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Design of Crude Oil

Pipelines
By:

S. Jai Krishna
Sahith

Important Codes & Standards:

CODE/STANDA
RD
ASME B 31.4
(2006)

TITLE
Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and other
Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and other
Liquids

OISD 141 (2003) Design and Construction Requirements for Cross Design and
Construction Requirements for Cross--Country Hydrocarbon
Pipelines
API 5L / ISO
3183 : 2007

API RP1102

API 1104

API 6D / ISO
1431

Pipeline Valves

Other
References

Applicable Standards / Specs of ASME, API, NACE, MSS, BS and

Applicable Standards / Specs of ASME, API, NACE, MSS, BS and DIN

Steps Involved in Design:

Pipe Diameter Calculations
Wall Thickness Calculations
Anti-Buoyancy Measures
Piping Stress Analysis
Buried Pipeline Analysis
Crossing Design

Pipe Diameter Calculations:

Q
mmscfd

0.00128084 *

Where
Q = Discharge Capacity
L = Length of the Pipeline
D = Diameter of the Pipeline
P1 = Upstream pressure
P2 = Downstream pressure

Wall Thickness Calculation:

t=
Where
t = Pipe wall thickness, mm
P = design pressure ,psig
D = outside D=outside dia of pipe in mm of
pipe, mm
Y = minimum yield strength, psig
F = design factor L= Location factor based on
class location
J = welding joint factor
T = Temp. derating factor

Anti-Buoyancy Measures:
The buoyancy of a pipeline depends upon:
The weight of the pipe
The weight of the volume of crude displaced by the pipe
The weight of the liquid load carried by the pipe and the weight of the backfill
Wt = Wp + Ww
Where:
Ww = weight of displaced water, pounds per linear foot
(upward force , negative)
Wp = weight of pipe, pounds per linear foot, (downward
force , positive)
Wt = resultant buoyant force of the submerged pipe,
pounds per linear foot
The best anti buoyancy measure is to concrete coat the pipeline

Piping Stress Analysis:

It deals with Sources for generation of stress in a Piping
System such as:
Weight
Internal/External Pressure
Temperature change
Occasional Loads due to wind, seismic disturbances,
PSV discharge etc.
Forces due to Vibration.

CAESAR II
AUTOPIPE
PIPELINE
STUDIO
AUTOPIPE
IPMCS
MRPACK
SORPS
PIPECALC

OFFPIPE
TGNET
TLNET
HYSIS
Pipeline Design
OFFPIPE
PRISE
PIPECROSS

Buried Pipeline Analysis:

Buried Pipelines are principally subjected to seismic
and thermal loads.
A simplified Analytical method described in the ASCE
guidelines to asses the wave propagation effects,
based on approximate and generally conservative
assumptions is evaluated and compared with a
proposed rigorous analysis approach base on the
Finite Element Method

Crossing Design:
Types of Crossings
River, Canal, Road & Rail
Utility Crossing
Methodologies
Open-Cut Method
Trench-less Method
Horizontal Directional Drilling
Jacking and Boring
Micro tunnelling

CONCLUSION:
With all the studies and calculations made accordingly,
The pipeline is designed for the transportation of crude oil.