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GREEN INDIA

WATER MISSION
SUSTAINING HIMALAYAS

Compiled by:-

Rinki Jana, IX, R.n. 47

GREEN INDIA
The National Mission for
Green India (GIM) is one of the eight
Missions outlined under the National
Action Plan on Climate Change
(NAPCC). It aims at protecting;
restoring
and
enhancing
Indias
diminishing
forest
cover
and
responding to climate change by a
combination
of
adaptation
and
mitigation measures. It envisages a
holistic view of greening and focuses
on
multiple
ecosystem
services,
especially,
biodiversity,
water,
biomass,
preserving
mangroves,
wetlands, critical habitats etc. along
with carbon sequestration as a cobenefit. This mission has adopted an
integrated cross-sectoral approach as it
will be implemented on both public as
well as private lands with a key role of
the local communities in planning,
decision making, implementation and
monitoring.

CONVERGENCE

Green
India
Mission
hinges
upon
convergence with related Missions of the
National Action Plan on Climate Change,
other complementary National Mission
Programmes and schemes for better
coordination in developing forests and
their fringe areas in a holistic and
sustainable
manner.
The
coherent
approach involving contribution from
converging partners intends to saturate
the landscapes with essential need-based
interventions at a faster pace. Also the
convergence aims at optimizing efficient
use of resources and avoidance of
contrast activities which can disturb the
balance in the ecosystem due to lack of
coordination between different schemes.

As a first step towards translation of these


efforts into action, Green India mission
has issued the Convergence Guidelines of
GIM with MNREGS. Efforts are on to
finalize convergence guidelines with other
complimentary schemes to set out the
approach for coordination at field level.

MISSION GOALS

To increase forest/tree cover to the


extent of 5 million hectares (mha)
and improve quality of forest/tree
cover on another 5 mha of
forest/non-forest lands;
To improve/enhance eco-system
services like carbon sequestration
and storage (in forests and other
ecosystems), hydrological services
and
biodiversity;
along
with
provisioning services like fuel,
fodder, and timber and non-timber
forest produces (NTFPs); and
To increase forest based livelihood
income
of
about
3
million
households.

INTRODUCTION
The main water resources of
India consists of the precipitation on
the Indian territory which is estimate
to be around 4000 km3 /year, and
transboundary flows which it receives
in its rivers and aquifers from the
upper riparian countries.
Out of the total precipitation,
including snowfall, the availability from
surface
water
and
replenishable
groundwater is estimated as 1869 km3
. Due to various constraints of
topography, uneven distribution of
resource over space and time, it has
been estimated that only about 1123
km3 including 690 km3 from surface
water and 433 km3 from groundwater
resources can be put to beneficial use.

CLIMATE CHANGE
Climate in a narrow sense is defined as average weather, or more rigorously, as the
statistical description in terms of mean and variability of relevant quantities of weather parameters
over a period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years. The classical period is
30 years, as defined by WMO. These parameters are most often surface variables such as
temperature, precipitation and wind. Climate change in IPCC usage refers to any change in climate
over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity. This usage differs from
that of UNFCCC which defines climate change as, a change of climate which is attributed directly
or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in
addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.

FINDINGS OF SCIENTISTS
Studies related to the impacts
of climate change on various components of
the hydrological cycle may be classified
broadly into two categories: (i) studies using
GCM/RCMs directly to predict impact of
climate change scenarios (ii) studies using
hydrological models with assumed plausible
hypothetical climatic inputs.
The rainfall scenarios are dependent
on climate scenarios.
There
are
substantial
spatial
differences in the projected rain fall
changes. The maximum expected increase
in rainfall (10 to 30%) is for central India.
There is no clear evidence of any
substantial change in the year-toyear
variability of rainfall over the next century.
Surface
air
temperature
shows
comparable increasing trends by as much as
3 to 4 C towards the end of the 21st
century.

ABOUT
Started in year 2010,
Climate Himalaya initiative has
been working on Mountains and
Climate linked issues in the
Himalayan region of South Asia. In
the last five years this knowledge
sharing portal has become one of
the important references for the
governments, research institutions,
civil
society
groups
and
international agencies, those have
work and interest in the Himalayas.
The
Climate
Himalaya
team
innovates on knowledge sharing,
capacity building and climatic
adaptation aspects in its focus
countries like Bhutan, India, Nepal
and Pakistan. Climate Himalayas
thematic
areas
of
work are
mountain ecosystem, water, forest
and livelihood.

THE MISSION
The
mission
recognises that ecosystem goods
and services from the Himalayas
support a vast number of people
and provides food and water
security. It acknowledges the
importance
of
participatory
approaches and community-based
management. While the mission
acknowledges that the Himalayas
are not homogenous, substantial
micro-level issues are not given
due attention; for example, the
mission does not look at controlling
the practice of shifting cultivation
in the North-East, which would be
important in reducing emissions.
Details are also not provided for
important issues such as the
Himalayan forests and rivers.

TECHNOLOGY FEATURES
The development of appropriate renewable energy strategies for the
Himalayas, such as providing solar cookers and subsidising LPG1 for local use
should have been included. Sustainable hydropower development based on
optimization of water use should also have been promoted. A systematic approach
to combine traditional practices with modern technology is needed to promote
sustainable development in the region and such an emphasis is missing. InNepal
for example, sustainable hydropower through micro-hydro plants has promoted an
industry of skilled blacksmiths and ironsmiths who build and maintain these plants.

THE END