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HARD DISK DRIVE (HDD)

STORAGE DEVICES
One of the widely used Hardware for
Storing Permanent Data is HARD
DISK DRIVE
It is used for Storing of DATA for long
term use.

TYPES OF HDD
HDD

PATA/IDE
(PARALLEL
ADVANCE
TECHNOLOGY
ATTACHMENT)

SATA
(PARALLEL
ADVANCE
TECHNOLOGY
ATTACHMENT)

USB/EXTERNAL
HARD DISK

Hard Drive Controllers

IDE (aka parallel ATA)


EIDE
SCSI
SATA

IDE HARD DISK DRIVE


IDE Hard Disk is a 40 Pin Connector
Hard Disk and is Connected to IDE
connector on Motherboard

Motherboard Connections

Primary IDE controller is


usually faster ATA/66, 100
or 133. Secondary controller
operates at ATA/33

Normally, the IDE controllers


Identified as IDE1 and IDE2
on the motherboard

Onboard Controllers
(2 x 40 pin male ports)

INTERNAL PARTS OF THE


HDD

INTERNAL PARTS

PLATTER
SPINDLE MOTOR
HEAD ACTUATOR
ACTUATOR
READ/WRITE HEAD
LOGIC BOARD
CONNECTOR
POWER SUPPLY CONNECTOR
OUTCASING BOX

PLATTER
PLATTER IS A METALIC PLATE WHICH
IS USED TO STOR THE DATA IN THE
ELECTROMAGNETIC FORM.
THE
DATA
IS
SAVED
IN
TRACK,SECTOR & CLUSTER FORMAT
THERE CAN BE MORE THAN ONE
PLATTER IN A HARD DISK

SPINDLE MOTOR
SPINDLE MOTOR is used to revolve
the Platter to access the each and
every part of the HARD DISK
The revolving of the platter is
measured in RPM (RPM stands for
REVOLUTION PER MIN/ROTATIONS
PER MIN)
Current RPM ranges from 7,200 to
15,000

ACTUATOR
ACTUATOR is used to make access
the Read Write Head to the every
corner of the Platter
If we consider the live example for
the Actuator, it is like a CAR WIPER
which
moves
in
45
degree
approximately

READ AND WRITE HEAD


Read Write Head often refereed as
R/WHEAD
It is a Small Black Device which is
responsible for the Operation of
Reading and Writing.
It is used for Reading and Writing
operations from the HARD DISK

READ AND WRITE PROCESS


Platters are divided into 512 byte
sectors. These sectors are the area
on the platter that data is written to.
The platters have a magnetic coating
applied to them that is extremely
sensitive to magnetism.

LOGIC BOARD
IT is a Circuit Board which is used to
send
the
signals
and
logical
operations related to HARD DISK

WORKING
While the platters are rotating in a circle, the
read/write heads are moved over the disk
surface to the location where they need to write
(or save) information. The read/write heads do
not actually touch the surface of the disk
platters; instead, they hover about ten microinches (or millionths of an inch) abovethats
not even enough space to place a hair between
the read/write head and the platters surface.
This design helps improve disk performance,
because a read/write head that made contact
with the platter would cause friction, slowing
down the rotation speed of the disk.

Hard Drive Controller


The controller allows
the hard drive to
send/receive data
using the external
data bus

Hard Drive
Controller

In IDE hard drives,


the contoller circuitry
is built into the drive

External Data Bus

THE STORAGE MEATHOD


THE DATA IS STORED IN THE FORM
OF TRACKS SECTOR AND CLUSTERS

TRACKS
Just as there are grooves, or tracks,
on a record or music CD, there are
also tracks on each platter. These
tracks are evenly spaced across the
platters surface.

SECTORS
The platter is divided into pie slices,
thus dividing the tracks into 512-byte
sectors. Sectors are the actual
storage areas for data, and each has
an address that is made up of the
platter side number, the track
number, and the sector number on
that track.

SECTOR

CLUSTERS
A group of any number of sectors can
make up a cluster. When a partition
is formatted, the file system will
determine the cluster size based off
the partition size. For example, a
partition that is 2GB in size formatted
as FAT will use a 32K-cluster size.
That same 2GB partition formatted as
FAT32 will use only a 4K-cluster size.

MOUNTING A DRIVE IN CABINET

Connecting an IDE drive

4 prong Molex Connector

40-pin IDE ribbon cable


Red line aligned with pin 1

IDE Cables

Ribbon
Rounded
No twist!
Max speed = 33Mb/sec
40 pin
40 pin/80 wires Max speed = 133Mb/sec

40 wire IDE ribbon cable


33 Mb/sec max

80 wire IDE ribbon cable


133Mb/sec max

SATA Cable
4-wire data cable

7 pin connector
Motherboard SATA socket

BASIC CONNECTION

IDE1 and IDE2 at Startup

PATA Design
Primary IDE
Channel

Secondary
IDE Channel

Max of 133 Mb/sec

Master

Slave

Max of 133 Mb/sec

Master

Slave

SATA Design
Drive 2
150 Mb/sec
150 Mb/sec

Drive 1

SATA
Controller

Drive 3
150 Mb/sec

150 Mb/sec

Drive 4

MASTER/SLAVE SETTINGS

MASTER/SLAVE

Configuring a Hard Disk


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Connect data cable and power cable


Power up PC, enter BIOS
Standard CMOS settings
Auto detect or enter CHS values
Create partitions
Format each drive
Install O.S.

Hard Drive Partitioning

What is it?
Primary Partition
Extended Partition
Logical Drives

Partitions
Primary Partition

Extended Partition

Primary Partition

Logical
Drive 1

Drive Letter = c:

Drive Letter = d:

Set to Active
Stores O.S.

Logical
Drive 2
Drive Letter = e:
Hard Disk

A+ Partition Facts
A maximum of 4 primary partitions per
disk
Up to 24 logical drives per disk
Each partition must be formatted
A PC must have at least 1 primary
partition
The primary partition is where the O.S. is
stored
Extra partitions are optional

Disk Management

Windows File Systems


File System is created when you
format the drive. The types are
FAT 16
FAT 32
NTFS
Formatting also creates the boot
record, the root directory, the File
Allocation Table and the data area

FAT 16
File Allocation Table 16-bit
A max of 216 = 65,536 addressable sectors
Max partition capacity of 65,536 x 512 =
33Mb
Does not support disks larger than 2.1 Gb
Used up to Win95 release 1
1.44 Mb floppy disks, zip disks and USB
memory sticks are formatted using FAT

FAT 32

File Allocation Table 32 bit


A max of 232 = 4 billion addressable sectors
Grouped 4 512 byte sectors together = a cluster
1 cluster = 2048 bytes or 2Kb
Max hard disk size = 2 Tb
Max partition size of (4 billion x 512 bytes) =
32Gb
Allows for up to 24 logical drives
Windows 95 release 2 onwards
No mechanism for file security

NTFS

New Technology File System


64 bit file system
Windows NT, 2000, XP
Main Advantage = Security
(encryption)
Supports partition sizes up to 2048
Gb or 2Tb