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GSM Measurements

for Inter-RAT
Cell Reselection & Handover

NOKIA

topic: GSM Measurements for Inter-RAT Cell Reselection & Handover/ July 2003

Cell Reselection and Handover


Cell Reselection

Handover

Done by MS in the
Handover from GSM is
(circuit switched) idle
supported if the load of
mode, and
the serving GSM cell is
packet idle and packet
above certain threshold
transfer mode
and the measured
GSM cell re-selection to
quality (CPICH Ec/No)
WCDMA may differ
from adjacent WCDMA
between
cell is above a minimum
non-GPRS capable
value.
mobiles,
Different load threshold
GPRS capable mobiles,
for speech calls and
and
Non-Transparent (CS)
GPRS capable mobile
Data can be set.
with Packet BCCH
Cell reselection to weaker
NOKIA WCDMA
topic: GSM Measurements
for Inter-RAT
Cell Reselection & Handover/ July 2003
cells is
possible

Load Reason Algorithm in RAN 1.5


Speech calls can be served adequately both in GSM and UMTS. Consequently,
only in a high load situations, multiple RAT phones are handed over from GSM
to UMTS. The number of occupied traffic channels on the available transmission
resources triggers the handover decision in the BSC.
Circuit switched data calls may not surpass a capacity threshold before the BSC
imitates the HO procedure.
GPRS MS can be directly pushed to 3GPP cell reselection.

NOKIA

topic: GSM Measurements for Inter-RAT Cell Reselection & Handover/ July 2003

Load Reason Algorithm in RAN 1.5

d of GSM cell (Occupation of TCHs in TRXes)


100%
80%

0%
7

NOKIA

Load reason Speech


Speechto
toWCDMA
WCDMA
handoversonly
onlywith
withhigh
highGSM
GSMload
load
for speech

More
More
capacity
capacityfor
for
speech
speech

Service based handovers


for non-transparent
data to provide maximum
user bit rates
Data
Datato
toWCDMA
WCDMA
regardless
regardlessof
ofGSM
GSMload
load

Higher
Higherbit
bitrates
rates
for
fordata
datausers
users

Packet
PacketBCCH
BCCHparameters
parameterscan
canbe
beused
used
to
topush
pushGPRS
GPRSmobiles
mobilesto
toWCDMA
WCDMA
topic: GSM Measurements for Inter-RAT Cell Reselection & Handover/ July 2003

Cell Reselection Algorithm from GSM to FDD-W


Cell Reselect
ion List
BCCH: FDD_Qm
in, FDD_Qoffset

WCDMA measurements, when:


RLA_C Qsearch_I (Non GPRS)
check

Measurement Updates:
RLC_C value of the serving cell
at least 6 strongest non serving G

If, for suitable UMTS cell


& for a period of 5 s:
no priorities
between CPICH RSCP > RLA_C + FDD_Qoffset
WCDMA
and
neighbours
CPICH Ec/No FDD_Qmin
11

NOKIA

at least every 5 s

topic: GSM Measurements for Inter-RAT Cell Reselection & Handover/ July

WCDMA cell
reselection

Example: cs Cell-Reselection to a Stronger WC


Serving
GSM cell

Start
WCDMA
measureme
nts

CPICH
Ec/No
FDD_Qmin

Cell
reselec
tion

Suitable neighbour
WCDMA cell

FDD_Qoffset
(e.g. 8 dB)

Qsearch_I (e.g. 98 dBm)


Non serving
neighbour
GSM cell

5 seconds
time
12

NOKIA

topic: GSM Measurements for Inter-RAT Cell Reselection & Handover/ July

Example: ps Cell-Reselection to a Weaker WCD


CPICH
Ec/No
FDD_Qmin

Cell
reselec
tion

Start
WCDMA
measureme
nts
Qsearch_P (e.g. 70 dBm)
Serving
GSM cell

Non serving
neighbour
GSM cell
FDD_GPRS_Qoffset
(e.g. -8 dB) Suitable neighbour
WCDMA cell
5 seconds

13

NOKIA

topic: GSM Measurements for Inter-RAT Cell Reselection & Handover/ July

time

Cell Reselection Parameters


Parameter for
Parameter for
Parameter for
Parameter
NON GPRS
GPRS
PBCCH GPRS
Qsearch_X Qsearch_I Qsearch_P
Qsearch_P
FDD_Qoffset
FDD_Qoffset FDD_Qoffset
FDD_GPRS_Qoffset
RLA_X
RLA_C
RLA_P
RLA_P
R_Below 0
1
dBm -98 -94
Qsearch_I & Qsearch_P
R_Upper 8
9
dBm -78 -74

2
-90
10
-70

3
-86
11
-66

4
-82
12
-62

5
-78
13
-58

6
7
-74 Always
14
15
-54 Never

Range
0
1
dB Always -28
FDD_Qoffset & FDD_GPRS_Offset
Range
8
9
dB
0
4

2
-24
10
8

3
-20
11
12

4
-16
12
16

5
-12
13
20

6
-8
14
24

7
-4
15
28

2
-18

3
-17

4
-16

5
-15

6
-14

7
-13

FDD_Qmin

Range
dB

0
1
-20 -19

FDD_(GPRS)FDD_REP_3G_search_
ParameterQsearch_IQsearch_PQsearch_PFDD_QMin
Qoffset
QUANT
PRIO
Name for
2(3)quarter
2quater 2quater 3quater
2ter
2quater
2ter
Sys
(SI)
(PBCCH)
15
Info
NOKIA
topic: GSM Measurements for Inter-RAT Cell Reselection & Handover/ July

Handover Process incl. RAN 1.5


Handover
HandoverTriggering
TriggeringThresholds
Thresholdsset
setin
inBSC
BSC
However in S10.5 MS is
measuring the UTRAN cells
continuously if they are
defined as a neighbour,
measurements are done
during
Latest
after idle
5 s periods

Inter-RAT
Inter-RATmeasurements
measurementswhen:
when:
The
TheRXLEV
RXLEVof
ofthe
theserving
servingcell
cellisisabove
aboveor
or
below
belowthe
thegiven
giventhreshold
threshold Qsearch_C
Qsearch_C
MS
MSreports
reportsbest
bestUTRAN
UTRANcell
cellbased
based
on
onmeasurement
measurementresults
results

(one WCDMA band)

Handover
HandoverDecision
Decisionisisdone
donein
incase
caseof
of
Load
Loadof
ofthe
theserving
servingcell
cell>
> Load_Threshold
Load_Threshold
and
andCPICH
CPICHEc/No>
Ec/No>min
min Ec/No
Ec/No Threshold
Threshold
Handover
Handovercommand
commandisissend
sendto
toMSC
MSC
17

NOKIA

topic: GSM Measurements for Inter-RAT Cell Reselection & Handover/ July

Example: Handover to a Weaker WCDMA Cell


Serving GSM cell

Qsearch_C

Suitable neighbour
WCDMA cell
NOKIA

Cell
reselec
tion

FDD_Qoffset
(< 0)

Non serving
neighbour
GSM cell

18

CPICH
Ec/No
FDD_Qmin

topic: GSM Measurements for Inter-RAT Cell Reselection & Handover/ July

5 seconds

GSM ISHO in RAN1.5: Example


Handover example (speech/Transparent data) Load Threshold for Speech Calls inter-RAT Handover
LOAD_THRESHOLD_FOR_SC_IS_HO= 80%
Min Ec/No threshold for a handover to the UTRAN adjacent cell
MIN_ECNO_THRSHOLD = -15 dB
Qsearch_c = 15 (if Qsearch_c = 15, the mobile is not allowed
to measure UTRAN adjacent cells and therefore the BSS does
not send the Measurement Information message to the mobile
at all)

1 Load of the serving cell = 45% and the measured Ec/No = - 20


dB
--> Handover to the UTRAN not possible due to low load and
low Ec/No

2 Load of the serving cell = 45% and the measured Ec/No = - 10


dB
--> Handover to the UTRAN not possible due to low load

20

3 Load of the serving cell = 95% and the measured Ec/No = -10
NOKIA

topic: GSM Measurements for Inter-RAT Cell Reselection & Handover/ July

GSM ISHO in RAN1.5: Example


Handover example (Non Transparent data) Load Threshold for Non-Transparent Data inter-RAT Handover
LOAD_THRESHOLD_FOR_NON_TPC_IS_HO =0% (default)
Min Ec/No threshold for a handover to the UTRAN adjacent cell

MIN_ECNO_THRSHOLD= -15 dB

Qsearch_c = 15 (if Qsearch_c = 15, the mobile is not allowed


to measure UTRAN adjacent cells and therefore the BSS does
not send the Measurement Information message to the mobile
at all)

1 Load of the serving cell = 0% and the measured Ec/No = - 20


dB
--> Handover to the UTRAN not possible due to low Ec/No

2 Load of the serving cell =0% and the measured Ec/No = - 10


21

dB
--> Handover
to the UTRAN possible
NOKIA
topic: GSM Measurements for Inter-RAT Cell Reselection & Handover/ July