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Role of

CLIMATE in
Vernacular
architecture
Northern
Mountainous
Areas.

SUBMITTED TO:

SUBMITTED BY:

AR.SACHIN SAGAR
AR.EKTA BALI

SHIVAM THUKRAL
SHUBHI KALRA
SHUBHI VERMA
(B.ARCH 3 SEMERSTER)

VERNACULAR
ARCHITECTURE
VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE is a category of architecture
based on local needs , construction materials and reflecting
local traditions.
It tends to evolve over to reflect the environmental , cultural,
technological, economic, andhistoricalcontext in which it
exists.
The term vernacular is derived from the Latin word vernaculus ,
meaning native.
In architecture, it refers to that type of architecture which is

MOUNTAINS
(COLD CLIMATE)

It is cold because of its high altitudes. Summer


temperature range between 10 degrees Celsius to 18
degrees Celsius while winter are from -1 degrees
Celsius to -8 degrees Celsius. The average
precipitation is 30 cm a year.

Some important
questions ?
The main differences in climate of mountains are temperature and moisture.
What is the climate on mountains?
The temperature on mountains becomes colder the higher the altitude gets.
Mountains tend to have much wetter climates than the surrounding flat land.
What is the weather on mountains?
Mountain weather conditions can change dramatically from one hour to the next.
For example, in just a few minutes a thunder storm can roll in when the sky was
perfectly clear, and in just a few hours the temperatures can drop from extremely
hot temperatures to temperatures that are below freezing.
Why do mountains receive more rainfall?
They receive more rainfall than low lying areas because the temperature on top
of mountains is lower than the temperature at sea level.
Winds carry moist air over the land. When air reaches the mountain, it rises
because the mountains are in the way. As the air rises, it cools, and because cool
air can carry less moisture than warm air, there is usually precipitation (rain).

Why do we sometimes see snow on the top of mountains?


You can often see snow on the top of mountains all year round,
because the temperature at the top of mountains is lower than at the
bottom. The higher the place is above sea level the colder it will be.
Some mountains reach higher than the clouds. At this altitude the
extreme cold and high winds cause blizzards.
Why does the temperature become colder the higher up a
Mountain?
Generally the climate on mountains get progressively colder with
increased altitude (the higher up you go). This happens because as
altitude increases, air becomes thinner and is less able to absorb
and retain heat. The cooler the temperature the less evaporation
there is, meaning that there is more moisture in the air.
Air pressure decreases with altitude. As a result of the reduced air
pressure, rising air expands and cools.

IMPORTANCE OF CLIMATE

One of the most significant influences on vernacular


architecture is the macro climate of the area in which the
building is constructed. Buildings in cold climates invariably
have high thermal mass or significant amounts of insulation.
They are usually sealed in order to prevent heat loss, and
openings such as windows tend to be small or non-existent..
Buildings for a continental climate must be able to cope with
significant variations in temperature, and may even be altered
by their occupants according to the seasons.
Buildings take different forms depending on precipitation
levels in the region leading to dwellings on stilts in many
regions with frequent flooding or rainy monsoon seasons. Flat
roofs are rare in areas with high levels of precipitation.

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

House is a space inhabited by people and their stories.


The character of a Himachal vernacular, the story unit is basically a cuboid
.
The smallest houses are two or three layers stacked in two or three levels
(ground, first and second floor)
The size of the house increases by placing cuboids side by side and then
extending up three levels.
Each house is determined by capacity. The capacity is not only the size of
the family but also the familys socio economic status.

Single cuboid
variant

Double cuboid
variant

Triple cuboid
variant

MATERIALS USED IN CONSTRUCTION

LITERATURE
CASE STUDY

Effects of climate on the building


formats in cold mountainous climate
The

format of the building has an important effect on so many


factors such as adjusting the building condition and climate as well
as moderating the transmission of the critical outside weather
conditions to the buildings. Therefore open format buildings or the
formats in which the south-north frontage is lengthier than the
west-east frontage are not suitable. And it is better for the building
to be more compressed in mountainous cold climate and their plan
should be in foursquare shape. That way they can resist the cold.
The cubical two story buildings are the best kind for controlling the
internal heat in the building during winter.

Direction
Since

of building construction in mountainous cold climates

getting the most sunlight is necessary in cold mountainous


climate, therefore buildings must locate toward a direction so that
they can receive the highest sun radiation. Thus the main facade
of building must be placed toward the south in order to create the
best heat condition inside the building. So the northern faade of
buildings decreases to the minimum surface.

LIVE CASE
STUDY

LOCATION

THE HOUSE IS LOCATED IN CITY OF LAKES NAINITAL


SITUATED BETWEEN THE BEAUTIFUL VALLEYS OF
UTTARAKHAND.
CITY IS WELL POPULATED AS IT IS A TOURIST PLACE SO
VARIOUS COTTAGES, RESORTS,RESTAURENTS, HOTELS
WERE THEIR AND THE MATERIAL USED IN THEM WERE
STONES,MUD,WOOD, BRICKS.
MOST OF THE HOUSES SITUATED AT THE BOTTOM SIDE OF
THE HILLS WERE EAST AND NORTH FACING AND SOME
HOUSES WHICH WERE AT THE TOP WERE SOUTH FACING.
GABLED ROOF WAS COMMON THEIR WITH THE
COMBINATION OF OTHER SLOPY ROOFS LIKE HIP ROOF.
DORMERS WERE ALSO VERY COMMON ON THE NORTH SIDE.
USE OF ARCHES IS VERY COMMON IN MINISTRIES AND
ADMINISTRATIVE BLOCKS OF THE CITY.
NO SUN BRAKERS WERE USED IN ANY BUILDING.

CLIMATE AND TEMPERATURE


Nainital

has temperate summers, maximum


temperature 27C (81F); minimum temperature
7C (45F) .
In winter, Nainital receives snowfall between
December and February with the temperatures
varying between a maximum of 15C (59F) and
a minimum of 3C (27F).

SUMMER
S

WINTER
S

Maximum openings on the south


west side was given so that
maximum heat could trap inside
the house.

Opening was blocked,


may be because there
should be less
openings so that there
may be more thermal
heat inside the house.

Small windows at the


north side at the top
hills.

Preservation of
vernacular
materials for future
use

Rubble

stone masonry
fixed with mud mortar.
No openings except the
door in the north side.

CONCLUSION

DESIGN CRITERIA

ROOFING TECHNIQUE

THANK YOU

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