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Congestion and Port Development:

The Philippine Global Gateway


Vision
(International Multi-Modal and Logistics Hub)

Christina Prieser
Transport Economist, HPC Hamburg Port Consulting GmbH
Rommel C. Gavieta Arch., MA(URP), MSC Eng)
Chief Strategy Officer, All Asia Resources and Reclamation Corp.

Demand for Container, Liquid Bulk and Dry Bulk Port


Services in the Philippines

Philippine Economic Framework Conditions

Philippines one of the emerging markets:


Average real GDP per capita growth 2014-2050:
p.a.
Average GDP growth in PHP 2014-2050:
p.a.
Average population growth 2014-2050:
p.a.
GDP at PPP ranking worldwide:
28th 2050: 20th

3.2%

Demand-side growth
contribution

4.5%
1.3%
2014:

Current challenges:
Low level of FDI
Industrial sector largely based on processing and assembly
operations in the manufacturing of electronics and other high-tech
components, usually from foreign companies and located in SEZ
Consumption and import driven economy
Backlog in infrastructure investments
High unemployment

Investment growth
contribution

Philippine Port Services Demand - Container

Lack of port infrastructure in Asia: insufficient port capacity and productivity are restraints on trade growth, with Asias trade likely to
suffer most from delays in upgrading infrastructure
Intra-Asian trades are growing fast, over 60 million TEU 2014 compared to 49 million TEU only a few years ago; they mainly consist
of trade in containerised manufactures and perishable foods, driven by growing consumer demand generated by increasing
prosperity

Philippine Port Services Demand - Container

Cascading effect leads to ships in intra-Asian trade getting bigger: average vessel size today 3,235 TEU, in future average ships of
4,000-5,000 TEU can be expected
New and changing shipping alliances lead to restructuring of services with consequences for regional shipping structures
Today in Manila, shipping lines discharge limited number of containers; with more slot-sharing and calls of larger ships at a new
deep sea port, operations can be organised more efficiently
Major production centre south of Manila in the SEZ, which creates containerised exports and imports; a seaport closer than the
present terminals in Manila is considered valuable
Stakeholders agree, additional port capacities in Metro Manila needed in 5-10 years time

9,000 TEU MSC Maria Elena (Design


ship)

Philippine Port Services Demand Dry/Break Bulk

Further handling capacities for break bulk are needed, especially the
cement industry is investigating additional port facilities and steel import
demand is high
Per capita consumption of cement in the Philippines is less than 200kg,
while in Thailand 367kg, and in Malaysia 616kg; global average stands at
536kg per capita
Steel product consumption per capita is expected to grow from currently
50kg to 130kg in 2030; this compared to present average consumption of
225kg per capita worldwide and of 258kg per capita in Asia
Possible long term growth prospects for the Philippine cement and steel
demand due to a rise in construction activity, government infrastructure
spending, and the reconstruction of typhoon and earthquake affected areas
Expected positive development of the construction sector may also require
a facility to unload heavy lift / project cargo, for which a port facility in
proximity to the industrial centres in the south, with deep water access and
modern facilities can be favourable

Philippine Port Services Demand Liquid Bulk

Philippine energy market highly dependent on oil; can be


expected to continue to rely on fossil fuels in the future;
consequently, the import of petroleum products will play an
important role in the years to come
Majority of total Philippine market demand comes from
Metro Manila; petrol stations and airport served from
storage deport in the centre, which has to relocate
Rising imports will require additional storage facilities,
preferably located outside the centre

Batangas Oil
Terminals

Philippine Port Services Demand Summary

Additional port facilities will be required in Manila in a few years due to capacity restrictions of existing terminals
A location close to and south of Metro Manila allows access to the main consumption area and the main industrial region without
need for crossing the city, avoiding critical truck transports
Direct new road connection with good hinterland access is a pre-requisite for the success of a new port

Metro Manila Off-Port Linkages Current State

Metro Manila Land Area and Population

Metro Manila total land area of 638 square kilometers is only 0.21% of the
total land area of the Philippines 300,000 square kilometers and has an
urban area that ranks as the world's fifth largest urban area
Metro Manila has a population of approximately 12million (2010 census)
that is 12% of the total population of the Philippines.
Metro Manila has an urban population density that is approximately 38,000
people per square mile (14,500 per square kilometer) which is more than
double the population density of Ville de Paris.
Manila, Pateros and Caloocan are the top 3 most densely populated cities
in the world. Manila has a population density of 42,857 people living per
square kilometer.
The number of informal settler families in Metro Manila is already more than
half a million. This number is already 20% of the total number of household
in Metro Manila. 41% of these informal settlers are located in government
owned lands while 34% are in privately owned lands.
20% of the total income of the poor in Metro Manila is spent on
transportation. This percentage is more than what they spend for rice
(15%), utilities (6.97%), health (2.99%), clothing (2.96%) and education
(3.37%).

Metro Manila GDP and Road Network

Metro Manila contributed 36% of national GDP last year where Metro Manilans
has a per capita GDP that earned 3-times higher than the national average.
Metro Manila has a total of 1,086 km of national roads or 3.5% of the total
39,370 kilometers of roads nationwide.
Metro Manila has the longest length of national bridges at 1,919 linear meters
per 100,000 population, which is more than five times the national ratio of 376
linear meters per 100,000 population..
Study showed that for a mega-city like Metro Manila, 25 percent of the total
land area should be allotted for roads. Based on the MMDAs records, only
5,000 kilometers of road network is in place instead of the ideal 8,000
kilometers. Lawyer Emerson Carlos, MMDA assistant general manager for
operations.
Right now, 260,000 vehicles travel per direction along the main thoroughfare
on a daily basis. The total number of vehicles traverse EDSA is 520,000
vehicles per day. MMDA chairman Francis Tolentino had admitted that the
volume of vehicles using EDSA remains a problem. He said EDSAs carrying
capacity is 160,000 vehicles per direction.

Metro Manila Number of Vehicles

NCR has the highest number of registered MV (at 2.115 million MVs) out of 7.463MV
nationwide (2014).
Approximately 13% are for hire vehicles which includes buses, trucks, trailers and public
transportation vehicles
NCR also has at 19,050 registered MVs per 1000,000 (2014) has highest number of
MVs registered per 100,000 population
NCR has the highest ratio of registered MVs to length of national road at 902 MVs per
kilometer or The National Capital Region has only one kilometer of national and local
government road per 424 vehicles
Travel speed in most major roads in Metro Manila quite slow at less than 20 kph and
even less than 10 kph in some major roads including Aguinaldo Highway in Cavite
Province.

Metro Manila Traffic Congestion

Traffic demand is 12.8 million trips in Metro Manila


and 6 million in the adjoining provinces of Bulacan,
Rizal, Laguna and Cavite. Most of these trips are
done using the public transport owing to its 69%
share of total trips. The lesser share of the trips is done
by private mode and yet it is this mode that takes up 78%
of road space (JICS and NEDA)
Congested streets and traffic jams cost the country
as much as P2.4 billion a day (2012) and the stands to
lose up to P6 billion a day by 2030 in lost productivity and
potential income because of worsening traffic jams.,
according to a study by the Japan International
Cooperation Agency
Compared with neighboring countries, the
Philippines spends significantly less on public
infrastructure at only 2.5% of GDP(2012), against the
5 percent average spending in other Southeast Asian
countries.
Mega Manila is envisioned to evolve from a monocentric
urban development plan into a north-south polycentric
urban development plan. This is projected to decongest
the population of Metro Manila from high risk zones into

JICAs Master Mega Manila Infrastructure Development Plan

JICAs P2.3-trillion infrastructure road map to decongest Metro


Manila involves the establishment of new infrastructure and
improving traffic management. New roads and expressways will be
built, and this is intended to improve accessibility to rail systems,
traffic enforcement and education. The public transport system will
also be improved, and in the process, the country will be able to
cut its traffic losses and even generate revenues.
The JICA reckons that the Philippines can save as much as P1.2
trillion in 2030. This is equivalent to P1.9 billion a day, or P570
billion a year from time cost savings and P2.1 billion a day or P630
billion annually from vehicle operating cost savings. The
government can also generate up to P119 billion a year in toll and
fare revenue. Commuters, on the other hand, will be able to save
at least P18 daily and cut their travel time by 49 minutes per trip.
JICA said railways should ideally take up a 41% share of the overall
transport system, with jeeps and buses at 33% and cars at 26%.

Port of Manila and Manila International


Container Terminal Congestion

March 31, 2015. After that, the rate will be increased


to USD 0.0410 for harbor and USD 0.0200 for berthing
50-percent discount provided by the Philippine
Economic Zone Authority on processing fees for full
container shipments to be discharged or loaded at
Batangas Port has been extended to December 2015.
higher storage fee for BOC-cleared cargo in the Port of
Manila from PHP 500 per 20-foot equivalent units
(TEUs) per day after a five-day free storage period to
PHP 5,000 after a 10-day free storage period. Table 1
shows the new penalty charges on overstaying
inbound foreign containers with gate passes and that
have been cleared by the BOC for withdrawal on the
eleventh day after clearance.

Proximity of shippers to Batangas Port and affordability


of port-related services are not enough to offset the
other benefits of using the Port of Manila.

Port of Manila and Manila International Container Terminal

The Port of Manila, which handles 80% of the Philippines' maritime cargo, is badly in need of expansion. It is notorious for bottlenecks and delays. Goods
pile up, and ships are often left waiting offshore.
ICTSI concession is until 2038 with right to expand the capacity of Manila International Container Terminal
At the start of this year, Port of Manila and Manila International Container Terminal were reported to be in all essence full, at 98% capacity with congestion at the
port continuing to be a major problem. The terminal, which handles 65 percent of Manilas cargo, is operating at
more than 90 percent of its capacity, Christian Gonzalez COO of ICTSI said. It doesnt usually exceed 60
percent this time of year.
Vessels are currently taking 3-5 days from arrival to berth in the docks and average transit times via Manila have increased by as much as 7 days. Long
waiting times outside and within the port are also major problem. The combination of these has heavily pushed up prices.
The Manila International Container Terminal (MICT) and Manila South Harbor currently have a backlog of 73,500 container vans. To resolve the port
congestion, government must fast-track the transfer of empty containers to other under-utilized ports, Ortiz-Luis said, Philippine Exporters
Confederation, Inc. .
Port congestion fees are now being charged at $100-$200 along with $300 emergency recovery costs. Average trucking prices have increased from
P8,000 (107 GBP) to P30,000 (402 GBP).
Port Accessibility Is also Congested
Christian Gonzalez said that the port, which cant be accessed without going through Manilas roads, handles more than half of the nations overseas freight.
Manilas docks as a rush-hour truck ban threatens to dent growth in the Philippines, Southeast Asias fastestexpanding economy.

Port the itself is congested

Manila International Container Terminal and International


Container Terminal Services Inc.
Additional Port Capacity
Manila International Container Terminal (MICT) is set to finish
the first stage expansion of Yard 7 before the end of 2015 The
new development will increase by 18% the terminal's existing
import capacity - considered key by the company to optimising
terminal usage - an important consideration in Manila where
congestion has been a real problem in the past year.
(ICTSI) added 4 ha of yard capacity to MICT with the
completion of Phase 1 of its Berth 7 yard development. The
new area is intended to be an empty container depot (ECD),
which can store up to 4,300 containers in moderate wind
conditions. Next to it are two more hectares, which will be
completed by the end of 2015. Upon completion, the entire
area of Phase 1 will store 6,500 containers.
The new yard is part of ICTSI's USD35 million MICT expansion
project will add approximately 500,000 teu of yard capacity to
the Manila facility. The full expansion will take 20 months

Truck Management System


International Container Terminal Services (ICTSI), the
largest port operator in the Philippines, has rolled out
at the Manila International Container Terminal (MICT) its
new online container booking system, the Terminal
Appointment Booking System (TABS). TABS has been
specifically developed to minimise road traffic and prevent
container build-ups, especially with the approach of the holiday
season.
Inland Contaianer Depot
If conditions persist, ICTSI will consider diverting some
containers to a 21-hectare facility about 50 kilometers
(31 miles) from Manila, in Laguna province. As well as the new
yard is the development of a 21 ha inland container depot
(ICD) in Laguna. Some USD30 million has been earmarked for
this.

Metro Manila Off-Port Linkages Congestion

Port Of Manila and MICT Linkage Metro Manila

MMDA Chairman Francis Tolentino said EDSA's carrying capacity is 160,000 vehicles per
direction. Right now, 260,000 vehicles travel per direction along the main thoroughfare on
a daily basis. "Ang total number of vehicles na nag-ta-traverse sa EDSA ay 520,000
vehicles per day. Magbanggaan lang ang dalawa diyan, wala na tayo," he said.
The following are the busiest roads in Metro Manila mainly comprised of highways and
streets forming its circumferential and radial road network:
1)C-3 (Araneta Avenue, Gil Puyat Avenue, Ayala Avenue)
2)C-4 (EDSA, Samson Road, Letre)
3)C-5 (C.P. Garcia, E. Rodriguez, Katipunan)
4)R-1 (Roxas Boulevard, Bonifacio Drive)
5)R-2 (Taft Avenue)
6)R-7 (Espaa Avenue, Quezon Avenue)
7)R-5 (Legarda Street, Ramon Magsaysay, Shaw Boulevard, Pasig Boulevard)
8)R-6 (Aurora Boulevard, Marcos Highway)
9)Gil Puyat Avenue
10)Ortigas Avenue
11)R-7 (Espana Boulevard, Quezon Avenue, Commonwealth Avenue)
12)R-9 (Rizal Avenue, McArthur Highway)

Port of
Manila and
Manila
International
Container
Terminal

Sangley
Point site of
proposed
Philippine
Global
Gateway

Impact of the port congestion Survey results indicate that the cost
of shipping a 20-foot or a 40-foot container by truck doubled after
the truck ban
Manilas main problem seems to be outside the Port. Notorious for its traffic congestion, the solution devised by the citys
administration was originally to ban container trucks from using Manilas streets from 5am to 9pm.
The port accessibility for more than 50% of the countrys international freight is constricted thru the existing national and LGU road
network of the City of Manila.
Port congestion in Manila needs a fundamental understanding of lack of offsite infrastructure and of need for development policy for
future port capacity demand

Impact of the port congestion Survey results indicate that the cost of shipping a 20-foot or
a 40-foot container by truck doubled after the truck ban. Likewise, port congestion led to
time delays in cargo releasing. The economic cost of the port congestion during the
seven-month period that the truck ban was in effect is estimated at PHP 43.85 billion due
to decrease in BOC revenues, output and productivity losses, and vehicle operating costs.
Source: Port congestion and underutilization in the Greater Capital Region: Unpacking the issues Epictetus E. Patalinghug,
Gilberto M. Llanto, Alexis M. Fillone, Noriel C. Tiglao, Christine Ruth Salazar, Cherry Ann Madriaga, and Ma. Diyina Gem
Arbo Philippine Institute for Development Studies No. 2015-07 (March 2015)
http://dirp4.pids.gov.ph/webportal/CDN/PUBLICATIONS/pidspn1507.pdf

Port Of Manila Handling Congestion


Incoming cargo boxes lingers facility an average of 10-days from the
usual 6-days at International Container Terminal Services Inc.s 100hectare port - since Mayor Joseph Estrada declared the ban in
February, said Christian Gonzalez, the companys regional head, said in
an interview.
Citigroup Inc. estimated in a note dated March 7 that delays could lead
to an annual loss of 61 billion pesos ($1.4 billion) to 320 billion
pesos, or as much as 2.9 percent of gross domestic product in
Southeast Asias second-most populous nation which would dwarf a
potential annual gain of roughly 30 billion pesos from having lesscongested roads in the capital, said Jun Trinidad, a Citigroup economist
based in Manila
There is also a backlog of 12,000 twenty-foot
equivalent units (TEU) of empty containers down
from the previous 22,000 TEUs. - See more at: http://
www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/375820/money/eco
nomy/how-do-you-solve-a-problem-like-port-cong

Port of Manila Truck Congestion

A source of major road congestion in the port


area itself, are the long queues of trucks waiting
to get into the port. The highly inefficient first
come first served entry system that could be
easily solved by implementing a vehicle booking
system, where truckers that turn up without a
booking are turned away and in some cases
penalised.
Daily truck trips to the port of Manila have fallen
to as low as 3,500 from about 6,000 before
Estradas order, Suansing said. One round trip -from the garage to the port to the importer and
back -- can take two days or more, he said.
Confederation of Truckers Association of the
Philippines
Of the number of container vans in POM and
MICP, 50 percent are empty, Zapata of the
Aduana Business Club Inc. said. As a result, she
said, the port congestion has hampered truckers
operations and the flow of goods, which she said
is detrimental to the countrys economy.

We can make six to seven trips a week, but now we can


only do two trips a week. We are lucky enough if we can
load a maximum of three (containers). Sometimes, we can
load just one container, Zapata said. There can be a
shortage of supplies or consumer goods. We are import
dependent, she added.
Earlier this month, Trade Secretary Gregory Domingo said
government is taking measures to ease congestion
but it may take a month to decongest the ports .
The measures include transferring empty container vans
to the ports of Subic and Batangas and opening BOC
warehouses during weekends.
On Wednesday, Manila
port operators spent P14 million to ship 3,000 container v
ans
to Subic.

Rail connectivity of economic zones and ports


the trains could not run at the desired speed and be punctual due to the
deteriorating conditions of the rail tracks
long turnarounds and waiting times because only one train set was in operation
In 2014, the average speed in road segments designated as truck routes during
peak hours is 5.2 kilometers per hour (kph) compared with the average speed of
16.57 kph for all other roads.
Simulation results show that only 4.17 percent of the estimated volume of truck
freight would be shifted to rail transport during peak and nonpeak hours.

Source: Port congestion and underutilization in the Greater Capital Region: Unpacking the issues Epictetus E.
Patalinghug, Gilberto M. Llanto, Alexis M. Fillone, Noriel C. Tiglao, Christine Ruth Salazar, Cherry Ann Madriaga,
and Ma. Diyina Gem Arbo Philippine Institute for Development Studies No. 2015-07 (March 2015)
http://dirp4.pids.gov.ph/webportal/CDN/PUBLICATIONS/pidspn1507.pdf

Proposed Development Framework for the Seaport


and Special Economic Zone Component of the Philipp

The trend toward building capacity


ahead of demand is likewise
exemplified by the airport building
binge in Asia.
lack of capacity may not be the only
cause of port congestion but also
manpower and truck availability as
well as access to road infrastructure
also matter
On the policy regarding container
traffic coming from or going to the
south and north of Metro Manila

Multi-Modal (Seaport) and Logistics Hub Development


Potential in the Philippines

Philippines plays a major role in the international shipping


industry.
Due to its unique geographic advantage, the Philippines
depends on water greatly, and thus it develops services such
as shipbuilding and repair, supplying seafarers, and tourism in
particular.
With regards to the international trade, the ports in the
Philippines handle most of the imported and exported
materials and products, and bring economic growth.
Port congestion and Metro Manilas traffic congestion are
slowing down economic growth. Due to its insufficient
infrastructure and facilities, transporting goods to factories
and consumers faces bottlenecks, and thus making it difficult
for the Philippines to hit its economic growth target of 2014.
In order to enhance ports competitiveness at a global level,
the Philippine Ports Authority included the development of the
nations port into the master plan as being crucial to
economic development. The Port of Manila is the heart of the
Philippine port system, and it serves as the countrys gateway
to major cities of the world and the junction of domestic and
international trade

Philippine Ports in Relation to its Peer Ports in the Region

Rationale for Improved Port Connectivity and Logistics


Hub Connectivity

Improved connectivity at a regional level widens the potential


market available to local producers, providing opportunities to
specialize in agricultural or industrial production according to
comparative or competitive advantage.
The bulk of the ASEAN s international trade is carried by sea,
access to high quality international shipping services is of
paramount importance.
The Philippines imports a wide variety of containerized
consumer goods and manufactures while containerized exports
are limited. Over 90% of containers are exported empty.
In contrast, Malaysia has a healthy two-way traffic in
containerized cargoes, as does Singapore. The trading patterns
of PNG and Timor-Leste do not generate large container flows to
and from aSEA member economies.
A substantial share of intra-aSEA trade is carried on vessels
employed either in mainline trades or on intra-Asian feeder
container services. In times of relatively low demand, mainline
carriers frequently carry intra-aSEA cargo on vessels employed
in the Asia-Europe and trans-Pacific trades
breakbulk vessels usually carry heterogeneous cargoes in
parcel size lots. They may also carry general and project
cargoes. Breakbulk vessels are typically small in size, enabling

Proposed International Multi-Modal Logistics Hub


Framework for the Philippine Global Gateway

Philippine Global Gateway

Integrated Transportation
Facilities

The concept of ARRC is based on a greater vision of a combined international gateway with a
holistic approach, integrating dependent systems and layers to one unique long term solution

Philippine Global Gateway Development Parameters (Seaport


and Special Economic Zone)
Much of East Asia uses containers only for
the maritime part of trips, loading and
unloading them in the ports rather than at
the origin and destination of their cargo. This
eliminates the main cost-saving advantages
of container use. Countries that can best
encourage door-to-door movement of
containers using multimodal transport will be
best equipped to compete and to bring trade
benefits to their more remote regions. To
achieve this integration they will need to:
Match inland with maritime infrastructure
Simplify trade documentation.
Develop an efficient freight forwarding
industry
Develop effective communications systems

Development of Seaport and Logistics Hub Component of


the Philippine Global Gateway Project
Development of a Seaport
with a starting capacity of
3million TEU
Development of Liquid Bulk
Port with an intial capacity of
2-week buffer supply
Development of a Logistics
Hub or Special Economic
Zone for at least 60 to 120
locators and at most 2,500
hectares area

PROJECT DEVELOPMENT VIDEO

Where are we now in the Project Development Phase


Accomplishments
Submitted Unsolicited Conceptual Proposal and secured City Resolution supporting the project concept in 2013
Submitted the Unsolicited Pre-Feasibility Study to the Provincial Government and Relevant Government
Agencies in March 2014
JICA submitted its MegaManila Transportation Plan which includes the Airport in July 2014.
Secured copywrite for its conceptual plan to secure its rights over the project concept in July 2015.
Secured Provincial PPP resolution accepting its unsolicited proposal to reclaim 2,500 hectares (November 2015).
Things to Do
Conduct of Swiss-Challenge bidding of the JV for the 2,500 reclamation proposal of ARRC (December 2015)
Award of the of the JV for the 2,500 reclamation proposal of ARRC (February 2016)
Endorsement of the JV to Reclaim 2,500 hectares to the National Economic Development Authority (NEDA) -and
the Philippine Reclamation Authority (PRA) (March 2016)
Approval of the JV award to Reclaim 2,500 hectares to ARRC (After June 2016)
ARRC applies to the Philippine Port Authority to operate a seaport and applies to the Philippine Economic Zone
Auhority to develop a Logistics Hub (After June 2016)
ARRC wil coordinate with JICA amd NEDA for the development of the new Airport. (After June 2016)

Thank you for your time and patience

Manila International Container Terminal and International


Container Terminal Services Inc.
If conditions persist, ICTSI will consider diverting some containers
to a 21-hectare facility about 50 kilometers (31 miles) from Manila,
in Laguna province, he said.

Manilas docks as a rush-hour truck ban threatens to dent


growth in the Philippines, Southeast Asias fastest-expanding
economy.
International Container Terminal Services (ICTSI), the largest port
operator in the Philippines, has rolled out at the Manila
International Container Terminal (MICT) its new online container
booking system, the Terminal Appointment Booking System
(TABS). TABS has been specifically developed to minimise road traffic and
prevent container build-ups, especially with the approach of the holiday
season.
Why do 6,000 container trucks go in and out of Manila sea ports when the
government spent over P100 billion to develop Batangas and Subic?
Economics professor and port infrastructure expert Enrico Basilio says the
concentration of these cargo-led business in the capital clog the strees of
Metro Manila, reducing productivity of residents and workers.

ICTSI concession is until 2038 with right to expand the capacity of Manila
International Container Terminal
Manila International Container Terminal (MICT) is set to finish the first
stage expansion of Yard 7 before the end of 2015 The new development
will increase by 18% the terminal's existing import capacity - considered
key by the company to optimising terminal usage - an important
consideration in Manila where congestion has been a real problem in the
past year.
(ICTSI) added 4 ha of yard capacity to MICT with the completion of Phase
1 of its Berth 7 yard development. The new area is intended to be an
empty container depot (ECD), which can store up to 4,300 containers in
moderate wind conditions. Next to it are two more hectares, which will be
completed by the end of 2015. Upon completion, the entire area of Phase
1 will store 6,500 containers.
The new yard is part of ICTSI's USD35 million MICT expansion project will
add approximately 500,000 teu of yard capacity to the Manila facility. The
full expansion will take 20 months.
As well as the new yard is the development of a 21 ha inland container
depot (ICD) in Laguna. Some USD30 million has been earmarked for this.