Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 29

EN554 Photonic Networks

Lecture 1: Introduction
Professor Z Ghassemlooy
Northumbria Communications Laboratory
School of Informatics, Engineering and
Technology
The University of Northumbria
U.K.
http://soe.unn.ac.uk/ocr
Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Contents
Reading List
Lecture 1: Introduction

Transmission Media
History
Communication Technologies
Applications
System
Challenges Ahead

Lecture 2: Components for Photonic Networks


Lecture 3: Optical Amplifier
Lecture 4: System Limitation and Non-linear effect
Lecture 5: Transmission System Engineering Part 1
Lecture 6: Transmission System Engineering Part 2
Lecture 7: Photonic Networks
Lecture 8: Photonic Switching
Lecture 9: Wavelength Routing Networks Part 1
Lecture 10: Wavelength Routing Networks Part 2
Lecture 11: Access Network
Lecture 12: Revision
Tutorials and Solutions: Visit http://soe.unn.ac.uk/ocr
Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Reading List
Essential Reading List
lyas, Mohammad and Mouftah, Hussien: The Handbook of Optical
Communication Networks, CRC Press, 2004, ISBN 0-84-931333-3
Ramasawami, R and Sivarajan, K.N: Optical network: A practical
perspective, Morgan Kaufmann, 2001, ISBN 1-55-860655-6
Donati, Silvano: Photodetectors: Devices, Circuits and
Applications, Prentice Hall, 2000, ISBN 0-13-020337-8

Optional Reading List


Stern, T.E. and Bala, K: Multiwavelength Optical Networks: A
layered approach, Addison Wesley, 1999, ISBN 0-20-130967-X
Sabella, R and Lugli, P:High speed optical communications,
Kluwer Academic, 1999, ISBN 0-41-280220-1

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Transmission Media
Transmission Medium, or channel, is the actual physical
path that data follows from the transmitter to the receiver.
Copper cable is the oldest, cheapest, and the most
common form of transmission medium to date.
Optical Fiber is being used increasingly for high-speed
applications.

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Transmission by Light: why?


Growing demand for faster and more efficient
communication systems
Internet traffic is tripling each year
It enables the provision of Ultra-high bandwidth to
meet the growing demand
Increased transmission length
Improved performance
etc.

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Demand for Bandwidth

Bandwidth
Demand

1990

2000

2010

Typical data bandwidth requirement


Raw text = 0.0017 Mb
Word document = 0.023 Mb
Word document with picture = 0.12 Mb
20,000 x Radio-quality sound = 0.43 Mb
Low-grade desktop video = 2.6 Mb
CD-quality sound = 17 Mb
Good compressed (MPEG1) video = 38 Mb
Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Historical Developments
800 BC
400 BC
150 BC
1880

Use of fire signal by the Greeks


Fire relay technique to increase transmission distance
Encoded message
Invention of the photophone by Alexander Graham Bell

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Historical Developments - contd.


1930
1950-55
1962
1960

Experiments with silica fibres, by Lamb (Germany)


The birth of clad optical fibre, Kapany et al (USA)
The semiconductor laser, by Natan, Holynal et al (USA)
Line of sight optical transmission using laser:
- Beam diameter: 5 m
- Temperature change will effect the laser beam

Therefore, not a viable option


1966- A paper by C K Kao and Hockham (UL) was a break
through
- Loss < 20 dB/km
- Glass fibre rather than crystal (because of high viscosity)
- Strength: 14000 kg /m2.
Contd.
Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Historical Developments - contd.


1970 Low attenuation fibre, by Apron and Keck (USA) from 1000
dB/km - to - 20 dB/km
- Dopent added to the silica to in/decrease fibre refractive index.

Late 1976 Japan, Graded index multi-mode fibre


- Bandwidth: 20 GHz, but only 2 GHz/km

Start of fibre deployment.


1976 800 nm Graded multimode fibre @ 2 Gbps/km.
1980s
- 1300 nm Single mode fibre @ 100 Gbps/km
- 1500 nm Single mode fibre @ 1000 Gbps/km
- Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier
Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Historical Developments - contd.


1990s
- Soliton transmission (exp.): 10 Gbps over 106 km with no error
- Optical amplifiers
- Wavelength division multiplexing,
- Optical time division multiplexing (experimental) OTDM
2000 and beyond
- Optical Networking
- Dense WDM, @ 40 Gbps/channel, 10 channels
- Hybrid DWDM/OTDM
~ 50 THz transmission window
> 1000 Channels WDM
> 100 Gbps OTDM
Polarisation multiplexing

- Intelligent networks
Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Lightwave Evolution
*

10,000

Systems
Research
Experiments

3000
1000

Capacity (Gb/s)

300
100
30
10
3
1
0.3
0.1

0.03
80

82

84

86

88

90

Single Channel (ETDM)


Multi-Channel (WDM)
Single Channel (OTDM)
WDM + OTDM
WDM + Polarization Mux
Soliton WDM
92

94

96

Year
Prof.
Z Ghassemlooy

98

00

02

04

Courtesy:
A. Chraplyvy

System Evolution
10000

Capacity (Gb/s)

1000
100
10
1
0.1
1985

Optical networking
Wavelength Switching
TOTDM

Research Systems

Commercial Systems
Fiberization
Digitization

SONET rings and


DWDM linear
systems

1990

1995
Year
Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

2000

2004
cisco

Existing Systems - 1.2 Tbps WDM


DWDM

Typical bit rate 40 Gbps / channel


~ 8 THz (or 60 nm) Amplifier bandwidth
32 channels (commercial) with 0.4 nm (50 GHz) spacing
2400 km, no regeneration (Alcatel)

Total bandwidth = (Number of channels) x (bit-rate/channel)


OTDM

Typical bit rate 6.3 Gbps / channel


~ 400 Amplifier bandwidth
16 channels with 1 ps pulse width

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Commercial Systems
System

Year

WDM
chan nels

FT3

1980

FTG -1.7

1987

FT -2000

1992

NGLN

1995

1999

80
40

2001

160

10 Gb/s

1.6 Tb/s

20,640,000

640 km

2003

128
64

10 Gb/s
40 Gb/s

1.28 Tb/s
2.56 Tb/s

16,512,000
33,0 24,000

4000 km
1000 km

WaveStar
400G

TM

WaveStar
1.6T

TM

LambdaXtreme

Voice
channels
per fibre

Bit rate/
channel

Bit rate/
Fibre

45 Mb/s

45 Mb/s

672

7 km

1.7 Gb/s

24,192

50 km

2.5 Gb/s

32,256

50 km

20 Gb/s

258,000

360 km

200 Gb/s
400 Gb/s

2,580,000
5,160,000

640 km
640 km

1.7
Gb/s
2.5
Gb/s
2.5
Gb/s
2.5
Gb/s
10 Gb/s

H. Kogelnik, ECOC 2004


Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Regen
spans

Communications Technologies
Year

Service

Bandwidth distance product

1900

Open wire telegraph

500 Hz-km

1940

Coaxial cable

60 kHz-km

1950

Microwave

400 kHz-km

1976

Optical fibre

1993

700 MHz-km

Erbium doped fibre amplifier

1 GHz-km

1998

EDFA + DWDM

> 20 GHz-km

2001-

EDFA + DWDM

> 80 GHz-km

2001-

OTDM

> 100 GHz-km


Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Optical Technology - Advantages


High data rate, low transmission loss and low bit error rates
High immunity from electromagnetic interference
Bi-directional signal transmission
High temperature capability, and high reliability
Avoidance of ground loop
Electrical isolation
Signal security
Small size, light weight, and stronger
62 mm
21mm
648 optical fibres
363 kg/km

448 copper pairs


5500 kg/km
Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Applications

High Speed Long Haul Networks


(Challenges are transmission type)
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) ?
Access Network (AN)?
Challenges are:
- Protocol
- Multi-service capability
- Cost
Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

OOppt
ticics
s i is
a al los hhe er
onng re e t
g ti too s
timm st ta
e.e. ayy fo
fo r
r

Electronics and Computers


Broad Optoelectronic
Medical Application
Instrumentation
Optical Communication Systems

Undersea Cables

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

System Block Diagram

Photonics Institute

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Source
Source
coding

Modulation
Analogue
Digital

Multiplexing

Modulation

Frequency
Time

External
Pulse shaping
Channel coding
Encryption
etc.

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Internal

Receiver
1 -stage
amplifier
st

2 -stage
amplifier
nd

Pre-detection
filtering

Sampler
&
detector
Demultiplexer

Equalizer

Demodulator
Decoder
Decryption
Output signal
Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

All Optical Network


IP

ATM

IP

SDH

ATM

SDH

SDH

ATM

IP

Open Optical Interface

All Optical Networks

Challenges ahead:
Network protection

Network routing
Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Other

True IP-over-optics

Challenges Ahead
Modulation and detection and associated high speed electronics
Multiplexer and demultiplexer
Fibre impairments:
. Loss
. Chromatic dispersion
. Polarization mode dispersion
. Optical non-linearity
. etc.

Optical amplifier
. Low noise
. High power
. Wide bandwidth
. Longer wavelength band S
Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Challenges Ahead - contd.


Dedicated active and passive components
Optical switches
All optical regenerators
Network protection
Instrumentation to monitor QoS

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Chromatic Dispersion
It causes pulse distortion, pulse "smearing"
effects
Higher bit-rates and shorter pulses are less
robust to Chromatic Dispersion
Limits "how fast and how far data can travel
10 Gbps
60 Km SMF-28

40 Gbps
4 Km SMF-28

cisco

t
Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Dispersion Compensating Fibre


By joining fibres with CD of
opposite signs (polarity) and
suitable lengths an average
dispersion close to zero can be
obtained; the compensating
fiber can be several kilometers
and the reel can be inserted at
any point in the link, at the
receiver or at the transmitter

Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)


Ey
nx
Ex

ny

Input pulse

Spreaded output pulse

The optical pulse tends to broaden as it travels down the


fibre; this is a much weaker phenomenon than chromatic
dispersion and it is of some relevance at bit rates of 10Gb/s
or more
Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Combating PMD
Factors contributing to PMD

Bit Rate
Fiber core symmetry
Environmental factors
Bends/stress in fiber
Imperfections in fiber

Solutions for PMD


Improved fibers
Regeneration
Follow manufacturers recommended installation
techniques for the fiber cable
Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Optical Transport Network


< 10000 km
< 10 Tbit/s

Global Network

Wide Area
Network

< 100 km
< 1 Tbit/s

Metropolitan/Regional
Area Optical Network

Client/Access
Networks

Cable modem
Networks

SDH/
SONET

ISP

ATM

FTTB
Gigabit
Ethernet

< 20 km
100M - 10 Gbit/s

ATM
FTTH

Courtesy: A.M.J. Koonen

Cable

PSTN/IP
Prof. Z Ghassemlooy

Mobile

Corporate/
Enterprise Clients