual Energy Cost:
$125,000

Annual energy costs for Centrifugal


chillers is typically 50% of first cost

- Less maintenance costs


- Improved reliability
77

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Typical Equipment Life


25-30 years
Typical Energy Cost Inflation
5% annually
Total lifetime energy costs
$6 M
For the lifetime of 2 x 500 TR chillers,
energy costs are typically over $6M

- World class single source provider and partner relationships


- Improved capital efficiency

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Understanding the Economics Analysis

Lets see a chiller plant analysis in a


Real World example

78

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Understanding the Economics Analysis
Energy Efficiency is the Best Climate Strategy
Understanding full load energy performance
Understanding Real World Energy Performance

Real World Energy Performance


Understanding and taking advantage of the operating envelope
Capitalizing on part load (tons and wet bulb) conditions to minimize energy
Employing Variable Speed technology to fully translate less work --- less
energy for the chiller plant.

79

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Understanding the Economics Analysis
Building Envelope Climate Zone Map
Costal

Dry (B)

Moist (A)

ASHRAE 90.1 provides


the
information
to
determine both United
States and International
climates Zones . The
climate
zone
is
determined by a climate
zone number and letter
that are required for
determining compliance
regarding the standard.
Source : ASHRAE 90.1
80

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Understanding the Economics Analysis


The Operating Envelope Miami, FL Weather Example : Zone 1A
Building Envelope Climate Criteria
Costal

Dry (B)

Moist (A)

Lets check the Real World Energy Performance in a


chiller at the worst case scenario in United States:

Miami, Florida : Zone 1 A (Moist)


Zone 1 A:
Very Hot
and Humid
Source : ASHRAE 90.1
81

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

If is valid for Miami is valid for All US


Climate Zone

Understanding the Economics Analysis


The Operating Envelope Miami, FL Weather Example : Zone 1A

99.5%
92 - 87

82 - 77

72 - 67

62 - 57

52 - 47

42 - 37

Chillers run at full-load design conditions Less than 1% of the time !


82

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Understanding the Economics Analysis
Lowering Condenser
Water Temperature

Pressure
Condenser

Lift
(or Head
Pressure)

Compressor

Evaporator

Enthalpy

83

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Understanding the Economics Analysis
Lowering Condenser
Water Temperature

Pressure

Lowers the Lift


Condenser
Lift
(or Head
Pressure)

Compressor
Evaporator

Enthalpy

84

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Reduces Compressor
Work

Reduces Energy
Consumption

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Understanding the Economics Analysis
Typical Design Specification
500 ton Centrifugal Chiller

% Load
100

ECWT
85

Typical Consultant Engineer specification


request: ASHRAE 90.1 compliance, but
addressing only at Full Load Efficiency.

Comparison at AHRI conditions


85

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Understanding the Economics Analysis
Comparison at AHRI conditions

% Load
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
15
87

ECWT
85
81
77
73
69
65
65
65
65
65

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Understanding the Economics Analysis
Comparison at AHRI conditions

% Load
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
15
89

ECWT
85
81
77
73
69
65
65
65
65
65

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

KW/TON
0.570
0.522
0.493
0.474
0.463
0.460
0.495
0.553
0.680
0.798

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Understanding the Economics Analysis
0.65

Traditional Design
(Constant Speed & Min. ECWT of 75 F)

0.60

60% Load

0.55

100% Load
80% Load

0.50
kW / ton
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.30

+/-70% of hours

0.25
0.20
85 F

80 F

75 F

70 F

65 F

60 F

Entering Condenser Water Temperature


91

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

55 F

Constant Speed Chillers

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Understanding the Economics Analysis
Variable Orifice
-

Modulating
Valve in Liquid
Line to Maintain
Optimal
Refrigerant
Control

Orifice
92

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Refrigerant
Level Sensor
Maintains
Optimum Liquid
Levels in
Condenser

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Understanding the Economics Analysis
0.65

Traditional Design
(Constant Speed & Min. ECWT of 75 F)

0.60

60% Load
100% Load

0.55

80% Load

0.50

New Design Variable Orifice

kW / ton
0.45

(Constant Speed and Low ECWT)

60% Load

0.40

80% Load
100% Load

0.35
0.30

+/-70% of hours

0.25
0.20
85 F

80 F

75 F

70 F

65 F

60 F

Entering Condenser Water Temperature


93

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

55 F

Constant Speed Chillers

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Employing Variable Speed Technology to maximize efficiency
-Taking advantage of real world conditions
- As weather conditions and building load change,
design conditions exist only 1% of the operating
hours
- Applying VSD to chillers reduces energy consumption
by 30%
- Globally commissioned over 13,000 VSDs

EPAs Prestigious Climate Protection Award


-

94

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

YORK VSD chillers save 600,000 tons of CO2 emissions annually

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Fixed vs Variable Speed
Comparison at AHRI conditions

% Load
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
15
95

ECWT
85
81
77
73
69
65
65
65
65
65

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

No VSD
KW/TON
0.570
0.522
0.493
0.474
0.463
0.460
0.495
0.553
0.680
0.798

VSD
KW/TON
0.576
0.511
0.450
0.397
0.343
0.308
0.315
0.340
0.380
0.439

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Fixed vs Variable Speed
Comparison at AHRI conditions

% Load
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
15
97

ECWT
85
81
77
73
69
65
65
65
65
65

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

No VSD
KW/TON
0.570
0.522
0.493
0.474
0.463
0.460
0.495
0.553
0.680
0.798

VSD
KW/TON
0.576
0.511
0.450
0.397
0.343
0.308
0.315
0.340
0.380
0.439

%SAVED
-1.0
2.2
8.7
16.2
25.9
33.0
36.4
38.5
44.1
45.0

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Fixed vs Variable Speed
0.65

Traditional Design
(Constant Speed & Min. ECWT of 75 F)

0.60

60% Load
100% Load

0.55

80% Load

0.50

New Design Variable Orifice

kW / ton
0.45

(Constant Speed and Low ECWT)

60% Load

0.40

80% Load
100% Load

0.35

Variable Speed Chiller

0.30

100% Load

0.25

80% Load

0.20
85 F

60% Load

80 F

75 F

70 F

65 F

60 F

Entering Condenser Water Temperature


99

+/-70% of hours

Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

55 F

Variable Speed Drive Chillers

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Optimal Central Plant Chiller Operation
Variable Speed Chiller Performance
0.9

The most efficient operating


range of variable speed chillers
is 30% to 80%

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
kW/ton

0.3
0.2
0.1
0

Load

85F ECWT

100 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

75F ECWT

65F ECWT

55F ECWT

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Understanding the Economics Analysis
ASHRAE standardized weighting of hours at part load conditions at the :
Integrated part load value (IPLV):
1
IPLV =
0.01
A

0.42
+
B

0.45
+
C

0.12
+
D

Where:

A = KW/TR @100% capacity @ 85F ECWT


B = KW/TR @ 75% capacity @ 75F ECWT
C = KW/TR @ 50% capacity @ 65F ECWT
D = KW/TR @ 25% capacity @ 65F ECWT

101 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Understanding the Economics Analysis

Efficiency Improvements

ASHRAE 90.1 2010 preferred path B


-

ASHRAE 90.1 Performance Standard

150-300 TR
- Full Load < 0.639 KW/TR
- IPLV < 0.450 KW/TR
301 - 600 TR
- Full Load < 0.600 KW/TR
- IPLV < 0.400 KW/TR
>600 TR
- Full Load < 0.590 KW/TR
- IPLV < 0.400 KW/TR

Current Performance
Path B- VSD applications

Capacity

102 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Example of Real World Energy Performance

100%
75%
50%
25%

1
IPLV =
0.01
A

500
375
250
125

0.01
0.42
0.45
0.12

0.42 0.45
+
+
B
C

103 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

F)
EC
WT
(

We
igh
tin
g

Ca
pa
cit
y

Ca
pa
cit
y

AHRI Conditions

85
75
65
65

0.12
+
D

Typical Energy Cost for a Central


Plant with 2 x 500 TR chillers

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance

1
IPLV =
0.01
A

500
375
250
125

0.01
0.42
0.45
0.12

85
75
65
65

0.570
0.483
0.460
0.608

A= 0.0175
B = 0.8702
C = 0.9783
D = 0.1974

0.576
0.424
0.308
0.360

We
igh
TR ted
/KW

KW
/TR

We
igh
te
d
TR
/KW

Constant Speed Chiller

KW
/TR

EC
WT
(

100%
75%
50%
25%

F)

Variable Speed Chiller

We
igh
tin
g

AHRI Conditions
Ca
pa
cit
y

Typical Energy Cost for a Central


Plant with 2 x 500 TR chillers

Ca
pa
cit
y

Example of Real World Energy Performance

A = 0.0174
B = 0.9906
C = 1.4610
D = 0.3333

Chiller IPLV by AHRI 550/590

0.42 0.45
+
+
B
C

0.12
+
D

IPLV

0.485

IPLV

0.357

*Chillers SPLV
SPLV

0.445

SPLV

0.333

*Chiller SPLV = System Part Load Value; in this case it is used to


show part load value for the two 500 TR chillers, for the Average
of US Cities.

Cooling
Load Inc.
is equivalent
to 4,399 Full Load hours x 1,000 ton load
104 *The
Johnson
Controls,
2012

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance

1
IPLV =
0.01
A

500
375
250
125

0.01
0.42
0.45
0.12

85
75
65
65

0.570
0.483
0.460
0.608

A= 0.0175
B = 0.8702
C = 0.9783
D = 0.1974

0.576
0.424
0.308
0.360

We
igh
TR ted
/KW

KW
/TR

We
igh
te
d
TR
/KW

Constant Speed Chiller

KW
/TR

EC
WT
(

100%
75%
50%
25%

F)

Variable Speed Chiller

We
igh
tin
g

AHRI Conditions
Ca
pa
cit
y

Typical Energy Cost for a Central


Plant with 2 x 500 TR chillers

Ca
pa
cit
y

Example of Real World Energy Performance

A = 0.0174
B = 0.9906
C = 1.4610
D = 0.3333

Chiller IPLV by AHRI 550/590

0.42 0.45
+
+
B
C

0.12
+
D

IPLV

0.485

IPLV

0.357

Chillers SPLV
SPLV

0.445

SPLV

0.333

*System SPLV
SPL
V

0.635

SPLV

0.524

*System SPLV = System Part Load Value; in this case it is used to show part
load value for the two 500 TR chillers, plus the pumps, and the consumption
of the cooling tower, for the Average of US Cities.
* The Cooling Load is equivalent to 4,399 Full Load hours x 1,000 ton load

105 **Johnson
2012and the consumption of the Cooling Tower
IncludesControls,
Chillers,Inc.
Pumps

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance

1
IPLV =
0.01
A

500
375
250
125

0.01
0.42
0.45
0.12

85
75
65
65

0.570
0.483
0.460
0.608

A= 0.0175
B = 0.8702
C = 0.9783
D = 0.1974

0.576
0.424
0.308
0.360

We
igh
TR ted
/KW

KW
/TR

We
igh
te
d
TR
/KW

Constant Speed Chiller

KW
/TR

EC
WT
(

100%
75%
50%
25%

F)

Variable Speed Chiller

We
igh
tin
g

AHRI Conditions
Ca
pa
cit
y

Typical Energy Cost for a Central


Plant with 2 x 500 TR chillers

Ca
pa
cit
y

Example of Real World Energy Performance

A = 0.0174
B = 0.9906
C = 1.4610
D = 0.3333

Chiller IPLV by AHRI 550/590

0.42 0.45
+
+
B
C

0.12
+
D

IPLV

0.485

IPLV

0.357

Chillers SPLV
SPLV

0.445

SPLV

0.333

System SPLV
SPL
V

0.635

SPLV

0.524

Annual US $ = 364,828
Electric Energy Operational Cost
Annual US $ = 313,074

**Annual

14% Simple payback 0.15


year
4,399 Full Load hours x 1,000 ton load

Energy Savings
*

The Cooling Load is equivalent to

106 **Johnson
Controls,
2012and the consumption of the Cooling Tower
Included
Chiller,Inc.
Pumps

*** Estimated Energy Cost U$ 0.07/kWh for Usage and $12.5/kW for Demand

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Example of Real World Energy Performance

Miami example

107 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Typical Energy Cost for a Central


Plant with 2 x 500 TR chillers

Lower payback & higher $$$


energy bill saving

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Real World Weather Data

http://sydney.edu.au/architecture/staff/homepage/richard_de_dear/ashrae_rp-884_climates.shtml

108 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Higher Efficiency at Real World Performance


Example of Real World Energy Performance

higher % energy bill saving

109 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Typical Energy Cost for a Central


Plant with 2 x 500 TR chillers

higher $$$ energy bill saving

Key Benefits and Features at YK Centrifugal Chillers

Sustainability
Smart Refrigerant Decisions
Unit Design for Reduced Total Climatic Impact
High Efficiency Unit for Lower Carbon
Footprint

110 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Sustainability
By Providing Smart Refrigerant Decisions
Full line HFC-134a Chiller offering

Zero ODP, No phase out date refrigerant

Product line optimized for HFC-134a in order to meet or


exceed any competitors energy efficiency levels

Designed for Zero Leakage


Standard isolation valves eliminate the need to remove
charge from the units during most service procedures
Employ leak free sealing technology
Validate leak tight construction during manufacturing
process

111 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Sustainability
By Providing Smart Refrigerant Decisions
Environmental regulations

Montreal Protocol: Phase out of Ozone depleting refrigerants

112 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Sustainability
By Providing Smart Refrigerant Decisions
LEED Credits
Optimize Energy Performance (EAc1)
High efficiency of YK reduces indirect impact GWP
(98% of the total impact) caused by GHG emissions
produced by utility

Enhanced Refrigerant Management (EAc4)


Hybrid falling-film technology- further reduces
refrigerant usage by 40%
YK chillers up to about 1000 TR

113 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

The LTCM lab of the Ecole Polytechnique


Fdrale de Lausanne, Switzerland

Addressing Sustainability
By Providing Smart Refrigerant Decisions
Flooded vs. Falling Film

T
ER
S
IN ING
L
FAL LM
FI O
E
VID

Flooded Evaporator
114 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Hybrid Falling Film Evaporator

Addressing Sustainability
By Providing Smart Refrigerant Decisions
Environmental regulations

Montreal Protocol: Phase out of Ozone depleting refrigerants


Increased focus on Global Warming Potential (direct and indirect)

CO2 from automotive and


power plant emissions is
the leading green house
gas

HFCs; 2%
M ethane; 8%

HVAC Impact:
CO2; 85%

115 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

1.

Direct effect: refrigerant gas emitted


to the atmosphere

Addressing Sustainability
By Providing Smart Refrigerant Decisions
Environmental regulations

Montreal Protocol: Phase out of Ozone depleting refrigerants


Increased focus on Global Warming Potential (direct and indirect)

CO2 from automotive and


power plant emissions is
the leading green house
gas
HVAC Impact:

116 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

1.

Direct effect: refrigerant gas emitted


to the atmosphere

2.

Indirect effect: CO2 emissions from


power generation for equipment

Addressing Sustainability
By Providing Unit Designed for Reduced Total Climatic Impact

Indirect GWP Effects


Direct GWP Effects
Containment: Refrigerant
Leak Detection, Reclaim
rates, destruction or reuse

Maintenance
Practices over
Equipment
Life

Advanced
Real World
Energy
Performance

Advanced Cycle Efficiency


and Technology Choice

Minimizing the total Climatic Impact


requires a Comprehensive Approach to Refrigerant Choice
117 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Sustainability
High Efficiency Unit for Lower Carbon Footprint
How much CO2 would a Central Plant with 2 x 500 TR chillers with
VSD offset, compared to a Constant Speed Central Plant?

337 Tons of CO2 annually


Constant Central
Plant with 2 x 500 TR
chillers (SPLV =
0.635 kW/ton)

Central Plant
with 2 x 500 TR chillers
with VSD (SPLV 0.524
kW/ton)

500 metric tons of CO2


380 metric tons of CO2

Equivalent of removing 66 cars from the road!


* - CO2 calculator: http://www.epa.gov/cleanrgy/energy-resources/calculator.html
118 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Key Benefits and Features at YK Centrifugal Chillers

Lower Sound
Unit Arrangement (Full Load)
OptSoundTM Control (Partial
Load)

119 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Lower Sound


Full Load thanks to the Unit Arrangement

The Sound Pressure Level (SPL)


for Full Load is better the competitors based in the selection and position of the
components, reducing up to 1.5 dBa.
See a 500 ton example :
Full Load
YK York* :
82 dBa
19XR Carrier:
83.5 dBa

120 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

* Could be reduced in
case to select a Q6
compressor or use
Sound Unit treatment
and water cooled
motor.

Addressing Lower Sound


Partial Load thanks to the JCI ingenuity => OptiSound Control

The Sound Pressure Level (SPL)


for Partial Load is better than competitors by using of OptiSoundTM Control.
See a 500 ton example:
Full Load
50% load
YK York:
80 dBa
76 dBA
19XR Carrier:
82 dBa
80 dBA

121 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Lower Sound


Partial Load thanks to the JCI ingenuity => OptiSound Control

Sound generated by the high


speed turbo machinery of a
centrifugal compressor
Sound abatement can become
expensive and impractical
Johnson Controls invents a way to
eliminate the noise instead of
attenuating it OptiSound

122 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Lower Sound


Partial Load thanks to the JCI ingenuity => OptiSound Control

Optimized for a Limited Flow Range Scroll Volute

Impeller
Typical Centrifugal Compressor
123 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Lower Sound


Partial Load thanks to the JCI ingenuity => OptiSound Control
Gas Flow
Diffuser Plate
Nozzle Base Plate

Variable Geometry Diffuser

Diffuser Ring

Diffuser width is
changed to keep flow
attached.
Diffuser-Ring: This circular ring is pushed
in and out of the diffuser gap, by the drivepins, continuously varying the diffuser width
to match changing flow.

Pin & DiffuserRing Motion

Gas Flow

Impeller

Gas Flow
Patent Pending, Application No. 10/313,364
124 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Lower Sound


Partial Load thanks to the JCI ingenuity => OptiSound Control

30 % Load

SPL (dBA)
0

0
10
125 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

80

40 d
a
60 l l L o
Fu
%

20

Typical Chiller, 85 F/ 29 C
Entering Condenser Water

Without OptiSoundTM
Control

Addressing Lower Sound


Partial Load thanks to the JCI ingenuity => OptiSound Control

30 % Load

SPL (dBA)
0

100
126 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

80

40 d
a
60 ll Lo
Fu
%

20

Typical Chiller, 85 F/ 29 C
Entering Condenser Water

With OptiSoundTM
Control

Addressing Lower Sound


Partial Load thanks to the JCI ingenuity => OptiSound Control

Without OptiSound Control


Flow separates from
the walls of the
diffuser.
Aerodynamic
turbulence
Known as Diffuser
Stall.
Chiller sound levels
are high.

127 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Lower Sound


Partial Load thanks to the JCI ingenuity => OptiSound Control

Flow Stays attached


to the diffuser.
Chiller has low
sound levels.

128 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing Lower Sound


Partial Load thanks to the JCI ingenuity => OptiSound Control

OptiSound control is standard


some compressor YK chillers
It helps reduce noise at offdesign (part load) conditions
and extends the units
operational range.

129 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Key Benefits and Features at YK Centrifugal Chillers

High Reliability
OptiViewTM
TM Control
Control Center
Center

Unit
Unit Designed
Designed with
with Industrial
Industrial Components
Components

Skip
Skip Fin
Fin Tubes
Tubes Design
Design

Data
Data Trending
Trending and
and Tracking
Tracking

Connectivity
Connectivity

130 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing High Reliability


By Providing the Most Reliable OptiViewTM Control Center

Mini flash card


No battery backup required
Simple upgrade of software
Expert control management
State of the art control logic
(software control)
State of the art control hardware
User Friendly
Complete information on each
screen
Complete text / character
description of each data point
Screens designed based on real
chiller operator needs
11 languages

131 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing High Reliability


By Providing the Most Reliable OptiViewTM Control Center

132 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing High Reliability


By Providing a Unit Designed with Industrial Components
Single Stage Centrifugal Compressor
Open Drive technology
Air cooled motor to perform at all
lift conditions
Most flexible design on the market
Wide performance ranges
Ultra high efficiency compressors

133 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing High Reliability


By Providing a Unit Designed with Industrial Components
Centrifugal compressors Impeller innovations

Shrouded impeller for high efficiency


Optimized aerodynamics package for
broader operating range
Single-stage compressor is a proven
efficiency performer!

YORK Shrouded Impeller

19XR Impeller

10

Competitor Unshrouded Impeller


134 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing High Reliability


By Providing a Unit Designed with Industrial Components
Centrifugal compressors

SHAFT SEALS

GEARS
135 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

PRVs

IMPELLER

Addressing High Reliability


By Providing a Unit Designed with Industrial Components

Centrifugal compressors
Proximity
Probe
COUPLING

GEAR SHAFT
136 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

MOTOR SHAFT

Addressing High Reliability


By Providing a Unit Designed with Industrial Components

Centrifugal compressors
Proximity
Probe

COUP
LING

GEAR
SHAFT
137 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

MOTOR
SHAFT

Addressing High Reliability


By Providing a Unit Designed with Industrial Components
Oil Lubrication System
Additional reservoir feeding oil
to the gears and bearings by
gravity in case of shortage of
power supply.
Oil heat exchanger
Variable Speed Oil pump
Oil heater w/ easy access
Oil filter

138 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing High Reliability


By Providing a Unit Designed with Industrial Components

Evaporator Liquid Distributor

Located at the bottom of evaporator


Distribute low-temperature / lowpressure refrigerant evenly
throughout evaporator
Improves chiller efficiency

139 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Evaporator Distributor

Addressing High Reliability


By Providing a Unit Designed with Industrial Components

Stainless steel mist eliminator assembly

Located at the top of evaporator


Allows only refrigerant gas to
pass from the evaporator to the
compressor
As refrigerant moisture is
evaporated it collects in the
mesh and drops back down into
the evaporator to be boiled into
a gas

140 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing High Reliability


By Providing a Unit Designed with Industrial Components

Condenser

Patterns vary with number of passes


Tube bundle cover the entire volume of the
condenser
Baffle or new gas inlet diffuser for distribution
of refrigerant gas

Diffuser offers efficiency


advantage

141 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing High Reliability


By Providing a Unit Designed with Industrial Components

Patented Diffuser
Patented
Diffuser in top of
condenser

Patented Shape
recovers pressure
to improve chiller
performance
142 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing High Reliability


By Providing a Unit Designed with Industrial Components

Subcooler Assembly

Located at the bottom of the condenser


Systems coldest water (cooling tower
return) passes through subcooler
tubes
Reduces refrigerant temperature as
much as possible before it passes
through variable orifice
This translates to lower energy
consumption

143 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Sub-cooler

Addressing High Reliability


By Providing a Unit Designed with Industrial Components

Sight Glasses (Cooler and Condenser)

144 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Verify the Refrigerant


Charge level during the start
up.

See the condition of


refrigerant

Used as a diagnostic tool

Addressing High Reliability


By Providing a Unit Designed with Industrial Components
-

Design based on industrial, critical installations equipment


Sophisticated controls keep chiller out of danger
- Auto surge protection
- Market leading diagnostic capabilities
Isolation valves
-

Valves supplied as standard on critical small


diameter piping

Open Motor Design


- Chiller protected from damage due to potential
motor burn out
- Field serviceable
Site glasses standard on all chillers for easy
diagnostics
5,000 service technicians located around the world

145 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing High Reliability


By Providing Skip Fin Tubes Design

Skip Fin Tubes

To minimize energy consumption,


water pressure and tube fouling
To help induce turbulent flow,
which yields better heat transfer
To provide supreme vibration
dampening to ensure maximum
tube life
A true differentiator!

146 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing High Reliability


By Providing Skip Fin Tubes Design

Skip Fin Tubes

Skip Fin

147 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing High Reliability


By Providing Data Trending in the OptiViewTM Control Center
Trending and Analysis

148 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Addressing High Reliability


By Providing Data Trending in the OptiViewTM Control Center
Fault Reporting

149 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Key Benefits and Features at YK Centrifugal Chillers

Total Flexibility
Starter and drive options
Material & Accessories options
Open motor

150 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Total Flexibility for a Better Application


Solid State Starter Options
-

Unit mounted low voltage


Unit mounted medium voltage
Floor mounted medium voltage

Benefits
- Full OptiView Communications

151 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Total Flexibility for a Better Application


YORKTM OptiSpeedTM VSD
-

Unit mounted low voltage


- 460/575/600 V 60 hz
- 380/400 V 50 hz

Floor mounted medium voltage


- 2,300 to 13,800 V 60 hz
- 3,300 to 11,000 V 50 hz

Benefits
- Full OptiView Communications
- YORK patented Adaptive Capacity Control
- Self learning for maximum efficiency

152 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Total Flexibility for a Better Application


Quick Start Technology
Total:
Time for a 500 Ton (1750 kW) Chiller
10 Minutes, 12 Seconds

at Low Load to Return to Specified


LCHWTAfter a 15 Second Power Failure

Return to
Setpoint

6 Minutes
3 Seconds

70%
Improv
ement

Total:
3 Minutes, 2 Seconds
Restart

3 Minutes
54 Seconds

2 Minutes
2 Seconds
45 Seconds

Standard Chiller
153 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Quick Start Feature

Return to
Setpoint
Restart

Total Flexibility for a Better Application


Quick Start Technology
72 F 22.2 C

Time to Reach
Setpoint for 500
Ton (1750 kW)
Chiller

68 F 20 C

64 F 17.8 C

60 F 15.6 C

56 F 13.3 C

52 F 11.1 C

48 F 8.9 C

154 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Low Load:
3 Minutes
2 Seconds

High Load:
5 Minutes
30 Seconds

Standard Chiller
at High Load:
13 Minutes

15
4

Total Flexibility for a Better Application


Options of Tubes and Corrosion Protection
-

Various material options to prevent corrosion / erosion and ensure


reliable operation
- Copper
- 90/10 CuNi
- SS
- Ti
Titanium Tubing
Product Protection
- Epoxy
- Ceramic
- Cladding
Ceramic Coating

155 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Total Flexibility for a Better Application


YK Heat Recovery
-

Simultaneously cooling and heating


- reheat the air, preheat domestic hot water, process heat, control
humidity

Max leaving hot water = 110 F (43.3 C)

Operational savings

CO2 reductions

Reduced water consumption

156 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Evap Tons 280-2800 Tons


(985-9850 kW)

Total Flexibility for a Better Application


By Providing Several Options of Components

Isolation Valves (optional)


Located between the compressor discharge & the condenser (shown
below), and at the variable orifice.

Allows isolation and storage of the


refrigerant charge in the chiller
during servicing, eliminating timeconsuming transfers to remote
storage vessels.

157 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Total Flexibility for a Better Application


By Providing Several Options of Components
(Standard )

(optional )

With the dual oil filter option, there is a multi-port changeover


valve and manual shutoff valve.
This allows changing of one filter while the chiller is operating.

158 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Total Flexibility for a Better Application


By Providing Several Options of Components

Eddy Current Testing (Optional)


Detects common defects/discontinuities of the tube.
Saves money and/or unscheduled downtime.
Provides baseline data.
Conducted by an independent company that specializes in ECT.

Factory eddy current testing is typically less than


half the cost of doing it in the field!

159 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Total Flexibility for a Better Application


By Providing Several Options of Components

Marine Water Boxes (Optional)

Compact
Compact Water
Water Box
Box

The primary benefit with


marine water boxes is
serviceability.
By removing the water
box cover plate, chiller
tubes can easily be
accessed for cleaning.
Facility piping will not
need to be disconnected.

Marine
Marine Water
Water Box
Box (Optional)
(Optional)

160 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Total Flexibility for a Better Application


By Providing Several Options of Components

Waterbox Hinges (Optional)


The primary benefit of
hinges is serviceability.

Hinges

Chiller tubes can easily


be accessed for cleaning.
Increased plant room
safety.

161 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Hinges

Total Flexibility for a Better Application


By Providing Several Options of Components

Neoprene Pads (Standard)

Designed for 1/8 deflection.


Pads shipped loose for field installation.
The steel plate foot is factory installed.
Steel
Steel plate
plate foot
foot

The thickness of the foot is 3/4.


Steel plate
The deflected
height is 1.

Neoprene
Neoprene pad
pad assembly
assembly

Rubber pad
162 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Total Flexibility for a Better Application


By Providing Several Options of Components

Spring isolators (Optional)

Designed for oneinch deflection.


Spring isolators and
bolts shipped loose
for field installation.

M
Moo
uunn
ttiinn
gg A
Asss
seem
mbb
llyy

Mounting
assemblies are
factory welded to the
chillers end sheets.
NOTE: Neither the
standard pads or the
standard springs are
designed for seismic
application. Seismic
pads/springs require an
SQ.

163 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Total Flexibility for a Better Application


By Providing Several Options of Components
The Autogreaser is powered from the OptiView panel and initiates
each lube cycle based on chiller run time.

164 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Total Flexibility for a Better Application


By Providing Several Options of Components
Motors can be furnished by the manufacturer with:
Winding Thermistors
Winding Stator RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detector)
Bearing RTDs (Resistance Temperature Detector)

Readings, alarms, and trips will be


viewable on the OptiView panel.
A separate remote monitor is not
required with the Motor Monitoring
Board.

165 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Total Flexibility for a Better Application


By Providing Several Options of Components
Winding Thermistors:
One per phase,
imbedded in the stator
winding.
Will sense high motor
heat and shut down the
chiller.

Winding Stator RTDs:


Six RTDs, two per phase,
imbedded in the stator winding.
Designed to sense high motor
heat.
Bearing RTDs:
Two RTDs, one located at each
motor bearing.
Designed to sense high bearing
heat.

166 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Total Flexibility for a Better Application


By Providing Several Options of Components
Two industrial Accelerometers are
mounted on the motor, one at each
bearing.
The vibration levels will display on the
OptiView.
Once the baseline is set, alarm and
trip levels are determined in the
OptiView.

The Motor Monitoring Board is


required when Accelerometers are
ordered.
Currently only available on YK
Mod G chillers only.

167 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

The YK Compressor Centrifugal Chiller

Capacity: 250 to 3,000 TR (880 10.550 kW)

Single stage, high efficiency, centrifugal compressor

Designed for real world energy performance

Variable speed drive technology

Refrigerant: HFC-134a

State of the art OptiviewTM Control Center

Excellent sound performance

Industrial construction for reliable, long life


operation

AHRI standard 550/590 certified and rated

168 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Question Period

THANK YOU
169 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

YK Centrifugal Chillers Appendix

170 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Real World Energy Performance


The Operating Envelope Austin,TX Weather Example : Zone 2A

97.5%
105-95

85-75

65-55

45-35

20-10

Chillers run at full-load design conditions Less than 3% of the time !


171 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Real World Energy Performance


The Operating Envelope Yuma,AZ Weather Example : Zone 2B

99.4%
120-110

100-90

80-70

60-50

40-30

Chillers run at full-load design conditions Less than 1% of the time !


172 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Real World Energy Performance


The Operating Envelope Atlanta, GA Weather Example : Zone 3A

99.8%
105-95

80-70

60-50

40-30

15-05

Chillers run at full-load design conditions Less than 1% of the time !


173 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Real World Energy Performance


The Operating Envelope Los Angeles, CA Weather Example : Zone 3B

99.9%
105-95

80-70

60-50

40-30

Chillers run at full-load design conditions Less than 1% of the time !


174 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Real World Energy Performance


The Operating Envelope New York, NY Weather Example : Zone 4A

99.8%
105-95

80-70

60-50

40-30

10- 0

Chillers run at full-load design conditions Less than 1% of the time !


175 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Real World Energy Performance


The Operating Envelope Chicago, IL Weather Example : Zone 5A

99.2%
100-90

75-65

55-45

35-25

10- 0

Chillers run at full-load design conditions Less than 1% of the time !


176 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Real World Energy Performance


The Operating Envelope Las Vegas, NV Weather Example : Zone 5B

98.0%
115-105

90-80

75-65

50-40

25-15

Chillers run at full-load design conditions Less than 2% of the time !


177 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Real World Energy Performance


The Operating Envelope Milwaukee, WI Weather Example : Zone 6A

99.6%
100-90

75-65

55-45

35-25

10- 0

Chillers run at full-load design conditions Less than 1% of the time !


178 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Real World Energy Performance


The Operating Envelope Boise , ID Weather Example : Zone 6B

99.7%
110-100

85-75

65-55

45-35

20-10

Chillers run at full-load design conditions Less than 1% of the time !


179 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Real World Energy Performance


The Operating Envelope Anchorage, AK Weather Example : Zone 7

99.9%
85-75

60-50

40-30

20-10

-5- -15

Chillers run at full-load design conditions Less than 1% of the time !


180 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

Real World Energy Performance


The Operating Envelope Fairbanks, AK Weather Example : Zone 8

99.6%
90-80

65-55

45-35

25-15

0- -10

Chillers run at full-load design conditions Less than 1% of the time !


181 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

YK Centrifugal OptiView Control Center Samples

182 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

183 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

184 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

185 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

186 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012

YK Electric Driven Centrifugal Chillers

THANK YOU
187 Johnson Controls, Inc. 2012