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LECTURE 3- Material Science

14 December 2014
Metallic Bonding
Ionic Bonding
Four States of Matter

LB Taclan, PhD

Metallic Bonding
12 of
of 20
17

Boardworks Ltd 2005


2004

Metals in the periodic table


H
Li

He
Be

Ne

Na Mg

Al

Si

Cl

Ar

Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br

Kr

Ca Sc

Rb Sr

Ti

Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd

Cs Ba La Hf
Fr Ra Ac

Ta

Re Os

Ir

In

Pt Au Hg Tl

Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg

Sn Sb Te

Xe

Pb

Bi

Po

At Rn

Metallic bonding
Atoms of metals are tightly packed together in a giant
lattice similar to the lattice in ionic compounds.

metal
atoms
ions

sea of free
electrons

The outer electrons separate from their atoms


and become delocalized, creating a sea of
electrons. The atoms become positive ions and
are
Thisattracted
attractiontoisthese
calledelectrons.
metallic bonding and is
the reason why the positive metal ions do not
repel each other.

Properties of metals: density


Metal ions form a lattice which is more tightly
packed and denser than the lattices in ionic
compounds. They form crystals called grains.

Metals generally have a very high melting and boiling


point because metallic bonds are very strong and so a
large amount of energy is needed to break them.

Which metal has the lowest melting point?

Properties of metals:
conductivity

Metals are good conductors of:

heat the free electrons can take in heat energy,


which makes them move faster. They can then
transfer the energy throughout the lattice.
electricity the free electrons can carry an
electrical charge.
Silver is the best
conductor of electricity
and copper is the second
best.
Why is copper used
instead of silver for
electrical wires?

Properties of metals: strength


Metals are usually tough, not brittle. When a metal is
hit, the layers of the lattice just slide over each other.
The metallic bonds do not break because the
electrons are free to move.

force

This means that metals are:


malleable they can be bent and pressed into
shape;
ductile they can be drawn out into wires.

Metal Grains
Layers of atoms can slip over each other in metal grains when a
force is applied, but this slippage stops at grain boundaries.
grain boundary: where one
grain meets another

The smaller the grains, the shorter the distance the atom layers
can move. This means that metals with smaller grains are
stronger and harder than metals with larger grains.

The faster that molten metal is cooled, the smaller the grain
size.

Strengthening metals

Metals can be made stronger by adding another


element when
the metal is molten. The atoms of the new
element spread
through the crystal structure.
force

force

Because the atoms of the added element are larger,


they make it difficult for layers of metal atoms to
slide. This makes the metal less malleable and less
ductile.
This process is called alloying, and the new substance is
called an alloy.

Different types of alloys


Adding different elements to metals creates different
alloys, with different properties. This affects how alloys
can be used. Usually, other metals are added, for
example:
zinc, magnesium and copper are added to
aluminium to create an alloy that is light but very
strong. This is used in building aircraft.
chromium and nickel are added to iron to make
stainless steel, which is resistant to corrosion.
tin and lead are mixed together to create solder,
which has a low melting point and is used to join
other metals together.

Glossary

alloy A material containing two or more metals, or

a metal and a non-metal.

delocalized Electrons that are free to move


throughout a

structure.

ductile Capable of being drawn out into a wire.


grain A crystal of metal.
malleable Capable of being bent and pressed

into a

different shape.

metallic bonding The strong attraction


between
positive metal ions and the sea of
electrons.

sea of electrons Delocalized electrons from the

CHEMICAL BONDING
PART 1
IONIC BONDING

Elements
Elements are the simplest substances.
There are about 100 different elements
Each elements has just one particular
type of atom that is different to the
atoms in any other element

S
Fe

N
O
K

Even in elements atoms usually join


(bond) together.
In some elements atoms bond to form
small simple structures.
In other elements atoms bond into giant
structures with millions of atoms.

N
N

N
N

Compounds
Compounds are formed when
different elements chemically react
together.
In these reactions different types of
atom become chemically bonded.
Like elements some compounds
have small simple structures with
just a few atoms bonded together
Other compounds have large,
complex structures containing
thousands or even millions of
bonded atoms.

Water a simple
structure

DNA a large &


complex
structure

Compounds are not just mixtures


Reacting is different to just mixing.
The physical and chemical properties of compounds are
very different to their original elements.
ELEMENTS

Carbon
C

(black solid)

COMPOUND

Carbon dioxide

oxygen
O

(colourless gas,
that supports
combustion)

(a colourless gas, that


extinguishes fire)

Activity
Copy the Table and fill in the last column.
Name
Sodium chloride
Nickel
Copper sulphate
Water
Oxygen
Rust
Mercury
Sand

Formula

Element or compound

NaCl

compound

Ni

element

CuSO4

compound

H2O

compound

O2

element

Fe2O3

compound

Hg

element

SiO2

compound

Rust
consists of
iron
combined
with
oxygen

Bonding and atoms


To understand bonding we must know a little about
the atoms from which elements are made.
Atoms consist of three types of particles that are even
smaller than atoms:
Protons } These exist in
Neutrons } the nucleus.

Electrons }
exist in layers (or shells) around the
outside of the nucleus

No charge on element atoms


Two of the three particles in atoms have an electrical charge.
Protons

+1

Neutrons

Electrons -1

BUT atoms have equal numbers of protons and electrons. This means
their overall charge = zero.
For example

19

F
9
Fluorine

20

Ne
10
Neon Copy & Fill in the gaps

9 protons

9+

10+
10 protons ___
___

9 electrons

9-

10 electrons ___
10___

10 neutrons 0

0
___neutrons
___
10

Total Charge 0

Total Charge ___0

Noble Gases: full shells


The electrons around the outside of
atoms are arranged in layers called
shells
1st Shell:
2nd Shell:
8 electrons

2 electrons
3rd Shell:
8 electrons

Each shell has a maximum number


of electrons that it can hold.
In noble gases the shells are completely full rather
than partially full.
During bonding other atoms try to attain the full
electron shell structure of the noble gases.

Types of bonding
Atoms can be joined together in 3 possible
ways
Metal and
non-metal

Ionic Bonding

Non-metals
only

Covalent Bonding

Metals only

Metallic Bonding

All three types involve changes in the electrons in the outermost


electron shells of the atoms

IONIC BONDING

IONIC BONDING
Most ionic compounds contain a metal and a non-metal.
When metals react they lose outer shell electrons to leave a full electron
shell.
This produces a charged atom (ion) with a + charge.
Lose 1 or more
electrons
Neutral atom

n+

Positive ion

When non-metals react with a metal they gain electrons to achieve a full
electron shell.
Gain 1 or more
electrons
Neutral atom

n-

Negative ion

Opposites attract lattices


The oppositely charged ions are attracted into a
lattice that gets bigger and bigger until it consists
of millions of ions
+
+

+
+

attract

opposites

And ion, and


ion, and ion!

Lattices are 3-Dimensional


We have shown ions attracting and
building into a 2 dimensional sheet.
In fact the whole process will be
going on in three dimensions to
build up a giant 3-D lattice.

And so on to
build a giant 3D lattice with
millions of
ions.

-+ +- -+ +- -+ +- + - + - +
+- -+ +- -+ +- -+
+ - + - + -+ +- -+ +- -+ +- + - + - +

++

-- +

- +
+ - ++ - + + - +
+

Ions and electron structures

Metals lose electrons to form


positive(+) ions called cations.

n+

Non-metals gain electrons to form


negative () ions called anions.

n-

We know that the atoms lose or


gain electrons to achieve full
electron shells.
To understand more about how
ionic compounds form we must
look at what is happening to the
outer shell electrons.

Formation of sodium chloride


1. Formation of sodium ions
Sodium has 1 electron in its outer shell.
If it loses this it will have no partially filled shells.

Na

Sodium atom (2.8.1)

Loses 1
electron

Na+

Sodium 1+ ion (2.8.0)

This only happens if there is another atom able to accommodate the lost
electron.

Formation of sodium chloride


2.Formation of Chloride ions
Chlorine has 7 electrons in its outer shell.
If it gains 1 electron it can achieve a full outer electron shell. It is, therefore,
going to be able to accept the electron that the sodium wants to lose.

Cl
Gains 1 electron
(from sodium)

Chlorine atom (2.8.7)

Cl

Chlorine I - ion (2.8.8)

Formation of Sodium Chloride- the overall process.

Sodium loses its


outer electron.
Chlorine gains it.
The result is
both end up with
full shells
Two oppositely
charged ions
are formed,
which attract.
Millions of such
pairs form a
giant lattice

Na

Na

Cl

Cl

Simpler electron diagrams


We can assume full inner electron shells.
We can therefore sometimes shorten bonding diagrams
by omitting to draw the inner electron shells.

Na

Cl

Na

Cl

Bonding in Magnesium Oxide


More than one electron may be transferred
between atoms in ionic bonding.

Mg

2.8.2.
Magnesium
atom

O
Magnesium Oxide

2.6
Oxygen
atom

O2-

Mg2+

2.8

2.8

Draw a simplified bonding diagram (omitting


inner shells) for magnesium oxide.

Mg

O
Magnesium Oxide

Magnesium
atom

Oxygen
atom

Mg2+

O2-

Copy the diagram and draw another box showing


the electron configuration in sodium fluoride.

Na

2.8.1.
Sodium
atom

Sodium Fluoride

2.7
Fluorine
atom

F-

Na+

2.8

2.8

Bonding in Lithium Oxide


The bonding in lithium oxide is more complicated in that
there are different numbers of each atom.

Li
O
Li+

Li
O2-

Li+

Bonding in Lithium Nitride


The bonding in lithium nitride similarly involves different
numbers of each atom.
Li

Li

Li

Li+

Li

Li+

N3-

Bonding in Aluminium Fluoride


In aluminium fluoride it is the non-metal atoms that we
need more of.
F

Al

Al

Activity

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Following the previously shown slides draw bonding


diagrams for the compounds formed from the
following atoms:
Lithium (2.1) and fluorine (2.7)
Sodium (2.8.1) and sulphur (2.8.6)
Magnesium (2.8.2) and sulphur (2.8.6)
Magnesium (2.8.2) and fluorine (2.7)
Aluminium (2.8.3) and nitrogen (2.5)

Remember that the total number of


electrons lost by the metal must equal
the total number of electrons gained by
the non-metal

Electrons Lost = Electrons Gained


Both sodium chloride and magnesium oxide are simple
ionic compounds.
In both cases the metal and non-metal need to lose or
gain the same number of electrons respectively.
Na

1 electron

Mg
2 electrons
This is not always the case.

Cl

Na+

Mg2+

Cl-

O2-

Different numbers of electrons


Consider the reaction of sodium with oxygen.
Sodium (2.8.1) needs to lose 1 electron.
Oxygen (2.6) needs to gain 2 electrons
This can only happen if there are two sodium ions formed
for every one oxygen ion formed.
Na

Na+
1 electron per
sodium

Na

The formula will be Na2O.

O2Na+

Different numbers of electrons


Consider the reaction of magnesium with chlorine.
Magnesium (2.8.2) needs to lose 2 electron.
Chlorine (2.8.7) needs to gain 1 electrons
We need 2 chlorines for every one magnesium.
Cl
Mg

ClMg2+

2 electrons

Cl

The formula will be MgCl2

Cl-

Charges on ions
When atoms form ions they aim to attain electron
shells that are either completely full or completely
empty.
If we know the electron configuration of an atom we
can usually work out how many electrons it must lose
or gain to achieve a noble gas configuration.
This will tell us the charge on its ion.

Charges and Metal ions


Metals usually lose electrons to empty this outer shell.
The number of electrons in the outer shell is usually
equal to the group number in the Periodic Table.
For example,

Li

2.1
Li+

Mg

2.8.2
Mg2+

Al

2.8.3
Al3+

Charges and non-metal ions


Outer shells with 5 or more electrons usually gain
electrons to fill up the outer shell.
For example,
Oxygen (2.6) gains 2 electrons to form O2 Chlorine (2.8.7) gains 1 electron to form Cl-

2.62.
8O
O2-

Cl

2.8.7 2.8.8
Cl Cl-

Activity
Copy out and fill in the Table below showing what charge
ions will be formed from the elements listed.
H

He
Be

Ne

Na Mg

Al

Si

Cl

Ar

Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br

Kr

Li

Ca Sc

Ti

Symbol

Li

Cl

Ca

Al

Br

Na

Ne

Outer
electrons

Charge

1+

3-

1-

2+

1+

3+

2-

1-

1+

The formulae of ionic compounds


This is most quickly done in 5 stages.
Remember the total + and charges must =zero
For example, the formula of calcium bromide.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Symbols:
Ca
Br
Charge on ions 2+
1Need more of
Br
Ratio of ions 1
2
Formula
CaBr2
Br-

Br
Ca2+

Ca
Br
2 electrons

Br-

The formulae of ionic compounds


For example, the formula of aluminium bromide.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Symbols:
Al
Br
Charge on ions 3+
1Need more of
Br
Ratio of ions 1
3
Formula
AlBr3
Br-

Br
Al

Br

3 electrons

Br

Al3+

BrBr-

The formulae of ionic compounds


For example, the formula of aluminium oxide.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Symbols:
Al
O
Charge on ions 3+
2Need more of
O
Ratio of ions 2
3 (to give 6 e-)
Formula
Al2O3
2eAl

O2-

O
Al3+

2eAl

O2-

O
Al3+

2e-

O2-

Activity
Using the method shown on the last few slides, work
out the formula of all the ionic compounds that you can
make from combinations of the metals and non-metals
shown below:

Metals:

Li Ca Na Mg Al K

Non-Metals: F O

Br

Cl

More Complicated Formulae

Ionic compounds may contain ions consisting of


groups of atoms rather than a single atom.
Here are some more complicated ions you may
come across.
Ion

Formula

Charge

Atoms present

nitrate

NO3-

1-

sulphate

SO42-

2-

ammonium

NH4+

1+

hydroxide

OH-

1-

carbonate

CO32-

2-

More Complicated Formulae

When working out formula you simply treat the entire


group of atoms as though it were a single atom.
The only difficulty is to do with how we write down the
final answer.
For example, what is the formula of lithium nitrate?
1.

Symbols:

Li

NO3-

2.

Charge on ions

1+

1-

3.

Need more of

4.

Ratio of ions 1

5.

Formula

neither
1
LiNO3

More Complicated Formulae

What is the formula of magnesium nitrate?


1.

Symbols:

Mg

NO3-

2.

Charge on ions

2+

1-

3.

Need more of

4.

Ratio of ions 1

5.

Formula

NO32
Mg(NO3)2

The brackets around the NO3- ion show that the 2 refers to two complete
NO3- ions.

It represents a total of 2 nitrogens and 6 oxygens with each magnesium ion.

More Complicated Formulae

What is the formula of sodium sulphate?


1.

Symbols:

Na+

SO42-

2.

Charge on ions

1+

2-

3.

Need more of

Na+

4.

Ratio of ions 2

5.

Formula

1
Na2SO4

No brackets here as only one SO42- ion needed.

Note although Na contains 2 letters it only represents a single atom so no


brackets!

Write down how to work out the formula of


aluminium hydroxide.
1.

Symbols:

2.

Charge on ions

3.

Need more of

4.

Ratio of ions

5.

Formula

Al3+

OH-

3+

1OH-

3
Al(OH)3

Again we need brackets as 3 complete OH- ions are needed meaning


that for each aluminium there are 3 oxygens and 3 hydrogens.

Write down how to work out the formula of


ammonium sulphate.

1.

Symbols:

2.

Charge on ions

3.

Need more of

4.

Ratio of ions

5.

Formula

NH4+

SO42-

1+

2-

NH4+
2

1
(NH4)2SO4

Again we need brackets as 2 complete NH4+ ions are needed meaning


that for each sulphate ion there are 2 nitrogen and 8 hydrogens.

Write down how to work out the formula of


aluminium sulphate.
1.

Symbols:

2.

Charge on ions

3.

Need more of

4.

Ratio of ions

5.

Formula

Al3+

SO42-

3+

2-

Need to get total


charge =6
2

3
Al2(SO4)3

No brackets for Al as only one atom even though its 2 letters.


We do need brackets around the SO4 to show it is 3 complete sulphate ions.

Copy this choosing words from below to


fill the gaps.

lose

lattices

electrons

gain

metal

metal and non-metal react.


Formed when a _____
lose electrons to empty their outer
Metals ___
electron shell.
gain electrons to fill their outer
Non-metals _____
electron shell.
The ratio of metal ions to non-metal ions will
electrons lost
depend upon the number of ________
and gained.
lattices.
The ions formed join up into giant _____.

Which of the following will have ionic bonding?


A. Copper chloride
B. Iron
C. Brass
D. Sulphur dioxide

Which of the following is NOT true of ionic


bonding?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Metal ions have a + charge


Non-metal ions have a - charge
They form a 2 dimensional lattice
They have giant structures

Which of the following is true about the oxide ion?


A.
B.
C.
D.

Formed by oxygen atoms losing 2 electrons.


Oxygen ions have an empty second shell
Exist in pairs
Have a 2- charge
16

O
8

Which of the following is true about the sodium ion?


A.
B.
C.
D.

Has a 2,8,1 electron arrangement


Formed by sodium atoms gaining 1 electron.
Sodium ions have an empty second shell
Have a 1+ charge
23

Na
11

What formula compound will be formed from


Mn4+ and O2- ions?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Mn2O4
MnO2
Mn2O
MnO4

What formula compound will be formed from


Ga3+ and SO42- ions?
A.
B.
C.
D.

Ga2(SO4)3
Ga3(SO4)2
Ga2S3O12
Ga (SO4)3

STATES OF MATTER
The Four States of Matter
Four States

Solid
Liquid
Gas
Plasma

STATES OF MATTER
Based upon particle arrangement
Based upon energy of particles
Based upon distance between
particles

Kinetic Theory of Matter


Matter is made up of particles which
are in continual random motion.

1. SOLIDS
Particles of solids are
tightly packed,
vibrating about a fixed
position.
Solids have a definite
shape and a definite
volume.

Heat

2. LIQUID
Particles of liquids
are tightly packed,
but are far enough
apart to slide over
one another.
Liquids have an
indefinite shape and
a definite volume.

Heat

3. GAS
Particles of
gases are very
far apart and
move freely.
Gases have an
indefinite shape
and an indefinite
volume.

Heat

PHASE CHANGES
Description of
Phase Change

Term for Phase


Change

Solid to Melting
liquid
Liquid
to solid

Freezing

Heat Movement During


Phase Change

Heat goes into


the solid as it
melts.
Heat leaves
the liquid as it
freezes.

PHASE CHANGES
Description of
Phase Change

Liquid to
gas
Gas to
liquid

Term for Phase


Change

Heat Movement During


Phase Change

Vaporization,
which
includes
boiling and
evaporation

Heat goes into the


liquid as it
vaporizes.

Condensation

Heat leaves the gas


as it condenses.

Solid to gas Sublimation

Heat goes into the


solid as it
sublimates.

4. PLASMA
A plasma is an
ionized gas.
A plasma is a very
good conductor of
electricity and is
affected by
magnetic fields.
Plasmas, like
Plasma is the
gases have an
common state
indefinite shape
of matter
and an indefinite
volume.

Plasma Definition
Introduction
Plasma is a (partially) ionized gas in
which ions, electrons, and photons
are present as well as radicals and
molecules in an excited state

Plasma Definition
Introduction
Plasma is a (partially) ionized gas in
which ions, electrons, and photons
are present as well as radicals and
molecules in an excited state

GASES GONE WILD

Plasma Definition
Introduction
Currently in industry we use two
types of plasma.
Plasma generated in a vacuum or low
pressure plasma
Plasma generated at near atmospheric
pressure

Plasma Definition
Introduction
Plasma is also defined by the gas or
gases used to make up the plasma
Common gases used in generating
plasma in manufacturing today are:
oxygen, argon, nitrogen, hydrogen,
sulfur hexafluoride and many more

Some places where plasmas are


found

1. Flames

2. Lightning

3. Aurora (Northern
Lights)

The Sun is an example of a star in its


plasma state

Plasma Definition
Introduction
Cold plasma discharges are
generated by passing enough
electrical current through a gas to
cause the gas to change state
This electrical current often defines
the process to generate the type of
plasma: radio frequency, microwave,
inductively coupled, and pulsed
direct current

COLD PLASMA PEN

Introduction to Surfaces
Surfaces commonly found in
manufacturing that are plasma
treated are defined by their
composition
Examples of common materials:
metals, plastics, rubber, elastomers,
polymers, glass, ceramics, powders
and liquids

Introduction to Surfaces
There are virtually no size or shape
limitations when it comes to plasma
processing
Plasma systems are built to process
something as small as a contact lens
or as large as an aircraft wing
Plasma conforms to the shape of the
articles or items it surrounds

Introduction to Surfaces
Surfaces can also be treated when
moving
Surfaces are treated during in-line
process
Surfaces are treated when tumbled
Surfaces are treated in roll to roll
Surfaces like powders or liquids

Plasma Applications
for Manufacturing

Plasma Clean
Plasma Activate
Plasma Etch
Plasma Deposition/Coating

Plasma Applications
for Manufacturing
Plasma Clean
Inorganic Compounds
- oils, mold release, polymer bleed, drill
smear, fingerprints, solder flux, carbon ash
Inorganic
- metal oxides, metal oxide reduction
Decontamination
- extracellular debris, pyrogens, proteins,
DNA, RNA

Plasma Applications
for Manufacturing
Plasma Activate
Surface Activation THE MOST COMMON
(raise the surface energy)
Surface Passivation

Plasma Applications
for Manufacturing
Plasma Etch
Chemical Etch
Physical Etch

Plasma Applications
for Manufacturing
Plasma Deposition/Coating
Hydrophobic (does not like water)
- Fabrics, Footwear, Electronics, Medical
Devices
Hydrophilic (likes water)
- Fabrics, Contact Lenses, Medical Devices
Oleophobic (does not like oil)
- Electronics, Optics, Marine Products

Conclusions
Plasma processing in manufacturing
is: safe, clean, and cost effective
Plasma equipment and technical
experts are available
Plasma processing increases: quality,
productivity, and profit

STATES OF MATTER

SOLID
Tightly packed,
in a regular
pattern
Vibrate, but do
not move from
place to place

LIQUID
Close together
with no regular
arrangement.
Vibrate, move
about, and slide
past each other

GAS
Well separated
with no regular
arrangement.
Vibrate and
move freely at
high speeds

PLASMA

Has no definite
volume or
shape and is
composed of
electrical
charged
particles