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Principle and Architecture of

SMC

ISSUE 1.0
www.huawei.com

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Huawei Mobile Data Service Network Architecture

Content/Application Layer Common Enabler Background


Customer Layer System
APP Server SP/CP Content Portal
Service Common
Management
BSS
Parlay/OSA API
Open CMS
Call Control Messaging Other
FW
Capability SCF SCF SCF
Layer AAC OSS
Integrated GW
Charging
SMS MMS Download UM IMPS Location NMS
Provisioning
IVR Streaming Gaming PTT PIM OTA

Service Enabler SDC


Other
Layer IN DMS DRM M-RBT … System
EMS
Bank
Access Layer Signal GW WISG … Report Server

Access/Core
2G CN 2.5G CN 3G CN …
Network

Terminal Layer

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3G Mobile Data Service Networking
Internet
Local
maintenance WAP
DCN GW 3G
Local WIN core network
CMNET MMSC
platform
GGSN
2G/2.5G data service
VPN Tunnel system
Local IOD
platform NO.7
Eudemon 200 1
I2000 Server NE40

NMS IP bearer CCG


network
500ES 1 500ES 2 LSTP
LSTP
S3552x2
NMS client Eudemon 200 2

NMS of the Note: Not every service


S6506 1 S6506 2
subsystem has its
province independent access
layer switch equipment.
Several switch devices
DCN are divided into several
VLANs.

Billing center server


Billing center S3552x2 S3552x2S3552x2S3552x2 S3552x2S3552x2S3552x2S3552x2 S3552x2 S3026x2 S3026x2
of the M P M W S i D I S
Legend province o M A T
S U
D G L N C
Router Firewall r S P R A
M S
S S F P
Core switch
Edge switch
P
t C G E
M C O C A
a W A
100m/FE Link GE Link l M E X U
HA Link FC/SCSI Link
WAN Link E1 Link
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3G service
Page 3
system
USAU+SMC+INFOX Networking
CMNET BOSS
QuidwayR2631 QuidwayR2631
E router E router
SCP
PSTN
2×Netscreen 500
Signaling
network
2×QuidwayS3028 switch
R2511
router
Mode
m

SM
alarm
server
S3026

WCSU
Report Pre- SM SMSC1
SM MT server statistics database
Server/ server server USAU
MT
consol
e

Infox MT Pre- INFOX INFOX service


console statistics interconnection gateway
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server/rep gateway
Overall Networking Diagram of
SMC
BSS NSS

PSTN/ISDN/
PSPDN
MS
Other MSC
BTS

BSC

MS SMC
BTS

MSC/VLR

HLR/AUC/EIR

OMC
BSC Data
communication
BTS network

Operation Operation OMC SERVER


console console

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SMC Location
HSTP HSTP

MSC

LSTP LSTP

HLR

USAU

SP INFOX SMC INFOX INFOX SMC


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Objective

Understand the architecture and


networking of the SMC

Understand the basic short message flow


concept

Understand the basic concept and features


of short messages

Understand the SMC database application

Understand the SMC bill application

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Reference
Name Path on Support

This document Data Service > SMC > Function and Feature >
Training Document > Basic Training

User Manual Data Service > SMC > Product Manual > 01-INtess-
SMAXII SMC (for GSM)

Deployment Guide Data Service > SMC > Technical Guide >
Deployment Guide

Troubleshooting Guide Data Service > SMC > Technical Guide >


Troubleshooting

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SMC Architecture
SS7 network

Monitoring system USAU/128SAU


Billing system MT console/I2000 NMS
Report system Mt Server
Mti Server
MT
Map Server protocol

BillCreater
Internal
BackupDaemon protocol Signal/Event
CMC
Share memory SmcApp ClusterMng Two node script
protocol
DbDaemon
Share memory
FileMirror
L2CacheDaemon
SMPP/SMEI Invoke
NFS

ORACLE SCP Service Alarm To another Two-node

database system node system/OS

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SMC Architecture
SS7 network

Signaling
equipment

Monitoring system Cti-Link


Billing system MT console/I2000 NMS
Report system Mt Server
Mti Server
MT
Map Server protocol

BillCreater
Internal
protocol
BackupDaemon Share memory
CMC
Share memory SmcApp ClusterMng ServerSelector
protocol
DbDaemon Share memory

FileMirror
L2CacheDaemon
SMPP/SMEI Invoke
Network path sharing

ORACLE SCP Service Alarm To another ServerSelector


database system node
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SS7 Architecture

OSI
ITU-T NO.7 signaling system user

OMAP INAP MAP


B
Layer S I M
7 S T
S T
A U
Layer TCAP U U
P P
6, P P
5,
4
SCCP

Layer
3, MTP-3
2,
1 MTP-2

MTP-1

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Short Message Definition

Length≤140 bytes

The transmitted message is in the text format

Use the NO7 signaling channel to transmit messages

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Functions of SMC

SMC

SMS GSM
Network

Store and forward short messages

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SMC Scheduling Policy

Scheduling policy in the store-and-


forward mode
Scheduling policy in the datagram
mode
Scheduling policy in the interaction
mode

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Signaling Networking Structure
• Single signaling point
networking solution of the SMC

LSTP1 LSTP2 LSTP1 LSTP2 GMSC1 GMSC1

16×2 Link 16×4 Link

G/IW AM/ G/IW G/IW


MSC CM SM1 SM2

SMSC SMSC

Single-module networking Multi-module networking

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Signaling Networking Structure
• Multi-MAP networking solution of the SMC

LSTP1 LSTP2

AM/ G/IW G/IW


CM SM1 SM2 SAU

MAP MAP

SMSC SMSC

Multi-MAP networking plan of the SA

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Signaling Networking Structure
• Networking solution of the SMC for the CDMA and
GSM networks (USAU):

LSTP(G) LSTP(C)

AM/ G/IW G/IW


CM (G) (C)

CTI

MTI
CMa
p
GMap

SMSC

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Three Kinds of Signaling of Short
Message

MO (Mobile Originated)
SMS originated by the MS

MT (Mobile Terminated)
SMS terminated by the MS

ALERT_SC (Alert Service Center)


SMC alter

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Basic Message Flow
SMC Signaling HLR MSC VLR MS
Access
gateway Request
and
Message Possible
Transfer Authenticat
ion
SendInfo
For MO
SMS
Forward
Message ShortMessage
Transfer

ACK

ACK

ACK

MO message flow
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Basic Message Flow
SMC Signaling HLR MSC VLR MS
Message
gateway
Transfer Send Route
Info For
ShortMessa
ge

Forward
ShortMessage SendInfo
For MT SMS

Message
Transfer

ACK

ACK

ACK

MT message flow

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Basic Message Flow
SMC Signaling gateway HLR VLR MS
RP_MS_TO_N
ETWORK_SM
S_A

RegForSM

ALERT_SC

ALERT_SC

ALERT_SC message flow

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Basic Message Flow

SMC Signaling HLR SGSN VLR MS


Access
gateway Request
and
Message Possible
Transfer Authenticat
ion

Froword
Message ShortMessage
Transfer

ACK

ACK

ACK

PS MO message flow
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Basic Message Flow
SMC Signaling HLR SGSN MSC MS
Message
gateway
Transfer Send Route
Info For
ShortMessa
ge

Forward
ShortMessage

Message
Transfer

ACK

ACK

ACK

PS MT message flow

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Related Concepts

Virtual SMC

Short message entity

Registered user

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Related Concepts

 SM validity period

 Attempt to redeliver SM

 Account

 PS SMs and GSM SMs are over different


networks, but they have the same message
structure.

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Related Concepts

 Interface

 OCOS

 TCOS

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Features of V3.0
The L2 cache features can be divided into the following flows
Store flow
Read-back flow
Alert triggering flow
MT part

MT console

Mt Server

ORACLE
SmcApp L2CacheDaemon
database

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Features of V3.0
Triggering the store flow of the L2 Cache:

The messages in the message queue of receive entity where the message locates can be written into the L2
cache.

The number of L2 message is less than “The maximum number of L2 message” specified by License.

When MT delivery fails, any of the following condition can trigger L2 cache.
 When the MT speed reaches the threshold set by License, SMS Server is currently in the state
of “Start MT speed threshold measures”, which contains “If delivery fails, enter L2 cache.”
 The state of “start measures for memory SM number threshold ”contains “If delivery fails,
enter L2 cache.”
 The state of “Start measures for entities number threshold” contains “If delivery fails, enter L2
cache.”
 The message Profile requires to enter L2 cache.

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Features of V3.0

Writing range of L2 cache:

SM called entity has two modes: 1. Traditional orderly delivery , 2. Free delivery.

For the orderly delivered entities, the SMs with higher configuration priority do not enter
L2 cache.

For the free delivered entities, only the SMs that fails to be delivered and meet the entry
conditions can enter. SMs not delivered does not enter L2 cache.

EMS does not enter L2 cache.

Long SMs created by internal protocols do not enter L2 cache.

Status reports enter L2 cache.

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Features of V3.0

Triggering the readback flow of the L2 cache

Only when all the following conditions are met, Smcapp starts the readback ( send read-back instructions to the
L2CacheDaemon process )
 The system has started and SMS server is in the active state. It does not read
message in standby state.
 The handshake with L2Cache has been set up and L2cache works normally.
 The system runs normally, not in the state of “start MT speed threshold measures”,
or “start memory SMs numbers threshold measures”, or “start entity number
threshold measures”; if the system is in the state of “distributing flow and indicating
busy” or “delete SMs unsuccessfully delivered”, it does not read back the SMs.
 Time since last read-back begins exceeds the set value (like 60s)
 Last SMs readback of L2 cache has finished.

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Features of V3.0
Intelligent Redelivery Technology
For different delivery failures, different redelivery strategies of cache
/cached SMs are designed. The redelivery strategy is set as: delete one
message, delete all messages, redelivery for limited times, redelivery for
unlimited times, enter L2 cache; flexible redelivery time interval.
Category: common mode, busy-hour mode, and festival mode

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Features of V3.0
Service Attribute Management

It provides service data configuration mode and has the maximum match function.

It can select the configuration subentity, match length, maximum submission number,
maximum delivery number, delivery mode and validity period.

The delivery mode is divided to: Deliver freely and Deliver orderly.

Match length is 0, which means the maximum match.

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Feature of V3.0

Multidimensional Schedule

Provide various default schedule strategies

Three modes of schedule strategy corresponding to intelligent redelivery

User-defined special schedule strategies for individual service, such as 1700.

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Features of V3.0
Group Number Segment Management

Several groups can be defined.

Every group has its number segment, for example, SP group has relative SP number
segment data.

The defined group data can be used in routing table, PPS routing table, number
segment priority management, and service scheduling configuration.

The number length is 0, which means the maximum match.

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Features of V3.0
Number Segment Priority Management
Several number segment priorities can be defined
Number segment data can use group data or can be defined separately.
The match length is 0, which means the maximum match.
Priority from higher to lower: VIP1, VIP2, Important 1, Important 2, and Common.

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Features of V3.0
Priority Strategy

The message priority is divided into five kinds according to the relation between called/calling
party.

If the priority of calling/called party is higher, the relative message priority can also be defined to be
lower.

If there is no specified priority, take the highest of the calling/called party as a reference.

Different message priorities can have different delivery strategies.

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Features of V3.0

Queue Priority Schedule Strategy

You can choose relative schedule for five different message priorities.

I f there is no specific schedule, use Default Profile.

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Features of V3.0
Service Schedule Strategy

Relative service schedule strategy is used according to the account and number segment of calling party and the number segment of called party .

The match length is 0, which means the maximum match.

The number segment of calling/called party can be group data or user-defined data.

Use the test function to confirm the service schedule strategy of the account and number segment of calling party, the number segment of called party.

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Features of V3.0

Multidimensional Schedule Parameter Configuration

Configure the priorities of messages. The messages with the priorities can be loaded into
the L2 cache

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Features of V3.0
Festival Parameter Configuration
Define 10 festivals at most.
Relative parameters: festival name, start time and end time.
Invoke festival schedule mode on festivals.

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Features of V3.0

Weekly Busy Parameter


Define the time period of weekly busy period.
Define two busy periods at most everyday
Invoke busy-hour schedule mode during the busy time.

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ORACLE Database
Node 1 and 2 program
ORACLE program (Two nodes are totally symmetrical)
Shared array
ORACLE database
SM database Node Node
SM database 2
1
L2 cache SM database
SM historical database
Tables of SM historical database
Shared
sm_histableMMDD
array
 SM historical database, MM: Month, DD: Date
ms_usertable

SM special subscriber subscription table

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SM Bill

 Bills provided by the short message system:


 Statistics bill

 10: Historical bill – corresponding to the databases

 11: MO bill

 12: Repeated MT bill

 13: ALERT – SC bill

 15: SYSTEM – SC bill

 16: Information security monitoring bill

 Charging bill

 Charging bill

 Charging backup bill

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SM Bill
SM bill naming format
Statistics bill
prmYYYYMMDD_AABBBxxxx.unl ,
Where, YYYY is year, MM is month, DD is date and AA is SMC ID
BBB is bill type number and xxxx is serial number
AA: always be 01.
BBB: bill type number
010: historical bill
011: MO bill
012: MT bill
013: AlertSc bill
015: Performance bill
016: information security monitoring bill
xxxx: The value range is 0 ~ 9999, that is, at most 10,000 original bill files
can be generated one day. xxxx being FFFF indicates an abnormal bill file.

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SM Bill
SM bill naming format
Charging bill
SMS system outputs the bill in text format and uses the file
name to indicate the bill types and the date it formed. By
configuration of BillLocal.ini, Guangdong offices usually
configure like this:
SMC bill files begin with the configured field name (default
value SMC), and followed by date character string, like
“YYYYMMDD” (it is required to configure TimeFormat=%Y%m
%d in block [BillCheck]), and the serial number (the digit is
flexible, now is configured as 6.)
SMCXYYYYMMDDNXXXXX.txt
N: the number of SMCs, if there is only one SMC, the default
value is 1;
XXXXXX: Serial number;

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/
SM Bill
smcbill/bpsbill/10/t
osend
FT FT Billing
//smcbill/checkbill NT billing server
P P center
/
smcbill/bpsbill/11/t FT NT billing backup
smcbill/checkbillba
osend P server
Bill k
/
module Report pre-
smcbill/bpsbill/12/t
BillCreat processing ODB Report
osend FT
er system or BPS C database
/ P
system
smcbill/bpsbill/13/t
osend
/ FT ODB Monitoring
/ Traffic monitor
smcbill/bpsbill/11/b P C database
smcbill/bpsbill/15/t
ackup
osend
/
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smcbill/bpsbill/16/t
Prepaid Service
When a message is submitted, the SMC must send a request to the BOSS
and then the BOSS queries the balance of the subscriber in the IN to
confirm whether to receive the request of the subscriber.
Another method is that the SMC sends a request to the SCP to perform the
fee deduction and then the SMC delivers the message after successful
fee deduction.

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Called Service
Call transfer

SM filtering

The calling and called subscribers must be in the one SMC.

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Flow of Call Transfer Triggered Locally

SMC DCS
calling party : MS

1: MO

2: MO ACK 3: query called service B number


(8613500000002) set
itself divert number to
A number: 8613500000001 8613500000003
B number: 8613500000002 4: return result

called party : MS 5: change B number

6: MT
SMSC change B number
Message delivers to 7: MT ACK
to 8613500000003
8613500000003.

8: Generate CDR

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SM Filtering Service
SMC DCS
calling party : MS

1: MO
3: query called (calling ) service
2: MO ACK

A number : 8613500000001 4: return result


B number : 8613500000002 B number
(8613500000002)
set
called party : MS 5: Delete message 8613500000001
to black list.

6: Generate CDR

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Data Configuration
Data configuration:
MT account management
 Add ordinary MT users as the sa user
System parameter management
 Adjust the default OCOS and TCOS
 Adjust the default validity period
 Adjust the error code deletion mode (delete before timeout and delete after
timeout)
Virtual SMC and authentication number segment management
 Virtual SMC number management
 Authentication mode and number segment management of the SMC
Account management
 Add service accounts
 Add SCP accounts
Routing table management
PPS routing table management
Other operator number segment management

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Data Configuration
Data configuration:
User management
Multidimensional schedule strategy
 Define various schedule strategies for the same error code
 The modes can be: daily, busy, festival
Priority management
 Number segment priority management
 Priority queue schedule strategy
Data service management
 Data service configuration
 Service schedule policy
Parameter management of multidimensional schedule
 The schedule with the highest schedule strategy is the service schedule
strategy
Busy data configuration
Festival data configuration

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SM Configuration File
MTISERVER.INI SS7 network

MAP.INI USAU/128SAU

smcapplocal.ini
bckdmnlocal.ini Mti Server

Map Server clustermng.ini


billlocal.ini

BillCreater
Internal
BackupDaemon protocol Signal/Even
CMC
Share memory SmcApp ClusterMng t Dual-node script
protocol
DbDaemon
Share memory
FileMirror
L2CacheDaemon
SMPP/SMEI

dbdmnconfig.ini l2cachedaemon.ini
HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Page 53
SM Protocol
SS7 network
SS7 protocol

USAU/128SAU
TCAP protocol
Mti Server

Internal
Map Server MAP protocol
protocol

BillCreater

BackupDaemon Signal/Event
CMC protocol
Share memory SmcApp ClusterMng Dual-node script
DbDaemon
Share memory
FileMirror
L2CacheDaemon
SMPP/SMEI

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Interconnection Between the USAU and SMC

• Key files of the SMC


•CTISERVER.INI
•MTISERVER.INI
•MAPSERVER.INI
•CTLLINK.INI
•CMAP.INI

• Key files of the USAU


•Software parameter
•Module parameter
•Public parameter
•MEMCFG configuration
•MTP and SCCP configuration of the SMC USAU

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Interconnection Between the USAU and SMC
CTISERVER.INI
[CTI-Link]
CTI-Link1=100.76.183.201
CTI-Link2=100.76.183.202
[Switch]
Mem1=
Mem2=
Mem3=100.76.183.151
Mem4=

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Interconnection Between the USAU and SMC
CMAPSERVER.INI

[Acd Module Param]


Mti Pid=74 (for the connection with the USAU, configure it to 74)
ModuleTotal=2 (indicates the module number of the USAU used by the system)
Moduleno_1=2 indicates the module No. of the USAU corresponding to the first module of the CMAP)
[Released CB]
Begin Dlg Num=0 (the fixed configuration is 0)
End Dlg Num=8192 (the fixed configuration is 8192. For the USAU module, it is 8191. Because of the setting of
the software, it must be set to 8192)
Dlgs Per Module=8192 (the fixed configuration is 8192)
CB Num=16384 (value: 8192*ModuleTotal)
[Map]
IfNeedConvertByte=1 (indicates whether the byte order needs conversion. If the USAU is used, configure to 1 on
the windows platform and configure to 0 on the UNIX platform)

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Interconnection Between the USAU and SMC

MTISERVER.INI
[Released CB]
CB Num=4000
CBNumForSM=4000
[Mem]
Port=5600 (Keep the port number to be 5600)
Mem1=
Mem2=
Mem3=100.76.183.151
Mem4=
[GIW Module Param]
Mti Pid=74

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Interconnection Between the USAU and SMC

MAP SERVER.INI

CBNum = 4000 (The CB resource number is the module number in 4000×MTI. For example, if only one module is
used, configure it to 4000)

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Interconnection Between the USAU and SMC

Software parameter
Parameter ID Parameter name Value range Default value Parameter description
205 Enable N+1 Backup 0, 1 0 Whether to start the N+1 backup: 0: not

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Interconnection Between the USAU and SMC
Module parameter
Parameter ID Parameter name Value range Default Parameter description
value

33 ITUT TCAP Start Dialog No 0 ~ 65535 0 ITU TCAP start dialog No. For the GSM
network, it is set as 0; for the CDMA
network, the default value is adopted.

34 ITUT TCAP Stop Dialog No 0 ~ 65535 30000 ITU TCAP stop dialog No. For the GSM
network, it is set as 4000; for the CDMA
network, it is set as 0.

35 ANSI TCAP Start Dialog No 0 ~ 65535 30000 ANSI TCAP start dialog No. For the GSM
network, it is set as 0; for the CDMA
network, it is also set as 0.

36 ANSI TCAP Stop Dialog No 0 ~ 65535 30000 ANSI TCAP stop dialog No. For the GSM
network, it is set as 0; for the CDMA
network, it is set as 8191.

37 SMC Type 0, 2, 3 0 SMC version (byte order) options:


0: SMC for the CDMA network
2: SMC on the UNIX for the GSM network
3: SMC on the NT for the GSM network

38 Communication With Slip Window(0- 0, 1 1 If the SAU uses the slide window protocol
unused,1-use) when communicating with the upper-level
users:
0: Not use (SMS and other applications)
1: Use (IN and other applications)

39 TCAP User Information Length 1 ~ 128 63 In the SMC for the GSM network, it is
configured as 64.
In the SMC for the CDMA network, it is
configured as 63.

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Interconnection Between the USAU and SMC

Public parameter

Parameter Parameter name Value range Default Parameter description


ID value

37 Number of TCAP DID per module 0 ~ 65535 30000 Quantity of dialog numbers for each module

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Interconnection Between the USAU and SMC

MEMCFG configuration

Command example:
ADD MEMCFG: MN=23, LIP="100.76.183.151", RIP1="100.76.183.201",
RIP2="100.76.183.20", RP=5600, DGW="0.0.0.0", MSK="255.255.255.0",CONFIRM=Y;

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Interconnection Between the USAU and SMC

Case: SCCP data and GT data

There is a direct link between the USAU and MSC1. MSC1 is the
signaling transfer point. HLR and MSC2 interact messages with the
USAU through the MSC1.
Signaling point data:
USAU : signaling point: 00B12 GT:
85292347949――SMC number
MSC1: signaling point: 00B01 GT: 85292347951
HLR: signaling point: 00B00 GT: 85292347950
MSC2: signaling point: 00B02 GT: 85292347952

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Overall Networking Diagram of the SMC

BSS NSS

PSTN/ISDN/
PSPDN
MS
Other MSC
BTS

BSC

MS SMC
BTS

MSC/VLR

HLR/AUC/EIR

OMC
BSC Data
communication
BTS network

Operation Operation OMC SERVER


console console

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Review

Case 1: Analyze and discuss the result if an MS does not receive


the acknowledgment signal in the MO flow.
Case 2: Seek materials related with SM bills on the SUPPORT and
then discuss SM bills from the aspect of bill type, function and
location.

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Module Configuration Error

 The active and standby hosts cannot back up entities


Check BACKDAEMON

Part call succeed and part fail


Check CB NUMBER in MAP.INI

Interconnection with the USAU fails


Check MTI PID in MTISERVER.INI

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Troubleshooting
PID=64, the user cannot receive messages normally
Problem Description
User A complains when sending message to B, the state report shows the message is successfully delivered, but
user B has not received the message.
Problem Analysis
Check the historical messages, finding user B has indeed received the message, and returned MT_ACK, but
PID=64 in the GSM protocol. The message type is unknown to the user, so when the handset received the message,
it does not save it or give any prompts.
Solution
Ask user A to check the handset for the configuration of SM type. Some handset can manually input message type.
Change it to 0.
If the handset configuration is correct, check SIM card. Change it if any problem.
If SMC supports the PID conversion, add data in the SMC to convert PID=64 to 0, so more user complaints can be
avoided.
Sum-up
In the GSM protocol, PID=0 is a basic text message;
PID=64 is a special application message, often used in positioning systems. Some home-made handsets prompt
“you are positioned” after receiving PID=64 message.

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Troubleshooting
Because the message reply center is set, the MS fails to reply.
Problem Description
User A (foreign) sends messages to user B (local). After B receives the messages, replies fail. But if B writes a new
message, it can sent to A successfully.
Problem Analysis
☆ Check the message records submitted in the local SMC, finding there is no message replied from B, but the new
message was submitted to the local SMC.
☆ According to the phenomenon, it is because the user A set “message reply center” parameter. When B replies
messages, the relative SMC number is that of user A (foreign), and authentication fails, so the messages fail to be
submitted.
Solution
☆ Ask user B to contact user A, and ask user A to disable the function of “message reply center”.
☆ Besides, for those SMC supporting “message reply center”, disable the function forcibly to avoid complaints.
Sum-up
Some handsets support setting of “message reply center” function. Take NOKIA 8250 as an example:
Function > Message > Message Settings > Public Settings > Message Reply Center, you can choose “Provide” or “Not
provide”.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Page 69


Troubleshooting
DCS=4, some NOKIA handsets cannot display messages normally
Problem Description
In a new MMSC, MM notification is sent by the MMSC. After a NOKIA user receives a message, the
system prompts “the message cannot be displayed” or the content is illegible characters;
Problem Analysis
Other types can display messages normally, so it is a problem of message compatibility of the
handset.
Track the message field submitted by the MMSC, finding the DSC is different from the normal
NOKIA handsets: messages submitted by the MMSC, DCS=4 while the normal DSC=0 or 8 ;
Solution
Modify the MMSC configuration, set DCS to 0 or 8. Then NOKIA receives messages normally
Sum-up
DCS=8 is a 8-bit coding format. Some handsets have the problem of message compatibility.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Page 70


Troubleshooting
Message waiting queue is full
Problem Description
User A sends a message to user B and the message delivery fails. The error type is “waiting queue is
full”
Problem Analysis
Explanation:
☆ when the SMC deliveries the message to the handset, if the handset is power off, SMC send a
location message to the HLR to inform the HLR that the user is power off. Meanwhile, the HLR store
the called number and SMC number. Different HLRs store messages in different sizes and with
different rules.
☆ Certain HLR: cache files can save at most three SMC numbers and an SMC can save limit called
numbers in the cache.
Solution
The error occurs because too many SCs are waiting to deliver messages to certain handset and this
makes the MWD queue of the handset overflow in the HLR. If the SM state of the handset does not
change, it is useless to resend messages and the resending adds failure times caused by the network
performance.

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Troubleshooting
HLR unforeseen data
Problem Description
Certain data value in an HLR message packet exceeds the specified value range. The message of
getting route delivered by the SMC is regarded as illegal.
Problem Analysis
Called users concentrate in certain area, and messages are returned by the HLR in the routing process,
so it should be a problem of cooperation with the HLR. Some HLR (Nortel) equipment needs
configuration of a table for saving SMC numbers and it cannot support the maximum match mode. If the
SMC number is not configured in the table, the HLR regards the routing message as illegal, and returns
unforeseen data.
Solution
Coordinate with HLR to add new SMC number.
Sum-up
When new SMC numbers are added, it is necessary for some HLRs to add data.
HLR Rejection
Problem Description
When a message is sent to user B, “HLR rejection” error is returned.
Problem Analysis
Generally, it is because the TCAP layer of the HLR is overloaded and the message is returned after flow
control.
Solution
Optimize the TCAP flow control parameter of HLR. Messages of this error usually have high success
rate in resending, so they just need to be resent once.

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Troubleshooting
HLR No Reply
Problem Description
When a message is sent to user B, the “HLR no reply” error is returned.
Problem Analysis
The HLR does not respond the SMC routing message. It may be because the HLR performance is not good enough, or routing message
is configured in the signaling layer, the message is not sent to the HLR or HLR response does not return to the SMC.
Solution
If HLR does not respond because the performance is not good enough, we need to locate the problem in the HLR.
If the message cannot be sent to the HLR or HLR cannot reply, we need to locate the problem of signaling message route step-by-step.
HLR System Error
Problem Description
When a message is sent to user B, the “HLR system error” is returned.
Problem Analysis
Protocol 0902 defines it to be 34. Generally it is because MAP layer of HLR is overloaded. The message is returned after flow control.
Solution
Optimize MAP flow-control parameter of HLR. Messages of this error usually have high success rate in resending, so they just need to
be resent once.

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Troubleshooting
MSC No Reply
Problem Description
When a message is sent to user B, the “MSC no reply” error is returned.
Problem Analysis
MT message from MSC to SMC has no reply in specified time. Because the wireless environment is not so good
or because the data configuration in signaling layer is incorrect, the message is not sent to the MSC or the MSC
response is not returned to the SMC.
After the handset receives Forward SM, the SDCCH drops, so the ack message is not returned to SMC normally.
Solution
If the message cannot be sent to the MSC or the MSC cannot reply, we need to locate the problem of signaling
message route step-by-step.
MSC Rejection
Problem Description
When a message is sent to user B, the “MSC rejection” error is returned.
Problem Analysis
Usually because the TCAP layer of MSC is overloaded, the message is returned after flow control.
Solution
Optimize the TCAP flow-control parameter of the MSC. Messages of this error usually have high success rate in
resending, so they just need to be resent once.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Page 74


Troubleshooting
MSC System Error
Problem Description
When a message is sent to user B, the “MSC system” error is returned.
Problem Analysis
☆ Protocol 0902 defines it to be 34. Generally, because MAP layer of MSC is overloaded, the
message is returned after flow control.
☆ The switch is set to perform authentication when sending or receiving messages every time. If
authentication has no response (because of SDCCH drop), the MSC returns “system error” to the
SMC.
Solution
☆ Optimize the MAP flow-control parameter of the MSC. Messages of this error usually have high
success rate in resending, so they just need to be resent once.
☆ Optimize the authentication mechanism for the MSC sending and receiving messages.
☆ Adjust MO and MT message authentication frequency to avoid unnecessary call loss caused by
authentication. The adjustment is meaningless to those areas with good wireless environment. But
to those areas with less wireless coverage and high server SDCCH drops, it can obviously improve
the network quality.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Page 75


Troubleshooting
Unknown User
Problem Description
When a message is sent to user B, the “unknown user” error is returned.
Problem Analysis
The called number does not register in the HLR. This is because the user or SP
submits wrong called number.
Solution
Just delete these messages.
Not Supported by Telecom Service
Problem Description
When a message is sent to a user, the “not supported by telecom service” error is
returned.
Problem Analysis
The called user has no SM function. Check the data configuration of the number in the
HLR to see whether service 10 and 11 are provided.
Solution
Check the HLR data configuration. Adjust the service property of the number.
Delete these messages.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Page 76


Troubleshooting
MS Error
Problem Description
When a message is sent to a user, the “MS error” is returned.
Problem Analysis
In the GSM Specification, the definition of this error is that it occurs when a
handset is receiving the message, such as memory low (not for saving SMs, but
the invoking memory) or protocol error.
If the handset is in the overlay network, such error may occur because of the
frequent handover..
Solution
Resending these messages usually succeeds.
A user is busy
Problem Description
When a message is sent to a user, error “the user is busy” is returned.
Problem Analysis
The error occurs when the called handset is receiving messages from another
SMC, performing IMSI detach, updating location, paging, conducting an
emergency call or at the moment of starting a call.
Solution
Resending these messages usually succeeds.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. Page 77


Troubleshooting
The memory is full
Problem Description
When a message is sent to a user, error “memory full” is returned.
Problem Analysis
The memory is full in the SIM card of the called handset, so it cannot save the message.
Solution
The called user need to clear the messages in the SIM card to release memory.
The message need to be resent.
The user is out of the service area
Problem Description
When a message is sent to a user, error “The user is out of the service area” is returned.
Problem Analysis
There are two possibilities:
First, the handset of the user is power off.
Second, though the handset is on, but it has no paging information of the network.
Solution
The message need to be resent.
We can logically distinguish power-off and signal weakness from the waiting time for
receiving ACK message.

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